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2018-04-13 ...
  • April 13, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Lighting Emitting Diode (LED), a new generation semiconductor light source often referred to as Solid-State Lighting (SSL), has been broadly adopted in illumination, display, visualization, and other areas due to its higher efficacy and longer life. LEDs, first introduced for automotive interior applications such as indicators, expanded to exterior applications including center high mounted stop lamps and other automotive signal lighting devices. Today, LED technologies are being used for night vision, occupancy detection, and many other automotive application areas.
2018-04-12 ...
  • April 12, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
It has not been commonly known that automotive exterior lights are safety devices and must comply with governmental regulations. Since the 1930s, the SAE Lighting Standards Committee has been actively working with the automotive industry OEMs, lamp makers, tier-two suppliers, and human factor experts to develop automotive lighting standards. These standards have been widely used or referenced by the U.S. federal or state governments in establishing and enforcing the lighting regulations.
2018-04-09 ...
  • April 9-10, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Since the invention of the automobile, lighting has been an important subsystem on all ground vehicles. Automotive lighting is vital to passenger safety, comfort and vehicle styling. The technology used in automotive lighting has rapidly expanded to make the lighting more value added, safer and pleasing to customers. This seminar provides broad information about automotive lighting systems with emphasis on lighting functions, effectiveness, and technologies. The intent is to assist attendees to gain sufficient knowledge about automotive lighting and its importance in overall vehicle design and development.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0389
Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Dinesh Kalani, Aabid Ali
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0390
Sangdo Park, Jong-Kweon Pyun, Byung Yong Choi, Dongwoo Jeong, HakGyun Kim
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0391
Peter T. Bovenzi, Don Bender, Ray Bloink, Michael Conklin, John Abrahamian
In today's dynamic automotive environment, reducing the lead-time to introduce new product technologies to the market place can be a key competitive advantage. Employing proactive risk reduction techniques to define key product and process relationships is essential to enhance the production worthiness of a design while it is still in the advanced development phase of the program. This paper describes how Delphi Powertrain Systems applied the Shainin proactive risk reduction methodology in advanced product development to focus resources on understanding and mitigating the risk associated with the development of a new Delphi ammonia sensor. Organizational and technical strategies to accelerate profound knowledge capture, along with corresponding test results, are presented and discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0392
Mukul Mitra, Shaiju M. Belsus
The primary factors influencing vehicle's dynamic behavior are the vehicle hard point definition, driver behavior and road inputs. The more the latter two are random and incorrigible in nature, the former one is quantifiable and can be controlled from designer's standpoint. In this paper, we have made an attempt to set targets to the vehicle hard point definition and thereby to optimize the vehicle for better ride behavior. This approach hence helped to converge to vehicle specifications set fundamentally designed to respond to random operating conditions and driving behavior intelligently. The work also involves study of various methodologies to predict roll, pitch, bounce and dive behaviors on a typical commercial passenger vehicle and is concluded by a sensitivity analysis to understand significance of these hard points on vehicle's real time behavior.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0393
Baeyoung Kim, Hyunjun Kim, YoungTak Son, Hae-ryong Kim, Haekyung Kim, Myung-Won Suh
The noise of interior plastic parts has been one of the major driving factors in the design of automotive interior assemblies. This phenomenon is one of the major contributors to the perceived quality in a vehicle. The noise is caused by interior plastic parts and other parts as a result of permanent deformation. Traditionally, noise issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing. However, to reduce the product development cycle and minimize the number of costly hardware builds, hardware testing must rely on engineering analysis and upfront simulation in the design cycle. In this paper, an analytical study to reduce permanent deformation in a cockpit module is presented. The analytical investigation utilizes a novel and practical methodology, which is implemented through the software tools, ABAQUS and iSight, for the identification and minimization of permanent deformation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0395
Feng Pan, Ping Zhu
Lightweight vehicle design has become an imperative in today's automotive industry. And it is a difficult task, which usually involves non-obvious decisions beyond the designer's intuition. In practice, optimization through finite element simulation is prohibitively inappropriate due to massive computational cost. As a consequence, approximation method is extensively used. In this paper, lightweight design of front side rail through high strength steel is performed. And the advantages of weighted average surrogate (WAS) for approximating the crashworthiness responses in frontal crash are also discussed. It shows the strategy of using WAS is effective, with great potential applications for vehicle crashworthiness approximation and lightweight design.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0433
Ioan Hociota, Pankaj K. Mallick
Among the various high strength steels available today, boron steels are finding increasing applications in bumper beams and other crash resistant structures, primarily for their high strength. However, to overcome the forming difficulty at room temperature and to achieve the microstructural changes needed for high strength, manufacturing of boron steel parts is done under hot forming conditions. In this study, the effect of three principal bumper design parameters, namely depth, thickness and corner radius on the formability of a hat section bumper beam was considered. Using a forming simulation program, 27 different combinations of these three design parameters were examined for forming limits, failure types and failure locations. The bumper beams were also examined for energy absorption in pendulum impact tests. Recommendations are made for the design of boron steel bumper beams based on both impact energy absorption and formability.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0425
Jody Shaw, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Marc Lambriks
FutureSteelVehicle’s (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The paper will demonstrate seven optimised structural sub-systems that contribute to the programme's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimisation process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0515
Jeffrey Croteau, John Zolock, Robert Larson, Cleve Bare, Daniel Peterson, Donald Parker
The debate surrounding roof deformation and occupant injury potential has existed in the automotive community for over 30 years. In analysis of real-world rollovers, assessment of roof deformation and occupant compartment space starts with the post-accident roof position. Dynamic movement of the roof structure during a rollover sequence is generally acknowledged but quantification of the dynamic roof displacement has been limited. Previous assessment of dynamic roof deformation has been generally limited to review of the video footage from staged rollover events. Rollover testing for the evaluation of injury potential has typically been studied utilizing instrumented test dummies, on-board and off-board cameras, and measurements of residual crush. This study introduces an analysis of previously undocumented real-time data to be considered in the evaluation of the roof structure's dynamic behavior during a rollover event.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0699
Shaiju M. Belsus, Mukul Mitra
In today's world with a dynamic market and varying customer expectations, it becomes inevitable that we find means of recognizing customer needs with all dimensions and instill them as inherent specifications of a product. Automobiles no way fall away from these intangible demands of the changing world, as personal conveyance (car/motorcycle/scooter) nowadays is more of a basic need. It becomes more of challenge to automotive manufacturers, to offer continuously improving quality products, at competitive prices to be in business. It's very important that as automotive designers we recognize quality in its totality and establish a predictive methodology to inculcate quality into the design at early stages of vehicle development.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0219
Hariharan Peringara Vaidyanathan, Pilaka Murty, Sai Pavan Eswara
Auto industry faces twin problems of pollution and exorbitant rise in petroleum prices. These two problems are best addressed by reducing the weight of the body structure. Under the current technology reduction in weight of an automobile is accomplished by replacing metal with synthetic composites. Reduced weight of the body structure economizes on fuel consumption but this method does not solve the problem of containing pollution because synthetic fibers are used. However, the authors in this paper suggest the use of Hybrid Composites which substantially reduces body weight of an automobile and simultaneously addresses the pollution problem. This is done by substituting natural fibers for synthetic fibers. From an engineering stand point Natural Fibers in the form of Banana Fibers, Sisal, Jute, Coir could prove to be potential competitors to synthetic fibers currently used in polymer composites such as E-Glass, S-Glass, Basalt, Carbon/ Graphite Fibers, and KEVLAR-49.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0203
Steve Thorne, Bruce W. Leppla
ACC radar systems gather valuable data about the speed of forward vehicles, and then utilize that information to best regulate the spacing between those forward vehicles and the ACC host. However, such radar-gathered data can also be useful to help prevent rear-end collisions involving the host vehicle. Embedded in that data is information revealing decelerations of forward vehicles that holds particular value to any driver that might be trailing the host vehicle - especially if their vision is screened by the bulk of the host vehicle. In this paper, a hybrid stop lamp system is proposed whereby ACC radar data gathered by a host vehicle is automatically conveyed to the trailing driver utilizing a new light element integrated with the host vehicle's stop lamp system.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0239
Houng Y. Chang
This paper presents development work on the design and analysis of the windshield wiper system. Three design categories are presented: geometrical design, wiper module and motor kinetics, and snow block structural analysis method. A comprehensive structural analysis method is outlined to determine the wiper system capability for continuous operation under a snow blocked condition. By using this design and analysis method, a robust windshield wiper system will be achieved.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0180
Varun Ramakrishnan, Deepak Soundararaju, Kenneth Karbon, Pankaj Jha
This paper outlines a process to assess the aerodynamic performance of different vehicle exterior surfaces. The initial section of the paper summarizes the details of white-light scanning process that maps entire vehicle to points in Cartesian co-ordinate system which is followed by the conversion of scanned points to theme surface. The concept of point-cloud modeling is employed to generate a smooth theme surface from scanned points. Theme surfaces thus developed are stitched to under-body/under-hood (UB/UH) parts of the base vehicle and the numerical simulations were carried out to understand the aerodynamic efficiency of the surfaces generated. Specifics of surface/volume mesh generated, boundary conditions imposed and numerical scheme employed are discussed in detail. Flow field over vehicle exterior is thoroughly analyzed. A comparison study highlighting the effect of front grilles in unblocked condition along with air-dam on flow field has been provided.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0151
Taeyoung Han, Chris Hill, Shailesh Jindal
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0155
Vinod Shigarkanthi, Vijayakanthan Damodaran, Deepak Soundararaju, Kannan Kanniah
Aero shutter is device used for controlling air flow through front grille of the vehicle for optimal thermal and energy management. Conventionally shutters were controlled by reactive algorithm - that actuate based on reaction to powertrain cooling system response like engine coolant temperature. The predictive algorithm of aero shutter proactively actuates engine cooling fans and shutter to different positions to meet real time cooling requirement. This algorithm needs map of shutter position required for a given air flow requirement which is function of vehicle speed, fan speed, opening of another shutter (if dual shutters are used on two grilles). Deriving such map requires enormous number of simulations or wind tunnel tests at each of these parameter combinations. This paper presents Design of Experiments (DOE) studies using statistical approach to have minimal number of runs to develop such map.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0157
Daichi Katoh, Yoshimitsu Hashizume, Itsuhei Kohri, Michitosh Takagi
The aerodynamic performance of new vehicles is commonly determined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. The final assessment is carried out by actual running tests. In particular, ideas regarding fuel consumption improvement that relate to components for the reduction of the coefficient of drag (CD) value are evaluated by coast-down tests. However, a difference often exists between the component's efficiency between wind tunnel tests and coast-down tests. Therefore, we focused on the efficiency of an air-dam spoiler in reducing CD values. A comparison was made between the aerodynamic effect of the air-dam spoiler in wind tunnel and coast-down tests in terms of the CD value and the wake structure behind the vehicle. To determine the relationship between the CD value and the wake structure behind the vehicle, we measured vehicle speed, wind velocity and direction, vehicle height, and pressure distribution on the back door.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0108
Rainer Neumann, Thorsten Warwel
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0109
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0116
Josef Schug
Today, LED automotive exterior lighting is already widely used on high end and upper middle class vehicles. We see already first examples of application as the standard lighting solution even in the mid class segment. A compact design and the feasibility of car life sealed solution is a strong argument to use LEDs for CHMSLs. Long lifetime and new styling opportunities speak for LEDS in front or rear position lights as well as in daytime running lamps;. Mainstream penetration of LED lighting solutions will first happen for functions where the benefits of LEDs have the highest positive impact and where this value can be realized in the most cost-effective way. During the different phases of the introduction of LEDs different requirements dominate the decision process. Providing unique styling opportunity and showing advanced technical functionality is leading for the early adopters.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0114
Lawrence M. Rice
Light emitting diode (LED) modules (standardized light sources) for use in automotive illumination design will soon become available in production volumes. Designing products with these devices is not the same as working with conventional tungsten halogen or high intensity discharge (HID or Xenon) light sources. There are a number of LED module characteristics which must be kept in mind when designing lighting systems.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0111
John D. Bullough
Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0110
John D. Bullough
Recent technological developments have begun to add a number of new configurations for vehicle forward lighting to the realm of possibility, including high-intensity discharge and light-emitting diode headlamps, and adaptive forward-lighting systems. These systems can offer substantial differences in performance and appearance from conventional filament-based headlamps that have been ubiquitous for many decades. These differences have not gone unnoticed by the U.S. driving public. A review of newspaper articles published during the past several years was conducted in order to assess public perceptions of vehicle headlamps in terms of their ability to support visibility and their impacts on headlamp glare.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0118
Daniel Le Messurier, John S. Orisich
Monte Carlo simulations are shown to be a useful tool when determining the flux output of LED arrays during the design phase. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are able to show the statistical distribution of output flux based on multi-LED arrays, thus allowing engineers to optimise their design, rather than using worst case scenario design principles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0117
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0126
Steven Gasworth, Triloka Tankala
Heat transfer between the ambient and the air in a vehicle cabin determines the nominal steady state load on the vehicle's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, a significant factor for vehicle efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper highlights the effect of glazing (i.e. window) thermal conductivity on steady state heat transfer, with high and low thermal conductivities represented respectively by monolithic glass and standard polycarbonate. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are summarized for a model car cabin including HVAC vents, interior seating, and a rooflite. Passenger and moisture effects are not included. Monthly temperature and radiation data for Phoenix, Arizona and Minneapolis, Minnesota are used to define hot and cold climate scenarios.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0061
Tadashi Naito, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Yuta Urushiyama, Kunihiro Takahashi
A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
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