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Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Considerable attention has been given to the design and efficiencies of electric hybrid propulsion systems and energy storage technologies. Although they draw much less attention, hydraulic hybrid propulsion and regenerative braking systems for road vehicles are a cost effective alternative to electric systems and have relevance to important sectors of the passenger and commercial vehicle markets. In this two-day seminar, hydraulic hybrid vehicle systems and their potential will be examined using model based evaluations.
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While most passenger car brake systems are quite robust and reliable under typical operating conditions, high-performance driving and/or racetrack operation generally require alternative design solutions to optimize consistency and longevity. Whether it is brake fluid fade, cracked rotor discs, chronic knockback, or insufficient brake pad life, the stresses of motorsports can pose unique challenges to even the very best brake system designs.
2018-05-21 ...
  • May 21-23, 2018 (8:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
  • October 15-17, 2018 (8:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While a variety of new engineering methods are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to deliver desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today’s engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to key the fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
2018-05-08 ...
  • May 8-15, 2018 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Designing a brake system requires the ability to balance a multitude of parameters against the required tradeoffs of system weight, system cost, and system performance. Understanding the basic fundamentals of how each brake component attribute contributes to the overall Force vs Deceleration behavior of the vehicle is critical to the design and release of a safe, legal and optimized system for today’s vehicles. Brake balance also is a contributing factor to other chassis control and safety systems, such as regenerative braking, ABS, and electronic brake distribution (EBD).
2018-04-30 ...
  • April 30-May 2, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 17-19, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Increased public pressure to improve commercial truck safety and new stopping distance regulations have intensified the need to better understand the factors influencing heavy vehicle braking performance. To assist individuals and their organizations in preparing for these new truck braking standards, this seminar focuses attendees on understanding medium-duty hydraulic brake systems and heavy-duty air brake systems and how both systems' performance can be predicted, maintained and optimized.
2018-04-23 ...
  • April 23-25, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Hydraulic brake systems, one of the most important safety features on many road vehicles today, must meet manufacturer and customer requirements in addition to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. This course will analyze automotive braking from a system's perspective, emphasizing legal requirements as well as performance expectations such as pedal feel, stopping distance, fade and thermal management. Calculations necessary to predict brake balance and key system sizing variables that contribute to performance will be discussed.
2018-04-09 ...
  • April 9-10, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 11-12, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Palm Desert, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Once reserved for high-end luxury vehicles, electronic brake control systems are now required standard equipment on even the most inexpensive cars and trucks. Today, every new vehicle benefits from the optimized braking, enhanced acceleration, and improved stability that these systems provide. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the system-level design considerations, vehicle interface requirements, and inevitable performance compromises that must be addressed when implementing these technologies. The seminar begins by defining the tire-road interface and analyzing fundamental vehicle dynamics.
2018-04-08 ...
  • April 8, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 18, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Palm Desert, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The choice of brake friction materials varies per application, but each must have the appropriate coefficient of friction and be able to disperse large amounts of heat without adversely effecting braking performance. This seminar will provide an introduction to brake lining raw materials and formulation, manufacturing, quality control and testing. The course covers the critical elements that must be reviewed before arriving at a lining selection decision. Different classes of friction material and their use will be defined.
2018-03-23 ...
  • March 23, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 19, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Palm Desert, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Brake noise is one of the highest ranked complaints of car owners. Grunts, groans, squeaks, and squeals are common descriptions of the annoying problem which brake engineers spend many hours trying to resolve. Consumer expectations and the high cost of warranty repairs are pushing the optimization of brake NVH performance. This course will provide you with an overview of the various damping mechanisms and tools for analyzing and reducing brake noise. A significant component of this course is the inclusion of case studies which will demonstrate how brake noise squeal issues have been successfully resolved.
2018-03-22 ...
  • March 22, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 18, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Palm Desert, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Brake Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) is recognized as one of the major problems currently faced by the automotive manufacturers and their suppliers, with customers warranty claims of more than $100 million per year for each manufacturer. With increasing consumer braking performance expectations, automotive OEM’s and suppliers need the ability to predict potential problems and identify solutions during the design phase before millions of dollars have been spent in design, prototyping, and manufacturing tooling.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0268
Jeffery R. Anderson, E. Harry Law
Traditional Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for automobiles is usually accomplished through the use of estimated vehicle dynamics from simplified models that rely on parameters such as cornering stiffness that can change with the vehicle state and time. This paper proposes a different method for electronic stability control of oversteer by predicting the degree of instability in a vehicle. The algorithm is solely based on measurable response characteristics including lateral acceleration, yaw rate, speed, and driver steering input. These signals are appropriately conditioned and evaluated with fuzzy logic to determine the degree of instability present. When the “degree of instability” passes a certain threshold, the appropriate control action is applied to the vehicle in the form of differential yaw braking. Using only the measured response of the vehicle alleviates the problem of degraded performance when vehicle parameters change.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0437
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Due to the importance of the fast transportation under every circumstance, the transportation process may require a high speed heavy vehicle from time to time, which may turn the transportation process more unsafe. Due to that fact the truck safety during braking and the ride comfort during long distance travelling with high speeds should be improved. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a control system which combines the suspension and braking systems. The control system consists of three controllers; the first one for the active suspension system of the truck body and cab, the second one for the ABS and, the third for the integrated control system between the active suspension system and the ABS. The control strategy is also separated into two strategies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0453
Horst Salzwedel
The rapid increase of networked electronic control units in airplanes (Line Replaceable Units or Modules, LRUs/LRMs) and automobiles (ECUs) requires to move from CAN buses to higher performance buses. In aircraft the number of LRUs exceeded 100 in 1990 (B777) and is now ≻5000 (A380). Today, the number of ECUs in some automobiles also exceeds 100. Aircraft industry developed solutions based on standard switched Ethernet (AFDX) and standardized ECUs, called Integrated Modular Avionic units (IMA units) and common remote data concentrators (cRDCs) that are now flying in the Airbus A380 and A400M, the Boeing B787, and are being used in the design of future civil and military aircraft. During the last decade, automotive industry has been pursuing the development of specialized FlexRay bus solutions for automotive control and specialized MOST bus solutions for comfort electronics. However, some automotive companies are now also looking at Ethernet-based solutions.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1680
Joseph Hartley, Andrew Day, Ioan Campean, Rod G McLellan, John Richmond
Tata Motors Limited plan to launch a range of full electric vehicles (FEVs) to the European market. Regenerative braking is advantageous in maximising range between recharging, but presents challenges of acceptable performance, weight, cost and the ‘blending’ of regenerative braking with friction braking. Control systems for regenerative braking have been developed by manufacturers to enable recuperation of kinetic energy which would otherwise be converted to heat and wasted through the use of friction brakes. This paper presents the approach taken by Tata Motors Ltd. to optimise the design and operation of a regenerative braking system to maximise range and energy efficiency. The Tata Ace EV is a Class N1 light commercial FEV with drive to the rear wheels only. This presents the challenge of harvesting energy from the axle which contributes a varying amount of the vehicle braking effort depending upon load.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1682
Michael Herbert Putz
Scientists at the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), formerly Austrian Research Center, focused on investigating electro mechanical brakes (EMB) for automobiles. Research showed that EMBs can address brake distribution with regenerative and friction braking ("blending") at hybrid and electric cars due to the ability of the EMBs to be actuated as required (and do not automatically produce brake force at pedal activation). The target was to develop an EMB with low actuation force and energy that is simple and reliable, rolls back to disengage when power is off and acts as a parking brake. Several solutions were considered (with and without self-amplification). A pivotal mechanism with very high transmission ratio using eccentricity emerged as a favorable solution. Vienna Engineering (VE) took over and assumed the research during 2010. VE revealed that non-linear behavior facilitated low actuation forces at high braking torque and can use a controlled amount of self-amplification.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1705
Matt Kero, Andrew Halonen
The objective of this paper is to highlight the design, analysis, testing, and application engineering performed to develop a lightweight brake drum made of aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC). Current cast iron brake drums are “design-limited” in the sense that new designs do not significantly change performance and they offer minimal weights savings. This paper will begin with the design of the drum with respect to SAE requirements, and then show how the drum was optimized using finite element analysis (FEA). FEA was used to predict maximum drum temperatures and stress levels reached during various braking events. There were a number of design iterations that led to the current design that has been extensively tested on the dynamometer and on a vehicle. In addition to test performance, the casting and infiltration challenges led to significant design changes.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1703
Russell Creed, Andrew Creed, John P. Deconti
It is well known that heat generated during vehicle braking affects wear and stopping distances. To improve these conditions, supplemental retarders, such as exhaust brakes on diesel powered trucks and electromagnetic retarders have been used for years. Several of the diesel engines (below 7 Liters) are no longer designed to allow the use of exhaust brakes, and gas powered vehicles do not have that option either. Other options such as electromagnetic retarders are heavy, draw excessive amounts of current, and are a costly installation. To fill the void left by the elimination of exhaust brakes from some of these vehicles, and to provide an option that improves upon the undesirable aspects of electromagnetic retarders, a new technology; Liquid Cooled Disc Brakes, has been developed and designed into a product that fits on most popular truck chassis in the Class 2 - 4 range.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1704
Florian Fuellgrabe, Hermann Winner, Ingo Hoffmann
Cast iron/aluminum composite brake disks are increasingly being employed, as they offer improved fuel efficiency and a lower unsprung mass. The achievable mass reduction and the product costs are determined by the joining concept. This paper presents two novel lightweight composite brake disks, which are produced using two different joining methods. The connection of the first lightweight brake disk under investigation in this study is implemented by friction welding. The second brake disk uses the forming processes spinning and flow forming. The requirements regarding the design of the concepts are presented in the course of this paper. Both lightweight concepts have been validated in standardized tests on a test bench. The results of the experimental investigation are discussed regarding to the key aspects of mass reduction, thermal and mechanical behavior and production.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1708
Jae Seung Cheon
A dry Brake-By-Wire (BBW) system is one in which the existing hydraulic system is replaced by motor driven electro-mechanical calipers. Although it has yet to be introduced into series production, the attractive benefits of BBW have kept it in the mainstream of brake research for a number of years. In the current investigation, the BBW system is configured with electric wedge brakes in the front axle where high braking forces are required, while conventional electro-mechanical brakes are used in the rear axles. This paper will examine the feasibility of the current BBW system configuration through lab and vehicle performance tests including ABS (anti-lock braking system).
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1707
Yan-Sin Liao, Chien-Tai Huang, Chien-Tzu Chen, Shou-Yi Cheng, Bo-Ruei Chen, Fu-Yen Huang
A new design of integrated Electric Parking Brake system, called iEPB and integrated in the brake caliper, is introduced in this paper. It consists of an electrically operated brake unit and a hydraulically pressed unit independently, and uses a special self-locking mechanism instead of a screw device to increase the efficiency and the working speed. With all conventional EPB system's advantages, it also provides a stronger brake performance and a faster reaction time. In this paper, we describe the working principle of this new design at first, and then introduce the arrangement of the testing system, followed by a discussion of experimental data. The testing results prove the feasibility of this design. The conclusion paragraph summarizes the key points about the design of the iEPB system.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1713
Vladimir Sergienko, Mikhail Tseluev, Sergey Bukharov
The work presents the results of numerical investigations of the effect of the load and velocity parameters of a mining truck moving over a long descending grade upon thermal conditions of the multidisc oil-cooled brake (MDOB) operation. The initial boundary-value problem for the heat transfer in the MDOB friction pair under frictional heating has been formulated and solved by the finite-element method. The computations performed for the friction pair of high-carbon steel against frictional composite material based on polymer binders. The effect of the load-velocity operation parameters on the thermal conditions of the mining truck MDOB was studied by way of a multifactor numerical experiment using a mathematical model of heat transfer in the MDOB friction pair.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0629
Hamid Oral
A patent pending engine control system with torque sensor feedback is described. Upon detecting a loss in traction by means of a torque sensor, engine torque is adjusted via throttle paving the way for improved traction and enhanced stability. The throttle is reduced to a calculated value using engine characteristics, the torque sensor measurement and non-slipping wheel speed information. The advantages of the powertrain torque sensing as opposed to speed sensing are demonstrated thru a case study of a RWD SUV with an open rear differential. Simulations are used to prove the concept while the bandwidths of a number of physical systems contributing to the overall response time are ignored. Therefore the data provided in this paper should be treated relatively comparing speed sensors versus torque sensors. There are a number of engine torque reduction methods faster than throttle control such as spark retard and fuel shutoff.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0212
Michael Roberts, Tejas Chhaya
The increasing usage of brake-by-wire systems in the automotive industry has provided manufacturers with the opportunity to improve both vehicle and manufacturing efficiency. The replacement of traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control devices presents different potential vehicle-level safety hazards than those presented by conventional braking systems. The proper design, development, and integration of a brake-by-wire control system requires that hazards are reasonably prevented or mitigated in order to maximize the safety of the vehicle operator, occupant(s), and passers-by.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0095
Gurkan Erdogan, Sanghyun Hong, Francesco Borrelli, Karl Hedrick
Intelligent tires are envisioned to be an important part of the future vehicle control systems and the three dimensional wireless MEMS accelerometers embedded inside the tire stand out as a promising candidate for the development of intelligent tires. The first part of the paper focuses on accelerometer based tire sensors for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We use a simple tire finite element model to generate lateral, tangential and radial tire accelerations for a fixed load and slip angle. The profiles are validated by using experimental data. The simulated acceleration profiles are used for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We present the estimation algorithms, promising simulative results and output sensitivities studies focused on the effects of changes in normal load, tire pressure and vehicle velocity.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0120
Tim Lutz, Rajani Modiyani
The majority of commercial diesel engines rely on EGR to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards, creating a potential issue for military applications that use JP-8 as a fuel. EGR components would be susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in JP-8, which can reach levels of 3000 ppm. Starting with a Cummins 2007 ISL 8.9L production engine, modifications to remove EGR and operate on JP-8 fuel are investigated with a key goal of demonstrating 48% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at an emissions level consistent with 1998 EPA standards. The effects of injector cup flow, improved turbo match, increased compression ratio with revised piston bowl geometry, increased cylinder pressure, and revised intake manifold for improved breathing, are all investigated. Testing focused on a single operating point, full load at 1600 RPM. This engine uses a variable geometry turbo and high pressure common rail fuel system, allowing control over air fuel ratio, rail pressure, and start of injection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0121
Nicholas R. Hirsch, Milad H. Mekari
Battlefield delivered fuel (jet and diesel) with required security, storage, transport, and dispensing equipment is estimated to cost $418/gallon [ 1 ], thus the need for very fuel efficient light weight engines for repower and future vehicles is critical. The U.S. Army RDECOM TARDEC Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program funded Advanced Engines Development Corporation (AED) for the exploration, development and application of advanced diesel engine technologies and to incorporate these technologies into demonstrator engines, a 4-cylinder and V-8's. AED based these demonstrators on current production GM gasoline engine diesel conversions employing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) advanced diesel systems and engine components.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0581
R. Michael Van Auken, John W. Zellner, Jordan Y. Silberling, Joseph Kelly, Dean P. Chiang, Peter Broen, Amanda Kirsch, Yoichi Sugimoto
The Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) program initiated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration had two major overall objectives. These were to develop a standardized Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) tool to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced technologies in avoiding and mitigating specific types of vehicle crashes; and to develop and demonstrate objective tests that are used in the SIM to verify the safety impact of a real system. Honda and Dynamic Research Inc. (DRI) had been developing and applying such SIMs for several years and had a Cooperative Agreement with NHTSA to further develop a SIM in order to determine the feasibility of developing estimates of effectiveness for specific not-yet-deployed safety technologies in the absence of data from real world or field operational tests, and linking it to the results from objective tests.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1245
Myung Kug Moon, Murali Subramaniyam, Se Jin Park
The physiological stress and responses involved in last-minute braking situations are studied very little. The purpose of this study was to investigate older and younger drivers' physiological (central and autonomic nervous systems') responses and driving performance in two unexpected driving situations in a driving simulator. The subjects performed the test for two times, one for unexpected event while driving during 70 km/h and another driving during 90 km/h. An unexpected event described as while the lead-vehicle stops unexpectedly the subject vehicle needs to apply last minute braking. Nineteen healthy older (age: 65.6 ± 5.0 years) and nineteen healthy younger (age: 26.3 ± 2.0 years) drivers performed continuously simulated driving tasks with a simultaneous physiological parameters recording of each subject.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1221
Ilyas Istif, Ovun Isin, Erdem Uzunsoy, Deniz Uzunsoy
Prediction of brake disc materials wear versus their formulation with brake operating conditions can play a critical role in the development of future brake disc materials. In this paper identification of the dry sliding wear behavior of magnesium (Mg) matrix (MMCs) reinforced with 0-3-6 wt % B4C particulates (B4Cp) was investigated. Wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disk configuration against SAE 1040 steel counter body under constant load and sliding speed. The wear resistance of composites was evaluated as a function of B4C particulates reinforcement. Identified models were based on experimental results. The wear load was considered as the input parameter, whereas the wear rate and friction of coefficient as the output parameter. A first order continuous-time linear model structure was chosen for the modeling. Simulations using the identified models were compared with experimental results and it was found that the modeling of wear process was satisfactory.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1220
M.A.Z. Vasconcellos, R. Hinrichs
This work proposes to acquire images with multiple electron beam energies in the scanning electron microscope to get more information on the lateral distribution of the carbonaceous layer on the surface of friction films formed in brake couples, by combining the backscattered electron images with the behavior of the intensities of the major characteristic X-ray lines as a function of electron beam energy.
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