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2018-06-07 ...
  • June 7, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 8, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
One of the most important safety critical components on cars, trucks, and aircraft is the pneumatic tire. Vehicle tires primarily control stopping distances on wet and dry roads or runways and strongly influence over-steer/under-steer behavior in handling maneuvers of cars and trucks. The inflated tire-wheel assembly also acts as a pressure vessel that releases a large amount of energy when catastrophically deflated. The tire can also serve as a fulcrum, both directly and indirectly, in contributing to vehicle rollover. This seminar covers these facets of tire safety phenomena.
2018-06-06 ...
  • June 6, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 7, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The principal functions of the pneumatic tire are to generate driving, braking, and cornering forces while safely carrying the vehicle load and providing adequate levels of ride comfort. This seminar explains how tire forces and moments are generated under different operating and service conditions and, in turn, demonstrates how these forces and moments influence various vehicle responses such as braking, handling, ride, and high-speed performance. The content focuses on the fundamentals of tire behavior in automobiles, trucks, and farm tractors, but also includes experimental and empirical results, when necessary.
2018-04-17 ...
  • April 17-18, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This course provides a detailed description of tire failure modes, their potential causes, identification, and the sometimes subtle nuances that go along with determination of tire failure. In addition, proper inspection techniques of tires will be discussed and samples will be available to reinforce the concepts learned. The book, Tire Forensic Investigation, authored by the instructor, is included with the course materials. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 13 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2018-04-16 ...
  • April 16, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This course provides an introduction to basic tire mechanics, including materials, sidewall stampings, pressure, tread patterns, tire inspection and basic tire failure identification of passenger and light truck tires. Practical in nature and supplemented with samples and hands-on activities, the course will provide you with information that you can use immediately on-the-job and apply to your own vehicle. It serves as a good primer for the in-depth SAE Tire Forensic Analysis course. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 7 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0344
Gilsu Choi, Zhuxian Xu, Ming Li, Shiv Gupta, Thomas Jahns, Fred Wang, Neil A. Duffie, Laura Marlino
This paper introduces a promising approach for developing an integrated traction motor drive based on the Integrated Modular Motor Drive (IMMD) concept. The IMMD concept strives to meet aggressive power density and performance targets by modularizing both the machine and power electronics and then integrating them into a single combined machine-plus-drive structure. Physical integration of the power electronics inside the machine makes it highly desirable to increase the power electronics operating temperature including higher power semiconductor junction temperatures and improved device packaging. Recent progress towards implementing the IMMD concept in an integrated traction motor drive is summarized in this paper. Several candidate permanent magnet (PM) machine configurations with different numbers of phases between 3 and 6 are analyzed to compare their performance characteristics and key application features.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0266
J.Y. Wong
With growing globalization of the economy, to gain a competitive edge in world markets shortening the product development cycle is crucial. Virtual product development is, therefore, being actively pursued in the off-road vehicle industry. To implement this process successfully, the development of comprehensive and realistic computer-aided methods for performance and design evaluation of off-road vehicles is of vital importance. To be useful to the engineer in industry for the development and design of new products, the computer-aided methods should take into account all major vehicle design parameters and pertinent terrain characteristics. They should be based on the understanding of the physical nature and the mechanics of vehicle-terrain interaction. Their capabilities should be substantiated by test data.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0183
Brad Hopkins, Saied Taheri
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0190
Antoine Schmeitz, Willem Versteden, Tatsuya Eguchi
On one hand automotive manufacturers are trying to reduce product development times, while on the other hand they are aiming to bring more products to the market. Since safely and reliability must always be guaranteed, they use CAE to achieve this. For calculating road loads accurately, the tire and road model are key components of the CAE model. TNO has developed the MF-Swift tire model, which is a Magic Formula based rigid ring model. In combination with its enveloping model, MF-Swift can be used to simulate the tire dynamic response to arbitrary road unevenness. MF-Swift is aimed to be an all-encompassing tire model that can be used for handling, ride comfort and durability applications. Since it is based on Pacejka's Magic Formula, its application for handling events is well-known. Recently the OpenCRG road format has been released which makes it possible to describe large pieces of digitized 3D road surfaces in a uniform and efficient way.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0191
Edoardo Sabbioni, Silvia Negrini, Francesco Braghin, Stefano Melzi lng
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0188
Jonah Lee
The performance of a vehicle traversing over natural snowy terrain depends on the geometric and material properties of snow; these properties can change spatially and temporally depending on environmental conditions. The author's research group in recent years has been developing physically-based tire-snow interaction models that are snow-depth and slip dependent; these efforts are in contrast with previous models that are mostly empirical. An important element in tire-terrain interaction models is the pressure-sinkage relationship typically modeled empirically using plate indentation tests. Recently, a new mechanics-based indentation model for snow has been developed which significantly improves and simplifies the prediction of pressure-sinkage relationship. In addition, new vehicle-snow interaction slip-dependent test data have been obtained by the author's research group for the validation of vehicle-snow interaction models.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0186
Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein, Michael Hack, Alessandro Toso
During the last ten years, there is a significant tendency in automotive design to use lower aspect ratio tires and meanwhile also more and more run-flat tires. In appropriate publications, the influences of these tire types on the dynamic loads - transferred from the road passing wheel center into the car - have been investigated pretty well, including comparative wheel force transducer measurements as well as simulation results. It could be shown that the fatigue input into the vehicle tends to increase when using low aspect ratio tires and particularly when using run-flat tires. But which influences do we get for the loading and fatigue behavior of the respective rims? While the influences on the vehicle are relatively easy to detect by using wheel force transducers, the local forces acting on the rim flange (when for example passing a high obstacle) are much more difficult to detect (in measurement as well as in simulation).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0184
Jianfeng Ma, Joshua Summers, Paul Joseph
In this paper, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to model and simulate the dynamic interaction between non-pneumatic tire and sand with obstacle to investigate the influence of obstacle on performance of the non-pneumatic tire. The non-pneumatic tire consists of three major components: two inextensible circumferential membranes, a critical shear beam, and a group of deformable spokes. The non-pneumatic tire fabricated of segmented cylinders is illustrated and the FEM model for the tire is given in detail. The tire is treated as an elastic deformable body with the inertia effect included. Lebanon sand found in New Hampshire is used in this simulation because of the availability of a complete set of material properties in the literature. Modified Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is utilized to model the sand. The obstacle is represented as an elastic body.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0187
Hamid Ansari Ardeh, Makarand Datar, Manoj kumar Jagadeesan, Dan Negrut
This paper discusses an approach to construct a high fidelity surrogate tire model using a two-phase optimization-based algorithm that draws on data generated by off-line nonlinear ABAQUS tire simulations. It subsequently describes the process of Simulink-based interfacing of the resulting surrogate model to a full ADAMS vehicle model to enable accurate and expeditious durability studies. The two-phase surrogate model construction relies on an identification method that draws on the Instantaneous Center Manifold (ICM) theory. In the proposed method, a generally forced non-autonomous nonlinear structural system is represented as a sequence of harmonically excited autonomous nonlinear systems. The close-form solution of each of these systems is produced using the ICM theory. The first phase of the surrogate model construction uses an optimal Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm to unify all ICMs used to approximate the reaction force of the tire at its spindle.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0185
Michael W. Sayers
The major actions that move a highway vehicle are the forces and moments generated between the tire and ground; hence, the validity of a simulated vehicle test depends on the quality of both the tire model and the characterization of the ground surface. Other actions come from aerodynamic forces and moments that are affected by the relation of the vehicle body to the ground surface. This paper describes how the ground can be characterized to cover features of interest for most vehicle simulation scenarios involving pavements or other rigid surfaces. The 3D surface is built from tabular data related to specified properties of a road surface such as horizontal geometry, design elevation changes related to curves and drainage (i.e., banking of turns, cross-slope, ditches, etc.), elevation changes due to hills and other major grades, and disturbances and unique features such as bumps and holes. Broadband random-type road roughness is also included.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0093
Bert Bras, Austin Cobert
Recently Michelin has been developing a new airless, integrated tire and wheel combination called the Tweel® tire. The Tweel tire aims at performance levels beyond those possible with conventional pneumatic technology because of its shear band design, added suspension, and potentially decreased rolling resistance. In this paper, we will focus on the environmental impact of the Tweel tire during its life-cycle from manufacturing, through use and disposal. Since the Tweel tire is currently still in the research phase and is not manufactured and used on a large scale, there are uncertainties with respect to end-of-life scenarios and rolling resistance estimates that will affect the LCA. Nevertheless, some preliminary conclusions of the Tweel tire's environmental performance in comparison to a conventional radial tire can be drawn.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0094
Raymond Brach, Matthew Brach
The tire-force ellipse and tire-force circle (more frequently referred to as the friction ellipse and the friction circle, respectively) have been used for many years to qualitatively illustrate the concept of tire-road force interaction, particularly the force-limiting behavior for combined braking and steering (combined tire forces). Equations of the tire-force circle/ellipse, or, more specifically, the force limit envelope, in its idealized form have also been used in the development of quantitative models of combined tire forces used in vehicle dynamic simulation software. Comparisons of this idealized tire-force circle/ellipse using a simple bilinear tire force model and using actual tire data show that it provides only a limited, simplified notion of combined tire forces due to its lack of dependence upon the slip angle and traction slip.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0097
Elvio Bonisoli, Stefano Tornincasa, Sandro Moos, Francesco Di Monaco, Maurizio Repetto, Fabio Freschi
This paper presents a multi-physic modeling of an electromechanical energy scavenging device able to supply energy inside car tires for wireless sensors. A permanent magnet, connected to the inner liner of a tire, is accelerated along a guide by the tire deformation during car motion; by interacting with coils it generates a power which is conditioned by a proper electronic interfaced to an external load. The original approach implemented in this kind of device is the nonlinear dynamic properties designed and controlled: adaptive resonance in function of car velocity is optimized for increasing its global efficiency. The energy conversion process takes into account the simulation of different phenomena such as: non linear dynamic and adaptive resonant behavior of the seismic mass, electromagnetic and magneto-static coupling between moving mass and coils, transfer of the generated power to an external load by means of a nonlinear circuit interface.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0099
Kwangwon Kim, Doo Man Kim
A Non-Pneumatic Tire (NPT) appears to have advantages over the conventional pneumatic tire in terms of flat proof and maintenance free. In this study, the static contact pressure of NPTs with hexagonal honeycomb spokes is investigated as a function of vertical loading and is compared with that of a pneumatic tire. Finite element based numerical simulation of the 2D contact pressure of a NPT is carried out with ABAQUS for varying vertical forces and lattice spoke geometries. A lower contact pressure is obtained with NPTs than with the pneumatic tire due to a high lateral spoke stiffness of NPTs when they are designed to be the same load carrying capability. The NPT with the spoke of a low cell angle, Type A spoke in this study, shows a low contact pressure; Type A in this study. On the other hand, the NPT with Type C spoke shows a lower local stress in the spoke cell struts, associated with the flexible cellular structural property in the uni-axial compression.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0095
Gurkan Erdogan, Sanghyun Hong, Francesco Borrelli, Karl Hedrick
Intelligent tires are envisioned to be an important part of the future vehicle control systems and the three dimensional wireless MEMS accelerometers embedded inside the tire stand out as a promising candidate for the development of intelligent tires. The first part of the paper focuses on accelerometer based tire sensors for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We use a simple tire finite element model to generate lateral, tangential and radial tire accelerations for a fixed load and slip angle. The profiles are validated by using experimental data. The simulated acceleration profiles are used for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We present the estimation algorithms, promising simulative results and output sensitivities studies focused on the effects of changes in normal load, tire pressure and vehicle velocity.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0100
Neel K. Mani, John Turner
The ease or difficulty of mounting a tire on a rim depends on many factors which can be quantified by the torque that must be applied by a tire mounting machine on the tire. It was determined that the in plane and out of plane stiffnesses of an un-mounted tire have significant influence on this mounting torque. In addition, it was observed that a lateral deformation applied on the tire sidewall and the bead can also influence the mounting torque and this effect depends on the un-mounted tire stiffnesses. These observations can be explained based on the mechanics of the tire mounting process. Case studies will be presented to illustrate the influence of tire stiffness and deformations on mounting difficulty. Tests that were developed to measure the tire stiffnesses and mounting torque will also be discussed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0101
Akshay Narasimhan, John Ziegert, Lonny Thompson
The Michelin Tweel tire structure has recently been developed as an innovative non-pneumatic tire which has potential for improved handling, grip, comfort, low energy loss when impacting obstacles and reduced rolling resistance when compared to a traditional pneumatic tire. One of the potential sources of vibration during rolling of a non-pneumatic tire is the buckling phenomenon and snapping back of the spokes in tension when they enter and exit the contact zone. Another source of noise was hypothesized due to a flower petal ring vibration effect due to discrete spoke interaction with the ring and contact with the ground during rolling as the spokes cycle between tension and compression. Transmission of vibration between the ground force, ring and spokes to the hub was also considered to be a significant contributor to vibration and noise characteristics of the Tweel.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0583
Jesse Black, John R. Wagner
Vehicle safety remains a significant concern for consumers, government agencies, and automotive manufacturers. One critical type of vehicle accident results from the right or left side tires leaving the road surface and then returning abruptly due to large steering wheel inputs (road runoff and return). A subset of runoff road crashes that involve a steep hard shoulder has been labeled shoulder induced accidents. In this paper, a limited authority real time steering controller has been developed to mitigate shoulder induced accidents. A Kalman Filter based tire cornering stiffness estimation technique has been coupled with a feedback controller and driver intention module to create a safer driving solution without excessive intervention. In numerical studies, lateral vehicle motion improvements of 30% were realized for steering intervention. Specifically, the vehicle crossed the centerline after 1.0 second in the baseline case versus 1.3 seconds with steering assistance at 60 kph.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0762
Luke Berglind, Jaehyung Ju, Joshua D. Summers
Conventional geometric parameters of honeycombs (cell height, h, cell length, l, and cell angle, θ) have been used to find effective properties of honeycomb structures. However, these parameters appear to be difficult to control both a target shear stiffness (4 to 4.5 MPa) and a target level of shear strain (~10%) because the parameters are coupled to each other within a constant design space. A method to design hexagonal honeycombs is derived to design for both shear stiffness and shear flexibility independently by replacing the conventional geometric parameters with two new parameters; effective height, R, and horizontal separation, d. A parametric study with commercial software, ABAQUS, is conducted using the two new parameters to investigate their affects on in-plane effective shear stiffness, G₁₂*, and maximum shear strain, (γ₁₂*)max of polycarbonate honeycombs under a fixed overall honeycomb height of 12.7 mm (0.5 in).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0765
Beshoy Morkos, Joshua David Summers, James Mathieson, Jaret Matthews
This paper entails the design and development of a NASA testing system used to simulate wheel operation in a lunar environment under different loading conditions. The test system was developed to test the design of advanced nonpneumatic wheels to be used on the NASA All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE). The ATHLETE, allowing for easy maneuverability around the lunar surface, provides the capability for many research and exploration opportunities on the lunar surface that were not previously possible. Each leg, having six degrees of freedom, allows the ATHLETE to accomplish many tasks not available on other extra-terrestrial exploration platforms. The robotic vehicle is expected to last longer than previous lunar rovers.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0770
Jeffrey Dinges, Donald F. Tandy, Scott Hanba, Jung Bae
It is well known that tire force and moment properties are affected by numerous design variables such as tire size, type, compounding, and construction. It is also true that environmental conditions such as rain, snow, or road surface type can alter the cornering capacity of a tire. In this study, specific environmental parameters related to water on the roadway are varied to study the effects on the force and moment properties of modern radial tires. The parameters under study included translational velocity and water depth during standard sweep testing at two different vertical loads. The force and moment characteristics of seven different tires were tested at the Calspan Tire Research Facility in Buffalo, New York. The slip angle sweep tests were conducted on the Flat Trac tire machine at various belt speeds, normal loads, and water depths.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0766
L. D. Metz
Many vehicles are equipped with independent suspension systems on the front and/or rear axle. As opposed to a DeDion or beam axle, independent suspension systems have the potential to generate camber and toe changes as the suspension strokes from full jounce to full rebound. Each vehicle suspension design presents unique camber and toe curves to the tire. To improve handling, manufacturers often set static camber on such vehicle suspension systems to nonzero values so that when cornering, the outside suspension will deflect so as to maximize cornering power and vehicle stability. Then, under straight driving conditions, the tires tend to predominantly wear their inside shoulder edges, producing the phenomenon known as camber wear.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0768
Jaehyung Ju, Balajee Ananthasayanam, Joshua David Summers, Paul Joseph
In an effort to build a shear band of a lunar rover wheel which operates at lunar surface temperatures (40 to 400K), the design of a metallic cellular shear band is suggested. Six representative honeycombs with aluminum alloy (7075-T6) are tailored to have a shear modulus of 6.5MPa which is a shear modulus of an elastomer by changing cell wall thickness, cell angles, cell heights and cell lengths at meso-scale. The designed cellular solids are used for a ring typed shear band of a wheel structure at macro-scale. A structural performance such as contact pressure at the outer layer of the wheel is investigated with the honeycomb shear bands when a vertical force is applied at the center of the wheel. Cellular Materials Theory (CMT) is used to obtain in-plane effective properties of a honeycomb structure at meso-scale. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with commercial software ABAQUS is employed to investigate the structural behavior of a wheel at macro-scale.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1343
Marco Mammetti, David Gallegos, Alex Freixas, Jordi Muñoz
The focus of the work is to carry out a study of the relative impact of the rolling resistance measurements on CO₂ emission and fuel consumption reduction for heavy-duty vehicles. For the purpose of the study, friction coefficients of the tires from tire test machine according to UN/ECE Regulation No 117 test procedure have been used. The rolling resistance coefficient has also been obtained from SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 procedure for coast-down determination on proving ground. The fuel consumption has been simulated and tested on the proving ground by following FIGE standard cycle and stabilized speed conditions. A simulation tool has been developed and validated by testing different rolling resistance coefficient tires, analyzing their effect on the fuel consumption. The analysis of the contribution of the tires to fuel consumption achieved on the test track has been correlated with the experimental results and those obtained from the simulation tool.
2013-11-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9117
Kwangwon Kim, Jaehyung Ju, Doo Man Kim
A non-pneumatic tire (NPT) has two advantages over a conventional pneumatic tire; it is flat proof and maintenance free of air-pressure. In this study, while determining other advantages inherent in NPTs, the static contact behavior of NPTs with hexagonal honeycombs is investigated as a function of vertical loading and is compared with that of a pneumatic tire. A finite element based numerical simulation is carried out on the contact pressure of NPTs with cellular spokes and the local deformation of cellular spokes. A commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, is used to vary the vertical forces and lattice spoke geometries. A lower contact pressure is obtained with the NPTs than with the pneumatic tire due to the decreasing spoke stiffness of the NPTs when they are designed to have the same load carrying capability.
2013-11-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9122
Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen
During the winter special winter tires are used to prevent the car from slipping and the grip can be improved by using studded tires. Studded tires are known to cause higher noise levels and noise that is perceived as more annoying than non-studded tires. The objective was to model the interaction between the stud pattern and the stud/tire response (i.e. sound) caused by the excitation of the studs, and to make the result audible. In this study the interior airborne noise caused by the studs was auralized using a combination of recordings, modeling and filtering. The proposed stud auralization model makes it possible to evaluate the influence of the stud pattern and the stud/tire response at any desired speed. The noise caused by the studs is determined by the stud/tire responses when studs hit the pavement, the stud pattern and the speed of the tire. The stud patterns and the stud/tire responses were measured for 5 different studded tires.
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