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2018-09-11 ...
  • September 11-12, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 18-19, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Gothenburg, Sweden
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
2018-05-09 ...
  • May 9, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • October 5, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Designing more efficient and robust emission control components and exhaust systems results in more efficient performance, reduced backpressure and fuel penalty, and higher conversion efficiency. This course will help you to understand the motion of exhaust flow in both gasoline and diesel emission control components including flow-through and wall-flow devices such as catalytic converters, NOx adsorbers, diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters as well as flow through the overall exhaust system.
2018-04-17 ...
  • April 17-24, 2018 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Lean burn engines (diesel and GDI) boast higher fuel economy and cleaner emissions than conventionally tuned engines while producing equivalent power. They employ higher combustion chamber compression ratios, significant air intake swirl and precise lean-metered direct fuel injection. The downfall of lean-burn technology, however, is increased exhaust NOx emissions (due to higher heat and cylinder pressure) and a somewhat narrower RPM power-band (due to slower burn rates of lean mixtures). Removal of NOx from exhausts is a critical need for emission standards and ambient ozone requirements.
2017-12-18 ...
  • December 18-20, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • May 14-16, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 10-12, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0676
Fuming Xiao, Ghazi A. Karim
The dual-fuel engine represents in principle a simple flexible approach to employing gaseous fuels in conventional diesel engines. Compared to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engines, there is relatively limited information about its effect when present as a supplementary fuel in suitably modified conventional compression ignition engines. This is especially for engines of the IDI type and when employing only low concentrations of hydrogen in the intake air while retaining the injection of large diesel fuel quantities. In the present contribution, a 3D-CFD model based on KIVA 3, developed with a “reduced” detailed chemical kinetics of 294 elementary reaction steps with 79 chemical species for diesel fuel combustion which includes 20 steps for the oxidation of hydrogen, is outlined.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1558
Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc
The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles are carried out on a chassis dynamometer in the NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US. Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions. It should be noted that the changes in the methodology of emissions testing should go in the direction where they get closer to the actual road conditions. The paper presents the road test results obtained in an urban congested areas. The analysis of the road tests results (exhaust emissions and fuel consumption) was carried out considering the road conditions (vehicle speed and acceleration). The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the exhaust emissions. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS, Particle Counter by AVL and Particle Seizer EEPS by TSI has been used.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0141
Javier Vera, Jaal Ghandhi
The post-flame oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons released from the ring-pack crevice was investigated for a small, air-cooled, spark-ignition utility engine. Spark timing sweeps were performed at 50, 75 and 100% load and speeds of 1800, 2400 and 3060 RPM while operating at a 12:1 air-fuel ratio, which is typical for these engines. A global HC consumption rate (GCR) was introduced based on the temporal profile of the mass released from the ring pack; the mass release after CA90 and up to the point where the remainder of the ring pack HC mass is equal to the exhaust HC level was taken as the mass oxidized, and a rate was defined based on this mass and the corresponding crank angle period over which this took place. For all conditions tested, the GCR varied with the spark timing; advanced spark timing gave higher GCR.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0143
Daniel Sabathil, Achim Koenigstein, Peter Schaffner, Jan Fritzsche, Arndt Doehler
The future EURO 6 emission standard will limit the particle number and mass for gasoline engines. The proposed limit for particle mass is 4.5 mg/km. For particle number there is not yet a limit defined but a wide range of proposals are under discussion (6E11 - 8E12 Particles/km) The particle emissions on a homogeneous SIDI engine are mainly caused by insufficient mixture preparation. A combustion improvement could be achieved by a careful recalibration as well as a hardware optimization that mainly avoids wall impingement and substoichiometric zones in the combustion chamber. The analyses of current SIDI vehicles show significant PN emission peaks during cold start and transient operation on a NEDC cycle. To give a better understanding of cause and effect of the particle formation at steady state results so as transient load steps were performed at an engine dynamometer.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0636
Michael Hedge, Phillip Weber, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Imad A. Khalek
Gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines are becoming a concern with respect to particulate matter (PM) emissions. The upcoming 2014 Euro 6 regulations may require a drastic reduction in solid particle number emissions from GDI engines and the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III regulations for 2014 and 2017 will also require some PM reduction measures. As a result, it is necessary to characterize PM emissions from GDI engines and investigate strategies that suppress particle formation during combustion. The main focus of this work was on using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means to reduce engine-out particle emissions from a GDI engine with an overall stoichiometric fuel to air mixture. A small displacement, turbocharged GDI engine was operated at a variety of steady-state conditions with differing levels of EGR to characterize total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle emissions with respect to size, number, and soot or black carbon mass.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0633
Andrea De Filippo, Claudio Ciaravino, Federico Millo, Davide Vezza, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Theodoros Vlachos
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0635
Imad A. Khalek, Thomas Bougher
A solid particle number measurement system (SPNMS) was developed using a catalytic stripper (CS) technology instead of an evaporation tube (ET). The ET is used in commercially available systems, compliant with the Particle Measurement Program (PMP) protocol developed for European Union (EU) solid particle number regulations. The catalytic stripper consists of a small core of a diesel exhaust oxidation catalyst. The SPNMS/CS met all performance requirements under the PMP protocol. It showed a much better performance in removing large volatile tetracontane particles down to a size well below the PMP lower cut-size of 23 nm, compared to a SPNMS equipped with an ET instead of a CS. The SPNMS/CS also showed a similar performance to a commercially available system when used on a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0620
Di Yao, Diming Lou, Zhiyuan Hu, Piqiang Tan
An EURO 3 certified common rail diesel engine was fueled with pure petroleum diesel (EURO 4 standard) and three different alternative blended diesel fuels, 10% biodiesel blended diesel (B10), 10% gas to liquid blended diesel (G10) and 10% water emulsified diesel (E10). Tests were performed at different engine speeds and load states. Particle number concentration and size distribution data were obtained from an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). Over all the working conditions, total particle and nucleation mode particle number concentration among these fuels from high to low were in this order: B10, E10, pure diesel and G10. Proportions for nucleation mode particle over all the operating states in that order were 89%, 82%, 59% and 66%. Particle size distributions of B10 and E10 presented bimodal logarithmic distributions with outstanding nucleation mode peaks at all working conditions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0632
Andrea De Filippo
This paper focuses on measuring particle emissions of a representative light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with different engine exhaust aftertreatment in close-coupled position, including one designed to meet the upcoming Euro 6 emission standards. The latter combines a lean NOx trap (LNT) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) in series to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. Particle Matter (PM) and particle number emissions are measured throughout testing procedure and instrumentation which are compliant with the UN-ECE Regulation 83 proposals. Specifically measuring devices for particle number emissions, provided by two different suppliers, are alternatively used. No significant differences are observed due to the different system employed. On the other hand particle size distributions are measured by means of a specific experimental set-up including a two stage dilution system and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0630
Pierre Solard, Alain Maiboom, Xavier Tauzia
Pollutant emissions standards (such like EURO 6 in Europe) are increasingly severe and force a search of new in-cylinder strategies and/or aftertreatment devices / schemes at a reasonable cost. On a conventional Diesel engine an excess of air is usually used to allow very high combustion efficiencies and reasonable levels of soot which can then be after-treated in a diesel particulates filter (DPF). As a consequence, NOx emissions cannot be easily after-treated (lean NOx trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are quite expensive even if effective, solutions), as a result they are generally controlled by means of internal measures such as High Pressure (HP) or Low Pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In light of ever more stringent NOx emissions regulations, NOx aftertreatment devices seem to be becoming unavoidable.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0628
Silvana Di Iorio, Maurizio Lazzaro, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0615
George Karavalakis, Georgios Fontaras, Evaggelos Bakeas, Stamos Stournas
This study investigates the impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on the regulated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a modern passenger vehicle. The vehicle was Euro 4 compliant fitted with a direct injection common-rail diesel engine and a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer using constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted over the type approval New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real-traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Aiming to evaluate the fuel impact on emissions, a soy-based, a palm-based, and a rapeseed oil-based biodiesel were blended with an ultra-low sulfur diesel at proportions of 10, 20, and 30% by volume. The experimental results revealed that emissions of PM, HC and CO decreased with biodiesel over most driving conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0694
Yue-Yun Wang, Yongsheng He, Sai Rajagopalan
Fuel economy improvement and stringent emission regulations worldwide require advanced air charging and combustion technologies, such as low temperature combustion, PCCI or HCCI combustion. Furthermore, NOx aftertreatment systems, like Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or lean NOx trap (LNT), are needed to reduce vehicle tailpipe emissions. The information on engine-out NOx emissions is essential for engine combustion optimization, for engine and aftertreatment system development, especially for those involving combustion optimization, system integration, control strategies, and for on-board diagnosis (OBD). A physical NOx sensor involves additional cost and requires on-board diagnostic algorithms to monitor the performance of the NOx sensor.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0692
Hamid R. Rahai, Ehsan Shamloo, Jeremy Ralph Bonifacio
The effects of humid air on the performance of a naturally aspired three-cylinder diesel engine with low sulfur diesel fuel have been investigated. The additions of the humidity to intake air were performed with a variable steam generator using distilled water, where the relative humidity levels of the intake air were changed from the ambient conditions of 65% to 75% and 95% levels. The tests were performed at two approximate engine output brake horse powers (BHP) of 5.9, and 8.9. Results showed approximately 3.7% and 22.5% reduction in NO x emissions when the relative humidity of the air was increased from 65% (the ambient relative humidity) to 75% and 95% respectively. The addition of the humidity results in increases in the CO, CO₂, and particulate matter (PM), by approximately 3.7, 3.55, 14.9 percents at 5.9 BHP and 22, 2.8, and 9.3 percents at 8.9 BHP. There was no change in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at 5.9 BHP and about 2.7 increase in the BSFC at 8.9 BHP.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0732
Yasuhito Murai, Koichiro Izumi, Tatsumasa Hidaka
A new liquid surface conditioner has been developed to improve phosphate coating quality and enable a low-temperature phosphating system designed to reduce CO₂ emissions during the pretreatment processes of automobile production. Phosphate film is formed by a phosphating treatment that provides corrosion resistance for the steel plates that make up auto bodies. In the vehicle body, pocket-shaped structures such as side sills and wheel arches are likely to collect muddy water and form rust. Regarding anticorrosion quality assurance, particular attention must be paid to these pocket structures, in which phosphating solution flows slowly, and a lower solution-volume-to-surface-area ratio contributes less to the phosphating reaction. For this reason, with the conventional liquid surface conditioner, a low-temperature phosphating system cannot coat substrate surfaces sufficiently, which would result in lower corrosion resistance.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1305
Ian Whelan, David Timoney, William Smith, Stephen Samuel
This work investigates the effect of a three-way catalytic converter and sampling dilution ratio on nano-scale exhaust particulate matter emissions from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start and warm-up transients. Experimental results are presented from a four cylinder in-line, four stroke, wall-guided direct-injection, turbo-charged and inter-cooled 1.6 litre gasoline engine. A fast-response particulate spectrometer for exhaust nano-particle measurement up to 1000 nm was utilised. It was observed that the three-way catalytic converter had a significant effect on particle number density, reducing the total particle number by up to 65 % over the duration of the cold-start test. The greatest change in particle number density occurred for particles less than 23 nm diameter, with reductions of up to 95 % being observed, whilst the number density for particles above 50 nm diameter exhibited a significant increase.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1307
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, Shi-Jin Shuai, Akbar Ghafourian, Dai Liu, Jianyi Tian
Transient emissions of a turbocharged three-litre V6 diesel engine fuelled by hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) blends were experimentally investigated and compared with transient emissions of diesel as reference. The transient emissions measurements were made by highly-dynamic emissions instrumentations including Cambustion HFR500, CLD500 and DMS500 particulate analyzer. The HVO blends used in this study were 30% and 60% of HVO in diesel by volume. The transient conditions were simulated by load increases over 5 s, 10 s and 20 s durations at a constant engine speed. The particulate, NO, HC concentrations were measured to investigate the mechanism of emission formation under such transient schedules. The results showed that as the load increased, NO concentrations initially had a small drop before dramatically increasing for all the fuels investigated which can be associated with the turbocharger lag during the load transient.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1348
Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Ryan O'Malley, Christopher Depcik, Edward Peltier
The modeling of emitted hydrocarbons from internal combustion engines for exhaust aftertreatment devices has remained relatively unchanged since the early 1970s. This older model subdivides the hydrocarbon species into fast, slow, and non-oxidizing components. Current and future regulations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency stretch the abilities of this methodology, necessitating the need for more advanced modeling techniques. To this end, this paper provides a review on the different groups of hydrocarbons in order to provide background and contextual information on the different species expected in diesel emissions. Additionally, this work groups these species into different categories, depending on their chemical make-up, impact on human health, reactivity in the environment, and their prevalence within diesel emissions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1345
Fan Zhang, Jian-hai Wang, Dong-lian Tian, Jian-Xin Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Unregulated emissions have become an important factor restricting the development of methanol and ethanol alternative alcohols fuels. Using two light-duty vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, gasoline blend of 10% and 20% volume fraction of ethanol fuels, gasoline blend of 15% and 30% volume fraction of methanol fuels, New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emission tests were carried on a chassis dynamometer according to ECE R83-05. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were used to measure methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene emissions in the exhaust during the NEDC.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1297
John Nunan, Jason Lupescu, Gregory Denison, Douglas Ball, David Moser
In-line hydrocarbon (HC) traps are not widely used to reduce HC emissions due to their limited durability, high platinum group metal (PGM) concentrations, complicated processing, and insufficient hydrocarbon (HC) retention temperatures required for efficient conversion by the three-way catalyst component. New trapping materials and system architectures were developed utilizing an engine dynamometer test equipped with dual Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for tracking the adsorption and desorption of various HC species during the light-off period. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted which show that the new HC trap formulations extend the traditional adsorption processes (i.e., based on physic-sorption and/or adsorption at acid sites) to chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in oligomerized, dehydro-cyclization, and partial coke formation.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2462
Reza Torbati, Marco Federico Pidria, Giovanni Cerciello, Davide Rodonò
Partial flow filters (PFF) are devices that can capture particulate matter (PM) for a period of time sufficient for its catalytic oxidation. The filter consists of alternating layers of corrugated metal foil and porous sintered metal fleece which captures the particulates. The captured particles are then re-generated passively by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) produced by the oxidation of NO on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) placed before the filter. The filter's robust design and the ability to operate without any maintenance, i.e. no vehicle downtime, have led to an increasing demand for both heavy duty (HD) and light duty (LD) retrofit applications worldwide. Unlike diesel particulate filter (DPF), the PFF will not plug once filled with soot to its maximum capacity in the absence of passive regeneration (low load and low exhaust temperature conditions). Instead, the PM conversion efficiency will gradually decrease, allowing PM emissions to pass through.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2424
Jyotirmoy Barman
Exhaust gas recirculation is one important measure to achieve the Bharat Stage IV, Bharat Stage V as well as the Euro V emissions legislation. EGR is one of the most promising solutions to reduce NOx to achieve Bharat Stage IV emission norms for any high specific power engine. An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of EGR and multiple injections on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. Recent work has shown that multiple injections are effective at reducing particulate. Thus, it was of interest to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing particulate and NOx with the combined use of EGR and multiple injections. The tests were conducted on a four cylinder four valve light duty truck engine. Tests were done at emission modes (A, B & C Modes) with EGR are variation along with different injection strategies. The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2759
Pedro Manuel Barroso Guzman, Xavier Ribas, José María García Sr, Mario Pita Sr
The objective of this study is to describe the results on Particle Matter and CO2 emissions when an existing Heavy-Duty diesel engine for on-highway truck applications is converted to a Dual-fuel engine (diesel + Natural Gas) during the freeway part of transient worldwide emission tests. A Dual-fuel engine with Homogeneous Gas Charge Injection in the intake line before turbocharger was considered. The results showed the feasibility of this kind of technology for transient operation reaching a significant reduction of Particle Matter plus a decrement in CO2 emissions compared to diesel baseline engine. The results of gas energy replacement ratio, brake fuel conversion efficiency, CO and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases are also shown.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0167
Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Zissis Samaras, Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) has been earlier presented by Ntziachristos et al. (SAE Paper 2011-01-0626) as a novel small and robust instrument that can be directly installed in the exhaust line to measure exhaust particles without any dilution. The instrument is based on the electrical detection of aerosol. It is increasingly being used to measure exhaust particles from engines and vehicles with different exhaust configurations. In this study, a number of tests have been conducted using two sensors in parallel, one directly installed in the tailpipe and one installed in the CVS, side by side to the PM sampling filter. Aim of the study was to make recommendations on the proper use of the sensor and to check how the sensor signal compares to particulate mass, soot concentration, and particle number. A first finding is that external heating has to be provided to the sensor to avoid condensation.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0168
Michal Vojtisek-Lom
Traditional smoke opacity measurement, performed on diesel engines during regular emissions inspections, sensitive primarily to larger particles of elemental carbon, is very little sensitive to nanoparticles and to semi-volatile “organic carbon” particles. For this reason, it no longer suffices as a high emitter detection tool for modern vehicles with a particle filter or for advanced low-emissions technology where semi-volatile organic particles are the dominant fraction of particulate matter. This paper investigates the potential of common low-cost ionization type smoke detectors, produced in mass quantities for fire detection in buildings, as a tool to measure particle emissions in vehicular exhaust. Two ionization chambers were used to measure both raw and diluted exhaust of various engines powered by diesel fuel and biofuels under laboratory conditions as well as on the road.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0169
Richard Viskup, Thomas Stanger, Luigi del Re, Tristan Reinisch, Alexander Bergmann
The Laser Induced Incandescence technique (LII) is a sensitive optical method for reliable spatially and temporally resolved measurement of particulate matter (PM) concentration. This technique appears to be suitable for measurement of fast transient PM emissions, from diesel engines, which forms the main fraction of total emissions during standardized test cycles. However, the existing commercial LII devices require modifications in the exhaust gas flow, dilution, sampling cell, or it measure only in a partial stream. This article presents the development of a laser based optical setup - LII for rapid in-situ measurement of PM concentrations during the combustion process of a diesel production engine. The presented LII setup is suitable for direct in-situ, full stream, measurements of soot emissions without needs of dilution or a sampling cell.
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