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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3993
2018-05-03 ...
  • May 3-4, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized.
2018-03-22 ...
  • March 22-23, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Lubricating fluids are the lifeblood of modern engines, performing numerous vital functions from reducing system friction, temperature, and fuel consumption to minimizing tailpipe emissions. This comprehensive seminar covers the latest developments in lubricating fluids technologies and explores the relationships between lubricating fluids and emissions, after-treatment devices, bio-fuels, and fuel economy. Fundamentals of crankcase lubrication, including the properties and performance requirements of global base stocks and lubricants will be covered.
2018-03-19 ...
  • March 19-23, 2018 (8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Engineering Academies
The Transmission Engineering Academy covers the sciences of automotive passenger car and light truck engineering principles and practices necessary to effectively understand, develop, specify and start the design process. Topics include advances in manual, automatic, automated manual, and continuously variable transmission technology, materials and processes applicable to the major components within these transmissions, calibration of these systems unto themselves and integration into the full vehicle powertrain.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2177
Dhanesh Goberdhan, Isabella Goldmints
Low temperature pumpability is an important requirement for engine lubricants. It ensures that sufficient oil reaches the parts of the engine requiring wear protection on engine start-up. Until recently, most industry emphasis has been on the low temperature pumpability of the fresh oil. However, the oil can undergo a number of changes during its lifetime in the engine which adversely affect low temperature pumpability. Industry stakeholders are now expressing concerns about the potential risk of engine failures due to deterioration of low temperature pumpability of oils during their life cycle in the engine. Concerns have also been raised over the last few years that the move to Group III base stocks, while improving many of the properties of oil formulations, may also impact their retained low temperature pumpability.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2176
Adam Brandt, Edwin Frame, Greg Hansen, Robert Warden, Douglas Yost, Allen Comfort, Luis Villahermosa
The US Army is currently assessing the feasibility and defining the requirements of a Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL). This new lubricant would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel-efficient, multifunctional powertrain fluid with extended drain capabilities. As a developmental starting point, diesel engine testing has been conducted using the current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil at high temperature conditions representative of desert operation. Testing has been completed using three high density military engines: the General Engine Products 6.5L(T) engine, the Caterpillar C7, and the Detroit Diesel Series 60. Tests were conducted following two standard military testing cycles; the 210 hr Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Cycle, and the 400 hr NATO Hardware Endurance Cycle. Modifications were made to both testing procedures to more closely replicate the operation of the engine in desert-like conditions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2180
Robert Warden, Adam Brandt, Allen Comfort, Luis Villahermosa
The US Army is currently seeking to reduce fuel consumption by utilizing fuel efficient lubricants in its ground vehicle fleet. An additional desire is for a lubricant which would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel efficient, multifunctional Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL) with extended drain capabilities. To quantify the fuel efficiency impact of a SCPL type fluid in the engine and transmission, current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil was used in place of MIL-PRF-2104G 15W-40 oil and SAE J1321 Fuel Consumption In-Service testing was conducted. Additionally, synthetic SAE 75W-140 gear oil was evaluated in the axles of the vehicles in place of an SAE J2360 80W-90 oil. The test vehicles used for the study were three M1083A1 5-Ton Cargo vehicles from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV).
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2179
Emin Yusuf Avan, Robin Mills, Rob Dwyer-Joyce
The oil film that forms between piston rings and cylinder liners is an essential parameter which influences parasitic loss and emission rates in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Several methods have been used to analyse these thin oil films in the past, however, all these methods have required invasive access to the contact area via a window or a surface mounted sensor in the cylinder wall or liner. This paper introduces a novel approach for the imaging of the piston ring - cylinder contact, non-invasively. A straight beam ultrasonic contact transducer was coupled to the wet-side of the cylinder wall of a motored diesel engine. Ultrasonic waves were propagated through the cylinder wall and reflections from the ring-liner contact were recorded as the piston rings passed over the sensing area.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2178
Brian Koehler, John Matthew Jackson
Fossil fuel consumption is a significant factor in terms of both economic and environ-mental impact of on- and off-highway systems. Because fuel consumption can be directly tied to equipment efficiency, gains in efficiency can lead to reduction in operating costs as well as conservation of nonrenewable resources. Fluid performance has a direct effect on the efficiency of a hydraulic system. A procedure has been developed for measuring a fluid's effect on the degree to which mechanical power is efficiently converted to hydraulic power in pumps typical of off-highway applications.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2100
V. Macian, B. Tormos, J. M. Salavert, Y. A. Gomez
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a promising alternative fuel due to several main reasons, specially the strict engine emission regulations all over the world. This has made that lot's of cities have decided to use CNG as an alternative fuel in their urban transport fleets or in other urban tasks. Nevertheless, due to the recent implementation of the CNG technology in automotive sector, several problems related to lubrication have been detected, mostly affecting a reduction of the oil drain period and these problems showed no relationship with a particular fleet nor with the lubricant's brand used. These effects will have a very important weight on fleet manager's decision to select CNG as an alternative fuel, thus this reduction does not only increase the cost in engine oil, there are other maintenance actions referred to this basic period of oil drain, thus also increases other more significant costs.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2232
Kim Berglund, Pär Marklund, Roland Larsson, Mayte Pach, Richard Olsson
In the competitive market of the car industry today, companies need to continuously strive to optimize the performance, price and environmental properties of their products in order to survive. Wet clutches, as parts of transmission components of passenger cars are no exception. An understanding of how the wet clutch system functions and fails is necessary to optimize price and service life. The friction characteristics of the wet clutch system are determined by lubricant-surface interactions in the contact between the friction discs. Wet clutch failure can often be associated with the deterioration of friction characteristics which eventually leads to stick-slip or shudder. Consequently, knowledge of why and of how friction characteristics change over time is of the outermost significance to enable the understanding and prediction of wet clutch performance. As the lubricant is an essential component of the wet clutch system, lubricant ageing is a factor of importance.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2259
Mark T. Devlin, Todd Dvorak, Roger Sheets, Ian Bell, John Loper, Jeffrey Guevremont, Gregory Guinther
Previous research to understand the mechanism for piston deposit formation in the Sequence IIIG engine test has focused on characterizing the piston deposits. These studies concluded that, in addition to lubricant derived materials, Sequence IIIG piston deposits contain a significant amount of fuel-derived carbonaceous material. The presence of fuel degradation by-products in Sequence IIIG deposits shows that blow-by is a significant contributor to deposit formation. However, blow-by can either assist in the degradation of the lubricant or can simply be a source for organic material which can be incorporated into the deposits. Therefore, a series of modified Sequence IIIG engine tests were conducted to better determine the effect of blow-by on deposit formation. In these studies deposit formation on different parts of the piston assembly were examined since different parts of the piston assembly are exposed to different amounts of blow-by.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1546
Thiago Aurichio, Ricardo Cumino, Clarissa D.M. de Oliveira, Leonardo Dourado, Wanderson S. da Silva
The wear of thrust 51100 rolling bearings was investigated and their dissipative responses in a bench test rig were associated to their heating, elastic energy of mechanical vibration and Sound Pressure Level [dB], regarding two greases, both from the same supplier, being one with graphite and the other with Molybdenum Disulfide. The samples were commercially acquired and submitted to a normal load of 450±5N and 3100±30 CPM, determined after the screening tests. Four variables were measured: temperature [K], electrical power [W], global velocity vibration [mm/s] and Sound Pressure Level [dB]. After 106 cycles, the tracks were analyzed by Optical Microscopy. The bearings lubricated with the grease with graphite showed different responses in relation to the ones lubricated with MoS2 thrust bearings. The signal of the signatures and the damage morphology are presented and discussed.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1545
George S. Dodos, George Anastopoulos, Fanourios Zannikos
The aim of this study was to synthesize environmentally adapted Trimethylolpropane (TMP) esters from cottonseed and soybean oils and to examine their quality parameters and tribological properties as potential lubricant basestocks. A two stage production process was followed. At first the above mentioned vegetable oils were transformed to the corresponding methyl esters via methanolysis in the presence of sodium methoxide. The desired TMP esters were finally synthesized by alkaline transesterification of the previously produced methylesters with TMP using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Following the purification phase the physicochemical characteristics of the synthesized TMP esters were examined. The tribological properties were evaluated by employing a Four-Ball apparatus. An additive-free mineral oil base oil was used as a reference lubricating fluid.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1543
Kosuke Fujimoto, Minoru Yamashita, Toyoharu Kaneko, Motoharu Ishikawa
To evaluate the influence of FAME, which has poor oxidation stability, on engine oil performance, an engine test was conducted under large volumes of fuel dilution by post-injection. The test showed that detergent consumption and polymerization of FAME were accelerated in engine oil, causing a severe deterioration in piston cleanliness and sludge protection performance of engine oil.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0636
Kapila Wadumesthrige, Nicholas Johnson, Mark Winston-Galant, Eric Sattler, Noel Bezaire, Sidong Zeng, Steven Salley, Ka Yuen Ng
The feasibility of using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), synthetic paraffinic kerosene (S-8), military grade jet fuel (JP-8) and commercial B20 blend (20% v biodiesel in ULSD) in a power generator equipped with a compression ignition (CI) engine was investigated according to the MIL-STD-705C military specifications for engine-driven generator sets. Several properties of these fuels such as cetane number, lubricity, viscosity, cold flow properties, heat of combustion, distillation temperatures, and flash point, were evaluated. All fuels were tested for 240 hours at a stationary load of 30 kW (60% of full load) with no alteration to the engine calibrations. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), frequency, and power of the generator using S-8, JP-8 and B20 were compared with the baseline fuel ULSD.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0197
Jean-Louis Ligier, Laurent Dutfoy
For many years, bearing suppliers have been using the specific pressure to evaluate the fatigue risk of conrod bearings. However, modern engines have made the bearing more sensitive to various phenomena such as the thermal expansion or the elasticity of the conrod housing. These effects modify the stresses in the bearing layers and consequently fatigue risk. In this paper, we propose a new way to determine the bearing fatigue resistance. To achieve that, we analyze the elastic and plastic behavior of the bearing along the engine life. We detail and provide the analytical relationships which determine stresses in the overlay and in the substrate of the bearing in order to analyze their fatigue resistance. Various physical loads are taken into account such as the thermal load, the hydrodynamic pressure field, the fitting load, the free spread load. A good knowledge of the relationships between those physical phenomena helps to understand the mechanical behavior of the bearing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0647
Brian Sangeorzan, Eva Barber, Brett Hinds
A new, 1-D analytical engine thermal management tool was developed to model piston, oil and coolant temperatures in the Ford 3.5L engine family. The model includes: a detailed lubrication system, including piston oil-squirters, which accurately represents oil flow rates, pressure drops and component heat transfer rates under non-isothermal conditions; a detailed coolant system, which accurately represents coolant flow rates, pressure drops and component heat transfer rates; a turbocharger model, which includes thermal interactions with coolant, oil, intake air and exhaust gases (modeled as air), and heat transfer to the surroundings; and lumped thermal models for engine components such as block, heads, pistons, turbochargers, oil cooler and cooling tower. The model was preliminarily calibrated for the 3.5L EcoBoost™ engine, across the speed range from 1500 to 5500 rpm, using wide-open-throttle data taken from an early heat rejection study.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0613
Jun Sun, Xiaoyong zhao, Hu Wang
There is the direct interaction between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearing in an internal combustion engine. Current lubrication analysis of the crankshaft bearing was generally limited in the tribology discipline, only the factors relating to the bearing were considered, and the journal axis was generally supposed to be parallel to the centerline of bearing. In reality, the crankshaft deformation under load will result in the journal misalignment in the bearing. Although the journal misalignment was considered in a few of the lubrication analyses of crankshaft bearings, the causes of journal misalignment were usually thought to be caused by the manufacture, the assembly errors and the deformation of cylinder block. In order to simplify the problem, the journal misalignment was generally assumed to have constant magnitude and direction in an operating cycle of engine.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0609
Takahiro Sano, Takeyuki Nakasone, Takeshi Katagiri, Yutaka Okamoto
Recently, automotive engines have been operating under harsh conditions of high-power, low viscosity oil and increase of start-stop (e.g. idling stop). In plain bearing used within engine, as oil film thickness decreases, the frequency of direct contacts on the sliding surfaces between the shaft and the bearing are gradually increasing. In fact, the plain bearings for engines would tend to be used under mixed lubrication and the contacts of the surface roughness asperities sometimes occur between the shaft and the bearing. As a result, the bearing wear on the sliding surfaces is accelerated by the contacts of the roughness asperities. In order to predict the bearing performance exactly, it is very important to understand the change progress of the geometric shape of sliding surfaces caused by the wear.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1217
Masatsugu Inui, Makoto Kobayashi, Kensaku Oowaki, Takayoshi Furukawa, Yuji Mihara, Michiyasu Owashi
Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1220
M.A.Z. Vasconcellos, R. Hinrichs
This work proposes to acquire images with multiple electron beam energies in the scanning electron microscope to get more information on the lateral distribution of the carbonaceous layer on the surface of friction films formed in brake couples, by combining the backscattered electron images with the behavior of the intensities of the major characteristic X-ray lines as a function of electron beam energy.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1219
Ionut C. Harta, Kayla Owens, Steven De Jesús Santiago, David Schall, Steven Thrush, Gary Barber, Qian Zou
The tribological performance of nanofluids consisting of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed with a stabilizer in an API Group III oil was investigated. Recent research suggests that these fluids may reduce friction and wear compared to the base oil when used as a lubricant in metal-on-metal tests. The effects of nanoparticle concentration and test temperature on friction and wear were studied. Tests were run at 50°C and 100°C to investigate the viability of the fluids at elevated temperatures because possible applications include use as engine lubricants. Nanofluids showed friction reduction of up to 5.2% and reduced wear by up to 82.8% versus oil with only stabilizer at the highest ZnO concentration and the lowest temperature. Stabilizer increased wear at every concentration, but did not affect friction significantly. Fluid viscosity was also investigated. At 30°C, significant shear-thinning behavior was observed for the 2% ZnO solution, and a viscosity versus shear rate curve was found.
2013-11-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9074
John Manyala, Massood Atashbar
The lubricant wear and degradation is a major cause of failure in industrial machines such as engines, pumps and gearboxes. This is primarily due to contaminants such as metal debris particles and depletion of the chemical and physical properties. This paper presents a low cost, multi-functional sensor for real-time monitoring of both oil level and the debris particles in oil lubricants for a gearbox application. The sensor system achieves a micrometer-order resolution (37.5 μm), high linearity (< 0.5 mm non-linearity) and insensitivity to viscosity changes due to wide temperature fluctuations from −40 °C to 135 °C, and is designed for ease of manufacturing and application in harsh transmission environment. The synergy from simultaneous data analysis from a multi-functional sensor has been demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively using mathematical analysis, computer simulation and physical experiments.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0147
H. Sumida, Y. Koda, A. Sadai, S. Ichikawa, M. Kyogoku, M. Takato, Y. Miwa, R.W. McCabe
Phosphorous poisoning on customer-aged catalysts was investigated by material analysis and performance testing. Most of the phosphorus was associated with the oxide components in the washcoat. These contaminants were roughly classified as aluminum phosphate, cerium phosphate, zinc-calcium phosphate. Deactivation of the catalyst with aluminum phosphate was strong and followed a linear correlation from oxalic acid testing. Phosphorus scavenging additives were researched to inhibit increase of aluminum phosphate. According to thermodynamic calculations, lower free energy of compounds of additive and phosphate is expected to prevent formation of aluminum phosphate.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1445
Farshid Owrang, Jim Olsson, Jörgen Pedersen
The exhaust emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were sampled using the bottle in bag method and analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The GDI engine was run two times using two specially mixed fuels: a typical European base fuel containing additive and a fuel representing worst-case of European gasolines, which is a standardized European fuel, CEC RF 86-A-96, prone to form deposits. The engine was run 60 h for each fuel simulating city driving. Emissions were taken at times 0 h (at the start of the engine), 30 h and 60 h. As a complement, particulate emissions derived from the additized base fuel were sampled on a glass filter during the first 30 h engine run. The extractable organics contained in the filter were analysed using GC/MS analysis. Generally, the emissions were dominated by gasoline components with similar relations as in the gasoline.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1450
Hiromitsu Asai, Satoru Nakazawa, Susumu Miyakawa, Kazuhisa Kitamura
To meet diesel emission regulations, high injection pressure is demanded for the supply pump of electronically controlled common-rail type injection system. DENSO has produced common-rail type injection system in 1999. Cam and roller to generate high pressure in the supply pump at the system are composed of steel and silicon nitride ceramics, and are rolling contact under light oil lubrication. Therefore, rolling contact fatigue failure had been concerned. In order to assure the components, we estimated the influence on the materials and the lubrication on the rolling fatigue strength of silicon nitride ceramics, the contact fatigue life was tested under oil lubrication.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1738
G. McCullough, R. Douglas, N. McDowell
The most common mode of deactivation suffered by catalysts fitted to two-stroke engines has traditionally been thermal degradation, or even meltdown, of the washcoat and substrate. The high temperatures experienced by these catalysts are caused by excessively high concentrations of HC and CO in the exhaust gas which are, in turn, caused by a rich AFR and the loss of neat fuel to the exhaust during the scavenging period. The effects of catalyst poisoning due to additives in the oil is often regarded as a secondary, or even negligible, deactivating mechanism in two-stroke catalysts and has therefore received little attention. However, with the introduction of direct in-cylinder fuel injection to some larger versions of this engine, the quantities of HC escaping to the exhaust can be reduced to levels similar to those found on four-stroke gasoline engines.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1932
Jai G. Bansal, Chin Chu, Edward F. Outten
Low temperature pumpability has been an important requirement of engine oils for the past two decades. However, until recently this requirement has applied only to fresh oils. Pumpability can deteriorate significantly during oil's life cycle in the engine. Many factors such as combustion byproducts and oxidation can influence oil pumpability at low temperatures. This paper examines the effects of in-service aging on low temperature pumpability of oils using a variety of industry and proprietary engine tests. In particular, the paper investigates the role of viscosity modifiers in the retention of satisfactory low temperature performance in service. The data show that oils formulated with certain types of viscosity modifiers tend to maintain robust low temperature pumpability throughout their entire stay in the crankcase. Lubricants formulated with another class of viscosity modifiers tend to lose their low temperature performance quite early in their life cycle in the engine.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1934
Adam Vokac, Tian Tian
Faced with increasing concern for lubricating oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions along the piston ring pack before being consumed in the combustion chamber, with the oil distribution and dominant driving forces varying substantially for each of these regions. In this work, the focus is on the lowest region in the piston ring pack, namely the third land, which is located between the second compression ring and the oil control ring. A detailed 2D LIF (Two Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence) study has been performed on the oil distribution and flow patterns of the third land throughout the entire cycle of a single cylinder spark ignition engine. The impact of speed and load were experimentally observed with the LIF generated real time high-resolution images, as were changes in piston and ring design.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1936
Yoshitaka Tamoto, Masahiko Kido, Hideyuki Murata
Improvements in motor oil fuel efficiency have been mainly achieved through lower viscosity and usage of friction modifiers. Further reduction in viscosity to below SAE #20 could be useful for improvement of fuel efficiency. JASO gasoline engine tests were conducted with an ultra low viscosity oil containing mineral base stocks that showed minimum drive torque during an engine motoring test. The results showed an increase in viscosity, increase in oil consumption and deterioration of detergency. In order to solve these problems, an ultra low viscosity engine oil formulated by a special synthetic base stock with improved volatility was developed. The results of a High Temperature Oxidation Test showed this synthetic oil to have better performance than the mineral oil.
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