Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 2982
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
In today's aerospace industry, product life-cycles are often being extended far beyond a product's original design expectations. With fewer and fewer new aerospace products being introduced into the marketplace, there is a dramatic need for increased emphasis on supporting these products in the most efficient and effective manner possible throughout the entire product life-cycle. In addition to the initial product acquisition cost, customers are becoming more aware and sensitive to the product's total life-cycle cost.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0205
Robert Boys
Consumer and safety requirements are increasing the number of airbags per vehicle that need to be controlled in an intelligent manner. Smart air bag controllers can determine which bags are fired and at what times and which sequences in order to increase occupant survivability and reduce the cost of airbag replacement for repairable vehicles. Some vehicles already have an excess of 10 air bag systems and clearly a need for computer control to implement advanced features exists. The critical need to maintain the current high reliability factors in terms of misfiring and unintentional deployment must be maintained and perfected while adding more features. The Safe-by-Wire consortium has been formed to address these concerns and they have designed a new bus protocol. This article will examine some of the issues regarding air bag systems and the Safe-by-Wire protocol specifically.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0357
S. P.Gladyshev, T. Feldpausch, N. Natarajan, P. S. Gladyshev
The three phase electrical motor contains three armature stator coils shifted in space from each other 120 degrees and one stator coil for excitation. Salient multi poles laminated rotor without coil. Rotor has reduced weight because it does not contain coil excitation and has reduced steel core weight. Each of the armature coils is controlled by the one phase H – transistor bridge circuit. DC shoulder of each bridge is connected to a battery. There is an optical sensor of rotor position which controls transistor bridges. Rotor speed may be controlled by change of the armature voltage or by change of current excitation. Current value in both cases is controlled by a pulse-width voltage modulation. In this type of machine, like in DC machines, it is possible to realize shunt, series and combinational methods of the excitation. It is known that series DC motors can develop very high torque at low speeds and therefore can serve very well in a vehicle applications.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0365
S. P. Gladyshev, Terry Feldpausch, N. Natarajan, I. S. Okrainskaya
The electrical power consumption in automobiles continues to increase thereby demanding higher power capability of the alternator. The standard alternator today is a claw-pole synchronous machine. The claw-pole alternators have brushes which are maintenance issue; it is not possible to increase power output by increasing the stack length; and the rotor inertia is large due to the steel core and rotor excitation coil. Despite these disadvantages, the claw-pole alternator is still used because of its low cost and ease of manufacturing. An alternator with DC stator excitation, has a laminated salient pole rotor with no excitation coil. Therefore the weight and inertia is less than in the claw-pole alternator. The excitation coil is located in the stator and therefore there are no brushes needed. In this type of alternator, the stator has three-phase output coils evenly shifted in space 120 degrees.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0356
James R. Young, James D. Young
A new CVT and the construction of prototypes are to be described. Objectives include: Highest efficiency Ease of ratio change Large engine power capability Rapid response to torque changes Simple shapes for low manufacturing costs A single disc is arranged transversely between two traction gearing planetaries. The high efficiency of bodies in pure rolling (i.e. without spin) is used to effect clamping forces without the need for auxiliary power. Very little power is used to effect ratio changes because the power being transmitted through the transmission is used to effect the ratio changes in response to a slight change in the lateral position of the disc. A trade-off exists between size and efficiency. Large power capability is possible because there are no members being subjected to centrifugal forces as in belt drives, and because contact conditions involve very little spin losses with their attendant heat limitations as encountered in toroidal types of CVTs. Figure 1
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1550
Ian Czaja, Mohammad Hijawi
Stabilizer bar systems are present in almost every automobile sold today. They are used to tune ride, handling, and steering. This paper surveys the design alternatives for stabilizer bars, bushings, and links. It covers their function, performance, and basic design considerations. In addition, the paper provides an overview of stabilizer bar system reliability planning: ideal function, error states, noise factors, control factors, noise factor management, and validation testing are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1697
Jürgen Barthlott, Volker Schlechter, Norbert Hoffmann, Dieter Kraft, Uwe Kiencke
Abstract Future vehicle electrical systems will differ substantially from current ones due to rising requirements. For example driver-assistance and drive-by-wire systems will lead to novel and demanding electrical load profiles which in turn will pose new requirements on the electrical system. Furthermore safety concepts, reliability, availability and diagnosis are getting increasingly important in such systems and thus also in the vehicle's electrical system. In order to meet the upcoming requirements new concepts for future vehicle electrical systems have to be developed such that the new powernet is able to adapt flexibly to different situations or failures by routing the energy through different channels. For efficiency the corresponding development process should be based on modeling and simulation techniques. Depending on the design or analysis task, the powernet is represented through different modeling descriptions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1696
Takashi Aoki, Shinichi Okamoto, Osamu Ina, Akio Sugiura, Ryoichi Narita
Up to now, while automobile electric packages have demanded the high density for small and light products, electric leaks, which have occurred due to condensation, have been a major problem. To prevent any electric leaks, a conformal coating on the electric parts (ex. ECU: Electronic Control Unit) has been needed, but in general the design rules of the conformal coating (ex. Application area) is vague. Therefore, DENSO demands to clear the design rules of conformal coating electric package for higher reliability. To meet the demand, DENSO has developed a condensation simulation method using CAE that can show the occurrence condition of condensation fast and accurately. In the result, DENSO has been able to get the design rules where to need the conformal coating in the electric package for automobiles.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1695
Joerg Angstenberger, Viktor Tiederle
The requirements of the link between different applications in the automotive area have been increasing rapidly during the last years. Especially the reliability of the electric/optical interface device for MOST® (Media Oriented System Transport) applications, FOT (fiber optical transceiver), is very important and of concern. The compliance of the required specification (for electrical or optical parameters in the entire environment) is proven by an unique and innovative procedure for automotive components. For the FOT this means also a specific and dedicated qualification procedure to evaluate the portion of the optical data transfer. Today's qualification procedures for semiconductor devices consider electrical and assembly (package) related parameters. The special optical part of the FOT (LED and photodiode) and the accompanying circuits represent a new class of parameters that have to be qualified.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1665
Stefan Benz, Elmar Dilger, Werner Dieterle, Klaus D. Müller-Glaser
For the development of future safety-relevant automotive electronic systems a thorough adaptation of the existing design process is necessary to consider safety and reliability in a more systematic way. In this paper an approach for a new design methodology is presented. It is based on the V-Model which is the established process model for the development of electronic and software systems in the automotive domain. For an advanced consideration of safety and reliability the existing process is extended by a second V (with process elements that have a special focus on safety and reliability) to a “Double V”. The new elements are interconnected with the existing ones at several points of time during the development process. By a defined information exchange between the two Vs continuity in the methodology is guaranteed. Basis for the extension are experiences of the aerospace domain that were adopted to automotive conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1220
Albert G. Fonda
This paper continues a previous study of the effects of uncertainty of measurement upon accident reconstruction. The task is to identify, given the many inevitable errors of observation, the few of greatest import, so that these errors may be reduced, and to document the accuracy of the associated reconstruction. Until recently, it was not for lack of method that such studies could not be properly performed, but for lack of good data on uncertainty of measurement. The essential data was provided in 2002 in a report by Bartlett and others of juried studies performed by volunteer field investigators, summarized and supplemented in 2003 by Bartlett and Fonda in the form of a single table of all likely errors of measurement (furnished again here). In that paper, Finite Difference Analysis (FDA) was reviewed and with the aid of the new data was applied to automotive accident reconstruction.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1284
Kyung K. Choi, Byeng D. Youn
This paper presents an enriched performance measure approach (PMA+) for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) to substantially improve computational efficiency when applied to large-scale applications. Three aspects of PMA+ are presented: as a way to launch RBDO at a deterministic optimum design, as an efficient probabilistic feasibility check, and as a fast reliability analysis under the condition of design closeness. It is found that deterministic design optimization helps improve numerical efficiency by reducing some RBDO iterations. Unlike deterministic design optimization, a significant computational burden is imposed on the feasibility check of constraints in the RBDO process due to the costs of a reliability analysis.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0595
Thomas Nagel, Jan Kramer, Manuel Presti, Axel Schatz, Juergen Breuer, John A. Scaparo, Andrew J. Montalbano, Ron Salzman
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements for high mileage durability of emission components make it necessary to ensure the mechanical robustness of metallic catalytic converters. In addition, the robustness of design features must be assessed in the early design development phase without resorting to vehicle fleet testing. By following established reliability methods, a new approach for time and cost efficient accelerated durability testing was developed, which can account for the combined effects of critical stressors of a metallic catalytic converter. This paper describes the methodology used to determine the critical stressors and their levels in actual operating conditions which were determined by analyzing a broad range of vehicle test information. This information was used to develop a temperature profile and a high vibration load profile for the new life test method.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0590
James F. Unruh, Paul D. Till, Robert J. Locker, Constance B. Sawyer
The characterization of the thermal and vibration environment of the exhaust systems of three modern day diesel engines, with displacements ranging from 1.9 liter to 12.7 liter, was carried out to support the development of exhaust after treatment components. Tri-axial accelerometer and in pipe thermocouple measurements were recorded at several locations along the exhaust systems during vehicle acceleration and steady driving conditions up to 70 mph. The vehicles were loaded to various gross weight configurations to provide a wide range of engine load conditions. Narrow band and octave band vibration power spectral densities are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the spectral content of the exhaust vibration environment and its distribution along the exhaust system. Temperature time histories during vehicle acceleration runs are likewise presented to indicate expected peak exhaust temperatures.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0674
Jim Luyckx, Mohan Sethi, Mike Clancy
Today's automobiles have become increasingly complex and use state-of-the-art electronic technologies and control systems. This, in turn, has placed significant pressure on technicians to perform accurate vehicle diagnosis. This has therefore, created the need for intelligent diagnostic systems, which are affordable such that they are accessible by every technician and can be easily implementable by an OEM. Such dynamic requirements have pushed the envelope at the diagnostic system providers to develop fully integrated diagnostic systems, which guide and assist the technician to efficiently diagnose vehicles using standard off-the-shelf and affordable hardware.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0677
Christoph Rätz
Implementing diagnostic functionality in automotive ECUs is usually an expensive, time-consuming and inefficient process. Computer-generated source code based on ECU-specific diagnostic data can dramatically decrease costs and development time and increase quality and efficiency. By considering the weaknesses in the typical ECU diagnostic development process, a clear set of objectives emerges. Defining a source code generation system that addresses these weaknesses lays the groundwork for implementing a successful solution. A case study using the Vector CANdesc (CAN Diagnostic Embedded Software Component) is presented as a proof of concept.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0678
Cornelia Heinisch, Martin Simons
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are typically programmed using external programming devices - frequently called Diagnostic Testers. We propose a system and software architecture that requires no Diagnostic Tester for ECU (re)programming. ECU (re)programming is instead managed by an on-board software component, the Flashware-Reprogramming-Controller. It can reside in any ECU that has sufficient memory and processing power as well as good connectivity to internal networks and external sources from which to receive the software to be installed. Appropriate choices could be modern telematic devices. A second co-located on-board software component - the Installation-Configuration-Controller - is used to supervise the installation of new software releases and to validate their integrity after installation. The proposed architecture can be used for software download into ECUs in development, end-of-line production and after sales.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0680
K. Wojtek Przytula, Steve Smith
Electro-Motive Division of GM jointly with HRL Laboratories have developed a software tool, called TechPro, which assists in troubleshooting of diesel locomotives. The tool has been tested extensively in the field for the last two years. It has improved significantly the quality of diagnosis of locomotives. The tool is based on Graphical Probabilistic Models and Case Data Bases. We will discuss the design of the tool, its performance and will show its relevance to diagnosis of automobiles.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0679
Jason Miller, Tim Thomas, Bill Waldeck
Ford Motor Company (FMC) plans to adopt ISO 14229 - Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) as the sole diagnostic vehicle protocol. All Ford brands, including Ford, Lincoln-Mercury, Jaguar, Land Rover, Volvo, and Mazda, will eventually use this protocol. Migrating from the many diagnostic protocols currently in use today to a single common protocol presents many challenges. However, the long-term benefits of using a single industry-standard protocol throughout the company far outweigh the short-term difficulties. This paper will present the issues facing Ford as it makes the transition to one common protocol as well as outline the potential benefits.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0897
Joško Deur, Danijel Pavkovi, Nedjeljko Peri, Martin Jansz, Davor Hrovat
An adaptive electronic throttle control strategy is proposed with the aim to provide robust and precise positioning of the throttle plate. The control strategy consists of a PID controller and a nonlinear compensator of friction and limp-home effects. The adaptation mechanism includes auto-tuning and self-tuning algorithms. The auto-tuner provides automatic adjustment of the key control strategy parameters without any prior knowledge of the process parameters. The self-tuning algorithms are based on the permanent, on-line estimation of the DC motor armature resistance, battery voltage, and limp-home position. The control strategy and the adaptation algorithms are verified experimentally.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0856
Steve Brown
Reliability from a probabilistic definition has been defined as the probability that a system will meet its intended function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Therefore, in order to predict reliability, one must know three things: 1) function, 2) stated conditions, and 3) the specified time for the prediction. Manufacturers within the automotive industry have begun to challenge the probabilistic definition-stating reliability is too difficult to measure. Their reasoning is the fact that one cannot accurately define the time to measure reliability nor the stated conditions in the field. An emerging concept is not to measure reliability using conventional tools and methodologies, but to measure the failure modes that occur. If one can then distance the product from the failure mode, by default product reliability will increase. Therefore an emerging definition for reliability is simply failure mode avoidance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0874
Gui-Ying Lu, David Zheng, Shashikumar Venkatakrishnaiah, Todd Vest
The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0879
Basavapatna P. Naganarayana, S. Shankar, Ruslan V. Dashko
Structural durability is one of the key factors in determining the robustness of a product having a direct bearing on customer perception of quality and reliability in passenger vehicles, and is one of the major factors affecting customer loyalty. It is recognized that significant fatigue failures occur at spot welds in an automobile body structure, and accordingly various methods are adapted in the industry to predict such failures. However, most of them follow the traditional fatigue and fracture analyses, which are computationally challenging, expensive as well as mathematically complex to apply on a full vehicle system. As a result, most of these methods depend on iterative solutions e.g. Design of Experiments.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2668
Hannes Hick, Klaus Denkmayr, Michael Aschaber
The AVL Load Matrix is a systematic approach to optimize durability and reliability test programs. It is based on component-specific test acceleration factors and uses damage models as well as statistics. Using the Load Matrix approach helps to achieve complete test programs while avoiding unrealistic over-testing. The paper describes the Load Matrix concept and structure as well as the process of setting up the Load Matrix for a system or component. Examples are provided on damage models, and the procedure to estimate the acceleration factors is discussed.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0044
Cédric Wilwert, Eric Bonhoure, Thomas Clément
Abstract-: The objective of this paper is to propose a new reliability analysis method for X-by-Wire systems, which includes both dynamic performance and static redundancy of the system, X-by-wire systems must meet not only reliability but also real-time requirements. In this context, we propose an integrated approach for evaluating both the performance in presence of perturbations - the Behavioural Reliability - and the evaluation of reliability based on classical failure rates of the components - the Static Reliability - of X-by-Wire systems. A example of quantification is given to illustrate the proposed method.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3301
Paulo Inácio Prysthon de Mello, Marcelo Magri
This paper describes the steps utilized in the development of the Flex Fuel program by the Ford South America Product Development team to implement a reliability plan. A reliability plan, understood as series of tools to avoid failure mode occurrence, is particularly important when introducing a new technology. Robustness, as the ability of a system to perform its intended function in the presence of variable operational conditions, is contained in the reliability concept and is a key aspect of this plan. Several factors that could affect the vehicle performance were listed, classified and prioritized in order to establish a preventive action plan. The tools were used first at the vehicle level, and then cascaded down to subsystem and component level. Also, with the results of this analysis, design verification methods were enhanced to capture real world usage conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1593
Klaus Lamberg, Michael Beine, Mario Eschmann, Rainer Otterbach, Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey
Permanently increasing software complexity of today's electronic control units (ECUs) makes testing a central and significant task within embedded software development. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions already undergo certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. Testing must be done as early as possible within the automotive development process. Typically ECU software developers test new function modules by stimulating the code with test data and capturing the modules' output behavior to compare it with reference data. This paper presents a new and systematic way of testing embedded software for automotive electronics, called MTest. MTest combines the classical module test with model-based development. The central element of MTest is the classification-tree method, which has originally been developed by the DaimlerChrysler research department.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1595
Jingdong Chen, Scott Downer, Anthony Murray, David Divins
I: Abstract In this study, an avalanche extension to existing quasi-dynamic thermal model is developed. And the current and thermal distribution among paralleled devices under avalanche condition is investigated. The statistic distribution of breakdown voltage, terminal stray inductance and thermal coupling all affect final electrical and thermal balance of paralleled devices. Without careful design consideration, it may cause reliability problem. So conclusions in this paper could provide useful guidelines for high power discrete or module applications with paralleled power devices.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1597
Takehisa Ide, Hideyuki Kosugi, Koji Sakiyama, Takeshi Hasegawa, Akihiko Doi, Makoto Mochizuki, Kouki Ishikawa
There is a trend toward integration of several components in automobiles into modules and we have developed a new wiring system suitable for module components. This new wiring harness consists of multi core flat cable that has zero-halogen insulation. The features are weight reduction and simplification of the manufacturing process. The connector for this system is IDC (Insulation Displacement Contact) and hotmelt overmold is used for waterproofing the IDC. The mechanics of the waterproofing is adhesion between surfaces of cable insulation, connector housing and hotmelt. We have developed a new hotmelt material that can adhere to both nonpolar compounds (zero-halogen cable insulation) and polar compounds (connector housing), and is a highly reliable waterproof IDC connector that can be used in engine compartments. We also discuss a compact facility that can simultaneously operate both IDC and a hotmelt molding process.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1594
Kinya Atsumi, Katsunori Abe, Hisaya Kato, Katsunori Michiyama
In 1997, we have applied laser technology to the world's first practical adaptive cruise control (ACC) system. The ACC system is based on 2-dimensional scanning laser-radar-sensor technology that is supported by highly reliable high power diode laser. Now, we have developed 34W output power multiple-quantum-well (MQW) diode laser. The power of 870nm near IR diode laser is twice as high as conventional one, thus it meets the strong needs for robust detection of the reflective laser beams from the moving vehicle ahead. Furthermore, Au-Sn-Ni a new alloy solder has been employed to sustain high degree of vibration and thermal shock to raise reliability. The acceleration life-tests at high temperature pulsed operation demonstrate the high reliability of developed 34W high power diode laser.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2982

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: