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Viewing 1 to 30 of 19884
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar covers metal forming and related manufacturing processes, emphasizing practical applications. From forged or P/M connecting rods to tailor-welded blank forming, metal parts are integral to the automotive industry. As a high value adding category of manufacturing, metal forming is increasingly important to the core competency of automobile manufacturers and suppliers. A thorough survey of metal forming processes and metal forming mechanics will be performed, including bulk deformation, sheet-metal, and powder metallurgy operations. Design considerations are fully integrated into the course and are presented with every process.
2018-04-09 ...
  • April 9-10, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • June 21-22, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Hamburg, Germany
  • October 9-10, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are now commonly used in automotive body structural applications. The high strength of this grade classification is attractive to help reduce mass in the automotive body through reduction in thickness. Strength also supports improvements in safety requirements so that mass increases are minimized. In some specific grades of AHSS, energy absorption is possible in addition to the high strength. This course will review the definition and properties of AHSS and cover several common applications in automotive body structures.
2018-03-19 ...
  • March 19-23, 2018 (8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Engineering Academies
The Transmission Engineering Academy covers the sciences of automotive passenger car and light truck engineering principles and practices necessary to effectively understand, develop, specify and start the design process. Topics include advances in manual, automatic, automated manual, and continuously variable transmission technology, materials and processes applicable to the major components within these transmissions, calibration of these systems unto themselves and integration into the full vehicle powertrain.
2018-01-10 ...
  • January 10-19, 2018 (5 Sessions) - Live Online
  • June 18-27, 2018 (5 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 30-November 13, 2018 (5 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Additive manufacturing (AM), with origins in the 1980s, has only more recently emerged as a manufacturing process of choice for functional part production, adding to the suite of choices a designer has available when designing a part for manufacturing. Like other traditional processes like casting and machining, AM has its set of constraints. An added layer of complexity comes from the fact that there are several different AM processes, and some of the design constraints are process-specific.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0405
David A. Wagner, Stephen Logan, Kangping Wang, Timothy Skszek
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0408
Qiang Zhang, Henry Hu
In the past decade, magnesium (aluminum) alloy use in the automotive industry has increased in order to reduce vehicle weight and fuel consumption. However, their applications are usually limited to temperatures of up to 120°C. Improvements in the high-temperature mechanical properties of magnesium alloys would greatly expand their industrial applications. As compared to the unreinforced monolithic metal, metal matrix composites have been recognized to possess superior mechanical properties, such as high elastic modulus and strengths as well as enhanced wear resistance. In this study, a novel approach of making hybrid preforms with two or more types reinforcements, i.e., different size particles and fibers, for magnesium-based composites was developed. An advanced and affordable technique of fabricating hybrid magnesium-based composites called the preform-squeeze casting was employed successfully.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0407
Jafar Albinmousa, Adrian Pascu, Hamid Jahed, M.F. Horstemeyer, Alan Luo, D. Chen, Steve Lambert, J. Jordon, S. Begum, Xuming Su, Q.Q. Duan, Richard Osborne, Z. Zhang, Lin Zhang, T. Luo, Yuansheng Yang
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0410
Alan A. Luo, Joy Forsmark, Xichen Sun, Scott Shook
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0409
John Jekl, Richard D. Berkmortel, Paula Armstrong
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how flow and solidification simulation were used in the development of a new gating system design for three different magnesium alloys; and to determine the relative castability of each alloy based on casting trials. Prototype tooling for an existing 3-slide rear wheel drive automatic transmission case designed for aluminum A380 was provided by General Motors. Flow and solidification simulation were performed using Magmasoft on the existing runner system design using A380 (baseline), AE44, MRI153M and MRI230D. Based on the filling results, new designs were developed at Meridian for the magnesium alloys. Subsequent modeling was performed to verify the new design and the changes were incorporated into the prototype tool. Casting trials were conducted with the three magnesium alloys and the relative castability was evaluated.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0412
Jonathan Robert Burns, Henry Hu, Xueyuan Nie, Lihong Han
Powertrain applications of alloy AJ62 arose from its comparative resistance to high temperature deformation among magnesium alloys. In this research, AJ62 permanent-mould cast in different section thicknesses was subjected to immersion corrosion in commercially-available engine coolant. The objective was to determine corrosion behaviour variation among casting thicknesses. Corrosion product accumulation suggests passive film formation, and unlike in other media, the film exhibits certain stability. Extreme thicknesses were used to generate polarization curves for their respective microstructures in engine coolant. Variation with casting section thickness was observed in the curves. These preliminary results indicate coarsened microstructures reduce corrosion resistance of the permanent mold cast AJ62 alloy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0411
Behzad Behravesh, Lei Liu, Hamid Jahed, Stephen Lambert, Grzegorz Glinka, Norman Zhou
Interest in magnesium, as the lightest engineering metal, has increased in the automotive industry as a result of requirements for lighter and cleaner vehicles. Resistance spot welding (RSW) is already the predominant mode of fabrication in this industry, and the fatigue of spot welded magnesium sheet must be studied. In this study, the tensile and fatigue strength of resistance spot welded AZ31 Mg alloy was studied. Three sets of tensile shear spot welded specimens were prepared with different welding parameters to achieve different nugget sizes. Metallographic examination revealed grain size changes from the base material (BM) to heat affected zone (HAZ) to the fusion zone (FZ). Monotonic tensile and fatigue tests were conducted and the effect of nugget size on tensile shear and fatigue strength was discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0403
Kumar Sadayappan, Michael Vassos
Thixomolding® is a semi-solid metal-molding process used to produce magnesium alloy components. The component quality is claimed to be high due to the low speed non-turbulent filling experienced in the thixomolding process. Parts of AM60 alloy were produced in a USAMP/DOE funded and directed project to demonstrate economic production of quality large thin wall, structural magnesium component using thixomolding. The selected application was the Ford F-150 shotgun; the structural connection between the A-pillar and the radiator support structure, and produced by G-Mag International. Test pieces were assessed through radiography and mechanical testing. The properties of the shot-gun casting were compared to those of experimental plate castings. Properties of the large casting were found to have a higher level of scatter compared to plate castings which can be attributed to the gas entrapment and oxide inclusions. The results are presented and discussed in this publication.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0404
Okechukwu Anopuo, Yuanding Huang, Norbert Hort, Hajo Dieringa, Karl Ulrich Kainer
Understanding the creep and bolt load retention (BLR) behavior of promising Mg-Al alloys are crucial to developing elevated temperature resistance alloys. This is especially true for elevated temperature automotive applications with a prevalence of bolted joints. In this study, creep and fastener clamp load response of Mg-Al alloy AS41 was investigated and compared to that of Mg4Al and AS41 micro-alloyed with 0.15 % Ca. A compliance-creep approach was used to model the response of these Mg-Al alloys at bolted joints. The equation prediction of the BLR response and experimental results are in good agreement. AS41+0.15 Ca shows improved creep and BLR properties up to 175°C. A correlation between the microstructures, creep and BLR results reveal that the formation of a ternary CaMgSi phase is responsible for the improved elevated temperature behavior.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0448
Raj Sohmshetty, Rakshit Ramachandra, Alavandi Bhimaraddi
Typical automotive body structures are assemblies of stamped steel parts. The stamping process work hardens and thins the parts. The work hardening effects are more pronounced for advanced high strength steels such as DP600. It is now widely accepted in the industry that forming effects must be incorporated into the product attribute models to improve simulation accuracy. This paper investigates some of the challenges in incorporating the forming effects into product attribute models during the automotive product development process and presents solutions. It also investigates how the significance of the coupled forming to attribute CAE method varies based on the initial design thickness of a part. The paper concludes by reviewing component and vehicle level results achieved by the incorporation of the coupled process.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0438
Yoshitaka Okitsu, Tadashi Naito, Naoki Takaki, Tomoaki Sugiura, Nobuhiro Tsuji
Mechanical properties, formability and crash worthiness of a new sheet steel having an ultrafine grained (UFG) multi-phase (MP) microstructure are shown. The fabricated UFG-MP steel showed significant work hardening caused by deformation induced martensitic transformation of retained austenite, which resulted in a combination of high strength and large tensile elongation. It was confirmed by dynamic collapse test and FEM simulation that the large work hardenability of the UFG-MP steel promoted compact mode collapse that improved the absorbed energy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0441
Constantin Chiriac
One of the concerns for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in stamping operations is the failure of sheared edges in stretching modes. When a forming operation requires stretching edges, local formability becomes a very important factor of the material application, particularly for the AHSS. The local formability of a material is usually characterized by the hole expansion ratio (HER). During edge stretching, the sheared edge can be in contact with the tool or it can be free. These two conditions can be simulated by the hole expansion (HE) test using a conical punch and a flat bottom punch, respectively. In this study, the local formability of a dual phase (DP) 780 steel is evaluated using the HE test. The hole expansion tests were performed using a digital record and measurement system (DRMS) which allows the measurement of the final diameter of the hole at the moment of a localized fracture or a through-thickness crack at the hole edge.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0434
Jagdeesh Bandekar, Michael R. Golden, Greg Meyers, Benda Yan, Jeffrey L. Fenton
Adhesive bonding technology is rapidly gaining acceptance as an alternative to spot welding. This technology is helping automobile manufacturers reduce vehicle weight by letting them use lighter but stronger advanced high strength steels (AHSS's). This can make cars safer and more fuel efficient at the same time. The other benefits of this technology include its flexibility, ability to join dissimilar materials, distribute stress uniformly, provide sealing characteristics and sound dampening, and provide a moisture barrier, thus minimizing the chance for corrosion. The lap shear work reported in the late 1980s and early 1990s has led to the prevalent perception that the galvannealed (GA) coating can delaminate from the steels, resulting in poor joint performance. However, the above work was carried out on steels used primarily in automobile outer body panels.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0435
S. Xu, W. R. Tyson, P. Martin, N. Petri
Use of ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheet in automotive components has potential to simultaneously reduce weight and increase crashworthiness. For crashworthiness design and simulation, constitutive equations are required; however, these are scarce for UHSS. Also, UHSS sheets may suffer unexpected fracture such as shear fracture, and toughness data for UHSS sheets is very limited. In this work, effects of strain rate and temperature on flow stress of two UHSS sheet steels (a dual-phase ferritic/martensitic DP980 and a martensitic boron (B) steel) are experimentally investigated and compared to a simple constitutive equation for structural steels based on thermal-activation theory of dislocation motion. The flow stress of the two UHSS steels obeys a constitutive equation similar to that of structural steels of other microstructures (ferrite, ferrite/pearlite, pearlite, ferrite/bainite, and bainite).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0446
Ramakrishna Koganti, Adrian Elliott
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive steels for automobile makers. The usage of AHSS steels is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with new safety and fuel economy regulations. These new steels have significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures due to heat-affected zones (HAZ) at the weld joint. In this study Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of a lap joint configuration consisting of 1.0 mm Usibor® 1500 steel to uncoated Dual Phase 780 (DP780) steel was investigated. The objective of the study was to understand the wire feed rate (WFR) and torch (or robot) travel speed (TTS) influence on lap joint tensile strength.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0447
Joseph A. Ronevich, John G. Speer, David K. Matlock
The susceptibility of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) was evaluated on selected high strength sheet steels (DP 600, TRIP 780, TRIP 980, TWIP-Al, TWIP, and Martensitic M220) and the results were compared to data on a lower strength (300 MPa tensile strength) low carbon steel. Tensile samples were cathodically charged and then immediately tensile tested to failure to analyze the mechanical properties of the as-charged steel. The effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture behavior were evaluated through analysis of tensile properties, necking geometry, and SEM images of fracture surfaces and metallographic samples of deformed tensile specimens. The two fully austenitic TWIP steels were resistant to hydrogen effects in the laboratory charged tensile samples.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0444
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Keith Snavely, Jason Coryell
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0424
Venkata S. Chevali, Michael Fuqua, Shanshan Huo, Chad Andrew Ulven
Lignocellulosic agricultural by-products can be utilized for an array of biocomposite material applications. Biocomposite properties can approach those of synthetic conventional composites. They are highly suitable for automotive applications, where the thrust is toward fuel economy, weight-reduction, and higher renewability. A common automotive polymer for biocomposite application is alloyed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), whose extensive usage can be attributed to its exceptional balance of properties. However, the low sustainability of ABS in environmental degradation entails the addition of fillers. In this study, the UV blocking properties of lignin component of natural fibers will be analyzed for their use as additives in a natural ABS grade and will be compared to an ABS grade compounded with a traditional UV inhibitor.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0445
Ramakrishna P. Koganti, Adrian Elliott, Donald F. Maatz
There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. AHSS are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties and use in parts for weight savings potential, as compared to mild steels. These new materials pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are often needed to weld these advanced strength steels.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0422
Alireza Javadi, Srikanth Pilla, Shaoqin Gong, Yottha Srithep, Jungjoo Lee, Lih-Sheng Turng
Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/coir fiber composites were prepared via both conventional and microcellular injection-molding processes. The surface of the hydrophilic coir fiber was modified by alkali and silane-treatment to improve its adhesion with PHBV. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were investigated. The addition of coir fiber (treated and untreated) reduced cell size and increased cell density. Further decrease in cell size and increase in cell density was observed for treated fibers compared with PHBV/untreated fiber composites. Mechanical properties such as specific toughness and strain-at-break improved for both solid and microcellular specimens with the addition of coir fibers (both treated and untreated); however, the specific modulus remained essentially the same statistically while the specific strength decreased slightly.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0426
Shanshan Huo, Michael Fuqua, Venkata S. Chevali, Chad A. Ulven
Natural fibers have shown promise as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites in automotive applications. Due to the presence of hydroxyl groups from cellulose and lignin, natural fibers exhibit highly hydrophilic properties. This makes fiber-matrix adhesion very difficult because most structural polymers are hydrophobic in nature. Therefore, in order maximize natural fiber reinforced composite performance, fiber surface modification is required. In addition, a chemical additive to polymer matrix is another direction to improve the performance. In this study, several types of natural fibers were chosen, including European flax fiber, North American flax, and North American hemp fiber. Sodium hydroxide treatment followed by acrylic resin treatment was investigated for its influence on vinyl ester cure kinetics and interfacial properties.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0423
Andrea Pilon, Ahmed Touny, Joseph Lawrence, Sarit Bhaduri
In this study, we have developed a nanofibrous scaffold infused with functional particulates of calcium phosphate cement via the electrospinning process to be used for tissue engineering applications. PLA and monetite cement were chosen for the development of these bionanocomposites because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The calcium present in the monetite cement has been used to enrich the environment for compatibility with bone cells. The various parameters influencing the electrospinning process were varied in order to find the optimum conditions for producing uniform fibers. Using characterization methods such as SEM, XRD, and STEM the fiber morphology, chemical composition, and dispersion of cement particles in the fibers were determined. Higher ratios of monetite to PLA in the fibers significantly affected the electrospinning process and the morphology of the fibers.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0428
Michael Fuqua, Shanshan Huo, Venkata S. Chevali, Chad A. Ulven
In this study, soy-based polyurethane foam was reinforced with random oriented flax fiber to create green composite paneling. This paneling can be used as replacement for plywood in mass transit flooring. To establish optimal material properties, the flax/foam composite's density was modified through manipulation of both fiber volume fraction and foam void content in order to determine processing modification upon mechanical performance. Both static flexural testing and dynamic low velocity impact was performed. Mechanical characterization was performed by both flexural testing and screw fastener pullout studies. Resultant properties demonstrate the feasibility of lower maintenance renewable composite materials as replacement for current transit flooring.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0433
Ioan Hociota, Pankaj K. Mallick
Among the various high strength steels available today, boron steels are finding increasing applications in bumper beams and other crash resistant structures, primarily for their high strength. However, to overcome the forming difficulty at room temperature and to achieve the microstructural changes needed for high strength, manufacturing of boron steel parts is done under hot forming conditions. In this study, the effect of three principal bumper design parameters, namely depth, thickness and corner radius on the formability of a hat section bumper beam was considered. Using a forming simulation program, 27 different combinations of these three design parameters were examined for forming limits, failure types and failure locations. The bumper beams were also examined for energy absorption in pendulum impact tests. Recommendations are made for the design of boron steel bumper beams based on both impact energy absorption and formability.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0429
Anjali Milind Rahatgaonkar
A functionalized, significantly hydrophilic Quinoline-Chitosan (QC) biocomposite was chemically synthesized and characterized by ₁H NMR, ₁₃C NMR and FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra revealed a strong interaction between the 2-chloro-3-formyl-7-iminobenzal guinoline scaffold and Chitosan. ₁H NMR results suggested a degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.18 to 0.832. The chelating efficiency and selectivity towards transition metal ions, when investigated at pH ranging from 1-8, showed maximum selectivity and affinity for Cu++ as compared to Cd++, Ni++, Co++ at 1-3 pH. This selectivity appeared to be independent of the size and the hardness of the ions. This order in the selectivity was confirmed with potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods and did not depend on the physical form of quinoline-chitosan (QC) biocomposite. Our results prompted us towards further investigating the use of QC as a green depolluting agent.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0429
Mathew Kuttolamadom, Joshua Jones, Laine Mears, John Ziegert, Thomas Kurfess
For incorporating titanium components onto a vehicle in place of existing iron/steel components, there is a need for a methodical procedure to ensure successful and efficient integration. This involves a refinement over standard lightweight engineering procedures. In this paper, a suitable procedure is developed for replacing a structural component with titanium and the method realized. Design and manufacturing issues associated with integrating titanium are identified and addressed. The importance of justifying component replacement in terms of life-cycle costs rather than purely by the manufacturing cost alone is also emphasized.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 19884

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