Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 2796
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0464
Renee Hotton
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1151
Emily M. Hunt, Pilaka Murty, Sai Pavan K. Eswara
Mechanical properties of porous materials such as bones for example are controlled by the geometry and structure of the pore space. Traditionally, most attempts to understand the effect of pore structure on mechanical properties have assumed that the pores can be modeled as ellipsoids Eshelby [9] etc. Nevertheless pictures taken by SEM show that pore shapes are never as simple as circles or ellipses. But the use of real pore shapes in the modeling process has been hindered by the lack of analytical solutions for these shapes. Zimmermann [24] suggested that the pore compressibility Cpc scales approximately with where A is the area of the pore space and P is the perimeter surrounding the pore space. Forcing this scaling law to be exact for a circular hole leads to the approximation . Zimmerman [25] showed that this approximation has an error of less than 8% for all hypotrochoids and an error of about 23% for thin, crack-like pores, which he suggested might be the "worst-case" shape.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0683
Gianluca Sartori, Guido Levi, Maja Petrovic, Eligio Stoppa, Franca Nuti
We herewith would like to consider the reasons which led to research and development of automotive leather which could be not only chrome-free but also Metal-free 1 and aldehyde-free. Thus our target has been to prepare a product able to match product features and performance requirements in line with chrome-tanned leathers. All limits have been overcome so far regarding alternative types of tannage such as wet white and there is complete compliance with continual evolution of rules, regulations and laws referring to environmental and health issues. A description of the new stages of leather processing, together with the most defining features of the new product and its process for accomplishment will follow highlighting the most significant differences with traditional processes outside automotive, too (chrome, wet white, vegetable leather).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0684
Kong Byungseok
Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges at the head impact test (ECE 21.01). Needless to say, Head impact test must keep pace with the deployment test. In this paper, we suggested soft airbag door system that is integrally molded with a hard instrument panel by using Two-shot molding. First of all, we set up the design parameters of IPAB door for the optimal deployment and head impact performance by CAE analysis. And then we optimized the open-close time at each gate of the mold so that the soft and hard material could be integrally molded with the intended boundary. We could make the boundary of two materials more constant by controlling the open-close time of each gate with resin temperature sensor.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0682
Vishnuvardhan Sarma, Vivek Bhise, Pankaj Mallick
This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted to evaluate the effects of four material characteristics and two driver characteristics on the perception of automotive interior materials. The perceptual characteristics of the materials were measured using two sensing conditions, namely, visual sensing only and combined visual and tactile sensing. The experiments were conducted using the Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array with seven independent variables, namely material type, surface roughness, compressibility, driver's age, driver's gender, and sensing method. Twenty-four subjects participated in the experiments. Each subject was asked to evaluate four treatment combinations and provide ratings using seven 5-point semantic differential scales. In addition, physical measurements were made on surface roughness, coefficient of friction, and compressibility.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0015
Brian P. Hake
Delivering the appropriate material data for CAE analysis of plastic components is not as straight forward as it would seem to be. While a few of the properties typically used by resin manufacturers and material engineers to describe a plastic are useful to the analysis community (density, CLTE), most are not (flexural modulus, notched izod). In addition some properties such as yield stress are defined differently by the analysis community than by the materials community. Lastly, secondary operations such as painting or chrome plating significantly change the behavior of components with plastic substrates. The materials engineering community and the CAE analysis community must work together closely to develop the material data necessary to increase the capability of the analysis. This paper will examine case studies where these issues have required modifications to the material property data to increase the fidelity of the CAE analysis.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0544
Dinesh Mana, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Matthew Marks, Arunachala P
High repair cost and the subsequent increase in insurance cost in a highly competitive automobile market have forced every automobile original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to comply with the FMVSS and ECE-42 regulatory requirements of low-speed vehicle damageability. Although, the terminologies used are different, similar regulatory requirements also exist in Asia-pacific region. At the rear side, reducing the damage to expensive vehicle components in a low-speed pendulum impact or a low-speed barrier impact can attain a good rating for low-speed vehicle damageability. This paper focuses on a detailed study of various lightweight plastic rear beam designs and their effectiveness in reducing the damage to the vehicle during low-speed vehicle-to-vehicle collision or vehicle to barrier collision.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1315
Manish Gopal, Senthilkumaran Varatharajan, Kedar Gokhale
IC Engine manufacturers are constantly in pursuit of better sealability of cylinder head and engine block interface for meeting performance and durability targets. In order to overcome variation in torque - tension characteristics of cylinder head bolt because of friction variations, yield based clamping are being extensively adopted. Current study is done on torque - tension characteristics of a cylinder head bolt with a controlled quality. The paper enumerates the experimental setup representing a sub 1 liter all aluminum engine's head-block joinery. Studies on torque - tension characteristics of cylinder head bolt and the effect of sealing interface using a cost effective single layer steel gasket are being discussed in the paper. Subject work has led to a successful implementation of angular torque parameters on head bolts to meet functional and durability targets.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1395
Rory Wolf
Many experiments have been performed globally to investigate ways of controlling and improving adhesion of energy curable UV paints, inks and coatings utilized to decorate structural polymers. Automotive plastics with a low polarity, such as PE, PP, TPO, POM, PUR and PTFE typically require surface treatment when value-added decoration is required. Metallic surfaces may also require cleaning to remove low molecular weight organic materials prior to decoration. Once the above-mentioned interior and exterior grades of substrate surfaces are cleaned and activated, printing, gluing and painting are possible without the use of adhesion-promoting primers. There is a class of innovations in three-dimensional surface treating technologies for plastics finishing which address the need to advance adhesion properties of decorating materials, increase product quality, and achieve environmental objectives within the automotive industry.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1396
Chang Hee Sohn, Ok Kim, Yong Chun, Jong Wook Lee
TPO (thermoplastic olefin) composite for rear bumper back beams was developed. In this study, the composition of PP (polypropylene), rubber and mineral fillers was optimized to minimize the intrusion and the failure after crash. The optimization of the composition was achieved using the mixture design of experiments. The physical properties of TPO composites with various compositions were investigated and the effect of each material on the crash performance of back beam was studied through CAE (computer-aided engineering). The back beams made of the optimized TPO composite for a subcompact car were prepared for the ECE 42 crash test and the TPO-based back beam showed even better performance than conventional PC/PBT-based counterpart. In addition, the newly developed composite has delivered a 15 ~ 40% cost saving and 4 ~ 10% weight reduction versus conventional PC/PBT and GMT (glass mat-reinforced thermoplastic).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1440
Tsuyoshi Iwasa, Atsushi Funaki, Eiichi Nishi, Evan Laganis, Noriyuki Isobe, Tomoyuki Nishioka, Koji Nakamura
As the evaporative emission control of cars becomes severe year by year, lower fuel permeation comes to be required as fuel tube in order to clear the regulation. Although the multi-layer fuel tube that has ETFE as an inner layer and PA12 as an outer layer is used now, development of a fuel tube with lower fuel permeation and better adhesion durability is required. Considering these requirements, we introduced a functional group into ETFE, modified PA12, and successfully developed new two-layer fuel tube systems. The systems do not need any internal adhesive layer. The design of the systems is quite simple, and provides excellent fuel permeability, durability of adhesion and processability.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1467
Yasuo Takagi, Fumihiro Nakatani, Muneyuki Okamoto, Tatehiko Shimizu, Satoru Hikita
The results of this study make clear the characteristics of electrode performance deterioration in terms of cell voltage reduction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) caused by the presence of certain quantities of carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen sulfide in the anode feed. AC impedance measurements of the anode and cathode potentials revealed that both electrode potentials showed deterioration in the presence of each type of poisoning gas. This suggests that the poisoning gases permeated the electrolyte membrane and transferred to the cathode, causing performance deterioration by poisoning the catalyst. In addition, AC impedance measurements indicated that the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the anode feed increased the membrane impedance, thus implying some poisoning effect even on the electrolyte membrane.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1700
Michael E. Carley, Venkat Mallela, Ajay K. Sharma
As vehicle manufacturers continue to become more aggressive with the styling of new vehicles, bumper system technologies will be required to find new solutions that fit into the reduced package spaces while continuing to meet the vehicle performance and cost requirements. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new and innovative Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) foam technologies and techniques.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1699
Eric Jaarda, Tansen Chaudhari, Dhiraj Uikey
Low speed bumper impact performance relies on the capability of the energy absorber (EA) to absorb energy efficiently through multiple impacts. Series impacts are typically assessed via physical part testing due to the difficulties of predicting multiple impacts accurately. This paper describes a predictive engineering method used to assess the performance of injection molded thermoplastic energy absorber systems in multiple impacts.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1732
Simon Perkins
As conventional mechanical components evolve into electronic and electro-mechanical systems, the suppliers of these systems need to re-evaluate their development processes. The goal is to ensure that these new products are robust and meet reliability and safety requirements. Such was the case at DURA during the development of its SmartPark™ Electronic Parking Brake Technology.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1711
Víctor Nava
This paper describes an approach to the application of Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) molded foam to absorb impact energy inside the passenger cabin, through the design of an EPP Energy Absorber Pad, located between the engine and the passengers cabin. This pad shall increase safety for passengers in case of collision, as well as improve the insulation of the engine noise. The main function for this pad is to avoid any small metal, plastic objects or engine fluids (gasoline, oil or water) to enter into the cabin from the engine compartment, during a collision. The EPP foam pad closed cell structure intercepts liquids and solid pieces that may pass through the metal bodywork, and may be cause of physical injury for passengers.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1713
Bryan D. Kaushiva
As the primary interface between the car and the occupant, the automotive industry continues to seek improvement in polyurethane seating foam. The preferred seating material would able to combine a better appearance and an increased performance life with a reduction in occupant fatigue. This study reviews a new test that combines a dynamic fatigue test of durability with a characterization of dynamic comfort as measured by vibrational transmissivity. The results provided a means of comparing the comfort and durability performance of various polyol and isocyanate compositions when applied in foam grades of various density, firmness, and thickness combinations. A newly developed polyol was demonstrated to provide a superior level of durability and comfort at every level of density and firmness.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1715
James T. McEvoy, Patricia L. White, Michael Kolich, Michael Szott
This paper will explore the performance of two polyurethane foam formulations, one that is designed to be high resilient and one that is designed to be low resilient. The two formulations are placed into a full foam seat suspension. Data is generated with each formulation by a forced vibration test with a tekken mass, both at one point in time and over several hours to simulate in vehicle performance. The Seat Effectiveness Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT) is read over a one-hour course that includes paved and rough roads, which is repeated three times for a total of three hours of data. This data is then compared to the foam data. The data shows that the low resilient foam will have some improvement in the paved roads but will have a vast improvement in the area of the rough roads. Data will be done by road to show the fatigue level occupant, road type, hour of the ride and drive and the foam type.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1709
Vivek Bhise, Roger Shulze, Huzefa Mamoola, Jeffrey Bonner
This paper describes a unique interior design and multidisciplinary process implemented by the faculty and students to develop the interior for a Low Mass Vehicle (LMV). The 103 inch LMV was designed with the goal of about 30% reduction in weight than a typical class C segment vehicle and would require low investment in manufacturing. In the early stages of the program, the UM-Dearborn team developed detailed requirements of the vehicle interior based on the vehicle's exterior developed using a similar process. The requirements were given to a senior class of automotive design students from the College of Creative Studies in Detroit to create different interior design themes. Approximately twenty-five interior design themes were judged by a panel of automotive industry experts, and a winning design was selected.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1710
Brent Neidy, James Shipton, Eric Naber
Polyurethane foams have traditionally dominated the automotive interiors market for both their energy absorbing characteristics and ability to achieve a soft feel acceptable to occupants. Interest in EPP, EPE, and hybrid polyolefin's for interiors has grown given the increasing demands for occupant safety, lower cost, lower mass, and recycle-ability. In many cases, the density of the Polyolefin Foam that provides the energy absorbing characteristics that are being evaluated are considered to be too stiff for occupant comfort.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1702
Alok Nanda, Gopikrishna Surisetty, Subhransu Mohapatra, Shaleena AD, Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman
This paper discusses a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) based methodology for designing an injection molded bumper energy absorber to help meet vehicle pedestrian protection requirements. The development process is described, and an example is presented of its use in designing an injection molded energy absorber for a range of various vehicle styling parameters. First, an idealized set-up incorporating the car styling parameters critical for pedestrian protection requirements was developed. Then, the vehicle and Energy Absorber (EA) geometries were parameterized and a DFSS process was employed to investigate the design space using Finite Element Impact Analysis with a commercially available Lower Leg Form Impactor.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1703
Seishiro Murata, Satoru Shioya, Bert Suffis
The paper outlines some novel approaches to designing pedestrian safe bumper systems using expanded polypropylene, EPP. Traditional advantages of EPP, such as multiple impact performance and resilience are evaluated in the light of compatibility between conflicting impact requirements. The performance criteria of pendulum, insurance and pedestrian impacts are met by integrating the absorber into the complete energy management system and by the optimisation of the EPP design and density. The necessary packaging space remains minimal through the efficient use of the strain characteristics of EPP. Concept ideas related to fore/aft dual density as well as geometry-based dual-density are outlined. The concepts, developed and tested on a full car system, illustrate how soft initial contact can be combined with a high energy absorbing capacity.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0844
Raj S. Roychoudhury, James K. Conlee, Michael Best, David Schenck
Deployable or active knee bolsters are being introduced by many OEMs, primarily on the driver side, as an improvement to the fixed or passive knee bolsters. There are shortcomings with the fixed knee bolster and many of them can be overcome with a deployable knee bolster. Also the deployable knee bolster has a few other advantages that make it a critical restraint system component for reducing the occupant injury numbers in frontal impact crashes. With the latest revision of FMVSS208, vehicle manufacturers must now demonstrate occupant performance for a wide range of test conditions. OEMs are now required to evaluate the 5th percentile female and the 50th percentile male in both belted and unbelted scenarios. A wide range of crash conditions must also be evaluated, including rigid barriers, angled impacts and offset deformable barriers.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1237
Perrin Smith Neto, Marcus Vinicius Lima Cardozo, Luiz Claudio Oliveira, Marco Antonio Quinan
The purpose of this paper was determination of residual stresses from welding processes in polycarbonate plane plates, medium to fine thickness. Experimental technique of plane photoelasticity was used for stress analysis. Stress level was determined according welding procedures and parameters established for each one of those procedures: height of the air flow jet, compressed air flow, temperature, welding sequence and sense of welding passes. It was obtained, a mapping of stresses and at the same time it was verified how welding situation affects stress state after welding process. Welding of medium to fine thickness plates results in large residual deformation next to the welding bead. In practice, there are difficulties for evaluation residual stresses level in this situation. Some numerical methods modeled those stresses to validate the experiments.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0663
Joseph W. Bielecki, Mojun Chang, Thomas Poorman
The effect of water vapor transfer from plastic materials commonly used in automotive lighting assemblies can be experimentally measured. This is accomplished by isolating this phenomenon from other mechanisms effecting water vapor concentration in the lamp. Quantifying this effect helps to address design considerations for liquid water and water vapor egress in the lighting assembly. The relevance of the current moisture clearing type test required in the industry is discussed in light of the empirical results for this effect.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0731
Tomoko Oda, Masako Yamato
In order to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the air, we have paid our attention to the use of plastics that are made from plants (below, bioplastics) as replacements for petroleum-based plastics, and we are conducting research on the application of bioplastics as materials for automobiles. In this study, a case study was set, and from the point of view of CO2 emissions, effects of automobile parts that were produced from bioplastics on the reduction of CO2 emissions were quantified using a method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0732
Y. Charles Lu, Doug M. Shinozaki, Susan Herbert
Thermoplastics have been used increasingly for automobile components for both interior and under-the-hood applications. The plastic parts are made through various molding process such as compression molding, injection molding and blow molding. For parts with large or complicated geometry, small portions of the part may have to be molded first, then joined together using a welding process. The welded regions usually exhibit inhomogeneous and inferior mechanical performance compared to the bulk regions due to the differences in thermal history. The microstructures and mechanical properties of welded thermoplastics have been examined using hot-plate welded polyethylene. The specimens are prepared at various thermal conditions to simulate the real welding process. The thermal properties in welds are monitored using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and the crystallinities are calculated.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0729
Muhammad Pervaiz, Mohini Sain
Natural fiber mat (NMT) composites are ecologically and energetically beneficial because of their light-weight at high fibre content. This study demonstrated that the use of loose natural fibre in NMT process could lead to tremendous improvement in the shock absorption properties. It is also concluded that in NMT process fibre length above the critical length of fibre hardly affects the mechanical strength. The process is relatively easy one-step molding technique to provide large dimensions. The process also demonstrated promise in reducing the cost of the composite parts by minimizing/eliminating the use of natural fibre nonwoven mat and replacement of glass fibre.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0730
Takashi Inoh, Yuji Kageyama
We studied the use of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, improvement in heat and impact performance is required. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase in CO2 emissions, we attempted to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both heat and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which leads to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0733
Val A. Kagan, Russell J. Nichols
The advantages of magnetic implant induction welding (Emabond™)1 technology for various thermoplastics were widely discussed since the mid-eighties in a series of technical articles and reports, and presented to the professional Societies (SAE, SPE, SME, etc). In 1998-2003, we reported to SAE International our technical achievements in optimizing the mechanical performance of welded nylon (6, 66, 6/66, 46, etc.) using frictional (linear and orbital vibration, ultrasonic), contact (hot plate), and non-contact (laser through-transmission) welding technologies. Our recent developments focused on optimization of mechanical performance of induction welded nylon 6, which has reached a new performance level through continuous improvement of magnetic implant induction welding technology, including properties of the formulated magnetic implant material, new equipment, SPC process control, optimized design of joints, etc.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2796

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: