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Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar is presented in Mandarin Chinese. The course materials are bilingual (English and Chinese). Developing environmentally cleaner and more fuel efficient vehicles is transforming the automotive industry worldwide, particularly in China with its emphasis on new energy vehicles. There are many engineering challenges that must be addressed in designing effective new energy vehicles. The technical knowledge required to understand and make the right decisions with regard to powertrain architecture, powertrain controls, and energy management strategies is critical to success in this market.
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar is designed to provide gear novices with a general understanding of gear nomenclature, geometry, and arrangements. Starting with the basic definition of gears, conjugate motion and the "Laws of Gearing", you will gain a solid understanding of gearing and the fundamentals of rotary motion transfer through gear-trains. Gear classifications, tooth forms and geometry, and very high-level application considerations, manufacturing processes, and inspection techniques will be covered. Attendees will receive a copy of the book, Gear Design Simplified, by Franklin D. Jones & Henry H. Ryffel.
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Every automobile has a differential and most have axles, yet the exact function of these is not common knowledge. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the function and interfaces of axles and their individual components. As we modify cars for street performance or all out race applications, it is important to know the trade-offs in the drivetrain system. The theory and practice of axle systems is introduced along with a hands-on style approach to repairing and modifying axles for high performance applications. For this hands-on approach, actual hardware will be reviewed in an informal setting.
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The planetary gear train is a core component of the automatic transmission system. The ability of the planetary gear train to deliver reliable gains in power, durability, higher torque-to-weight ratios, and configuration flexibility has enabled this gear set to become a key component of the automotive powertrain. A fundamental understanding of planetary gear trains is critical for individuals working in the automotive and industrial transmission fields.
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
A comprehensive and practical understanding of planetary gear trains is critical for individuals involved with the design and development of automatic transmissions. A key component of the automatic transmission system, the planetary gear train is able to deliver reliable gains in power, durability, higher torque-to-weight ratios, and configuration flexibility. This two-day seminar will provide participants an advanced and comprehensive presentation on the topics of planetary gear train design, development, and applications for automatic transmissions.
2018-09-25 ...
  • September 25-October 4, 2018 (4 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) technology is both a theoretical and practical option that addresses a number of system level improvement opportunities within the automotive and mobility industries. Although this technology has been available for many years and is now fully matured as a production ready technology, it is often not fully understood. This web seminar presents a focused view of CVT technology in all its forms and implementations.
2018-05-14 ...
  • May 14-16, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Durham, North Carolina
  • August 6-8, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 3-5, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Starting with a look at the transmission's primary function -- to couple the engine to the driveline and provide torque ratios between the two -- this updated and expanded seminar covers the latest transmission systems designed to achieve the most efficient engine operation. Current designs, the components and sub-systems used, their functional modes, how they operate, and the inter-relationships will be discussed. A manual transmission display will be used to explain ratios and how they function within the driveline.
2018-03-19 ...
  • March 19-23, 2018 (8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Engineering Academies
The Transmission Engineering Academy covers the sciences of automotive passenger car and light truck engineering principles and practices necessary to effectively understand, develop, specify and start the design process. Topics include advances in manual, automatic, automated manual, and continuously variable transmission technology, materials and processes applicable to the major components within these transmissions, calibration of these systems unto themselves and integration into the full vehicle powertrain.
2018-02-28 ...
  • February 28-March 1, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 24-25, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
An efficient, robust, and quiet running drivetrain is as essential to customer satisfaction as styling and interior creature comforts. In this seminar, you will be exposed to various methods that can be used to accomplish this goal. Designed to help you visualize both individual components and the entire drivetrain system - without reference to complicated equations - this seminar focuses on the terms, functions, nomenclature, operating characteristics and effect on vehicle performance for each of the drivetrain components.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2166
Seung Yang, Kyeong Lee, Hwansoo Chong
At the current stage of engine technology, diesel engines typically require diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems to meet recent particulate emissions standards. To assure the performance and reliability of DPF systems, profound understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms is required. Among extensive efforts for developing advanced DPF systems, the development of effective thermal management strategies, which control the thermal runaway taking place in oxidation of an excess amount of soot deposit in DPF, is quite challenging. This difficulty stems mainly from lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding about DPF regeneration mechanisms, which need detailed information about oxidation of diesel particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this work carried out a series of oxidation experiments of diesel particulates collected from a DPF on a diesel engine, and evaluated the oxidation rates of the samples using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2171
Shuji Fujii, Tsuyoshi Asako
Ash accumulation is a considerable factor for long-term Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) performance. Ash accumulation reduces the open frontal area (OFA) and plugs the surface pores. As a result, DPF back pressures with no soot (hereinafter “initial DPF back pressure”) rise. At the same time, DPF back pressures with soot (hereinafter “sooted DPF back pressure”) fall [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Then sooted DPF back pressures rise after the reductions of the certain ranges [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. It is known that DPF back pressure behaviors change variously by ash loading like this. The understanding of DPF back pressure behaviors with ash accumulation is indispensable for proper after-treatment system management. Ash accumulation progresses slowly and gradually in DPF while using of vehicles. Because of the slowness, the field surveys require a few years at least.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0057
Junya Watanabe, Dai Arai, Masataka Tanaka, Takeru Abe, Atsushi Ogasawara, Masahiko Tsuchiya, Ryushi Tsubota
Large motorcycles have a strong recreational aspect. Therefore, in addition to the sportiness that comes from the direct torque feel and the comfort that comes from the ease of operations, users demand improvements to fuel economy from the perspective of the environment and riding economics. In order to satisfy these needs, we have developed the world's first dual clutch transmission (hereinafter referred to as DCT) for motorcycles. In order to make the DCT more compact, we adopted a dual shaft construction for the main shaft, two hydraulic clutches arranged in-line, the basic structure of the gear shift mechanism carried over from a manual transmission (hereinafter referred to as MT) vehicle, a hydraulic circuit consolidated into the engine side cover, and shared use of engine oil for clutch actuation. Through these innovations, it became possible to carry over the die of the crankcase used on the MT vehicle as well as being able to load it onto the same frame as the MT vehicle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2126
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, James E. Parks, Vitaly Prikhodko
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2158
Panu Karjalainen, Juha Heikkila, Topi Ronkko, Jorma Keskinen, Kati Lehtoranta, Pekka Matilainen, Toni Kinnunen
Under on-road driving conditions, the engine load and speed and the cooling effect of ambient air may affect the functioning of exhaust aftertreatment devices. In this paper, we studied the effects of these parameters on the functioning of the combination of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Particle Oxidation Catalyst (DOC+POC). In the engine tests, the engine load and speed were observed to affect the nonvolatile particle reduction efficiency curve of the DOC+POC; while the nonvolatile core particle (Dp ≺ 15 nm) reduction was high (97-99%) in all the engine test modes, the reduction of soot varied from 57% at low load to 70% at high load. Because the change in engine load and speed affected both the exhaust temperature and flow velocity, the effects of these parameters were measured separately in an aerosol laboratory.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2160
Steven J. Schmieg
Unique silver/alumina (Ag-Al₂O₃) catalysts developed using high-throughput discovery techniques in collaboration with BASF Corporation were investigated at General Motors Corporation under simulated lean-burn engine exhaust feed conditions for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons (HC-SCR). Hydrocarbon mixtures were used as the reductant to model the multi-component nature of diesel fuel and gasoline. Previous work has shown promising HC-SCR results in both laboratory reactor and engine dynamometer testing. This report investigates several aspects of HC-SCR catalyst durability, including thermal durability, sulfur tolerance, and hydrocarbon deactivation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0370
Maria Ivarsson, Jan Åslund, Lars Nielsen
For a fuel optimal gear shift control, when look ahead information is available, the impact of the automated manual transmission (AMT) gear-shifting process is analyzed. For a standard discrete heavy truck transmission, answers are found on when to shift gears, prior to or when in an uphill slope. The gear-shifting process of a standard AMT is modeled in order to capture the fuel and time aspects of the gear shift. A numerical optimization is performed by dynamic programming, minimizing fuel consumption and time by controlling fuel injection and gear. Since a standard AMT does not have look ahead information, it sometimes gears down unnecessarily and thus gives a significantly higher fuel consumption compared to the optimal control. However, if gearing down is inevitable, the AMT gear-shifting strategy, based on engine thresholds, is well-functioning so that the optimal control only gives marginal additional savings.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0371
Heimo Hartlieb, Kyle Shawn Williams, Michael Hausmann
The majority of modern automatic transmissions make use of multiple Variable Force Solenoid (VFS) valves within the hydraulic controls. The requirements for the control of these valves are much more stringent in the latest transmission designs. This leads to challenging requirements for the electronic solenoid driver circuit used to regulate the current flowing through the solenoid valve coil. We have developed a current control method that is fundamentally different than those commonly used in solenoid driver circuits. This unique current control method results in several improvements in the key performance characteristics of the solenoid driver circuit, which in turn improves the performance of the transmission system. In addition, this new control method requires less effort to implement into a specific application than state of the art current control methods.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0372
Baoyu Wu, Guo Xuexun, Jun Yan, Qi Sun
Speed ratio and clamping force are two of the metal-belt CVT control targets. Conventional control strategies can not correspond to the driver's intention or provide various driving environment. A fuzzy logic ratio control algorithm and a fuzzy logic clamping force control algorithm for a metal-belt CVT are proposed. Nevertheless, high-quality fuzzy control rule base and factors of FLC are difficult to gain because repeated tests and experts' experience are needed. Therefore, genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced to optimize the fuzzy control algorithms. Using the optimized fuzzy control algorithms, Metal-belt CVT control simulations were implemented. The results show that a faster response and better robustness can be gained when compared with those of the PID control.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0409
John Jekl, Richard D. Berkmortel, Paula Armstrong
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how flow and solidification simulation were used in the development of a new gating system design for three different magnesium alloys; and to determine the relative castability of each alloy based on casting trials. Prototype tooling for an existing 3-slide rear wheel drive automatic transmission case designed for aluminum A380 was provided by General Motors. Flow and solidification simulation were performed using Magmasoft on the existing runner system design using A380 (baseline), AE44, MRI153M and MRI230D. Based on the filling results, new designs were developed at Meridian for the magnesium alloys. Subsequent modeling was performed to verify the new design and the changes were incorporated into the prototype tool. Casting trials were conducted with the three magnesium alloys and the relative castability was evaluated.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0497
Vivek Yadav, Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Santosh Mahadeorao Khandait
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0394
Zhe Xie
A system level analysis was carried out on the effect of flow forces on a flow control variable force solenoid (VFS) used in automatic transmissions. Classic flow force model was reviewed as a function of the pressure difference and the solenoid current. A force balance analysis was conducted on the spool valve in the VFS, in order to study the relationship among the control current, flow forces, spring forces, and flow area. Flow bench testing was used to characterize a specific flow control VFS by both the pressure drop and solenoid current, in forward and reverse flow directions. The behavior of flow control VFS valve is significantly affected by flow forces. A sub-system level model was thus created to predict the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flow VFS valve, which can be used in a transmission system level analysis. The modeling results were compared against experimental data to show the validity of the methodology.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0393
John Marano, Steven Moorman, John Czoykowski, Chinar Ghike
The achievable shift quality of a modern automatic transmission may be greatly affected by the equivalent rotational inertia of the gearbox and driveline components. New, more mass- and packaging-efficient higher number of gear powerflows are being developed. These new architectures often result in more components being attached to a given rotational node. The rotational speed multiplication of the components must be considered when determining their inertial torque contribution to a given speed change event. An example of this multiplication effect is presented, with a discussion of the resulting impact to shift quality disturbance. Opportunities to address the negative aspects of the higher inertial torque contribution to transmission output shaft disturbance are discussed. Coordination of engine torque control and clutch torque control is presented as a viable strategy to improve shift quality.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0396
Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie, Chi-Kuan Kao, Xu Chen, Jeremy Horgan, Scott Hearld
To realize better fuel economy benefits from transmissions, car makers have started the application of torque converter clutch control in second gear and beyond, resulting in greater demand on the torque converter clutch (TCC) and its control system. This paper focuses on one aspect of the control of the torque converter clutch to improve fuel economy and faster response of the transmission. A TCC is implemented to control the slip between the pump and turbine of the torque converter, thereby increasing its energy transfer efficiency and increasing vehicle fuel economy. However, due to the non-linear nature of the torque converter fluid coupling, the slip feedback control has to be very active to handle different driver inputs and road-load conditions, such as different desired slip levels, changes in engine input torques, etc. This non-linearity requires intense calibration efforts to precisely control the clutch slip in all the scenarios.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0395
Damien Le Guen, Thomas Weck, Adrien Balihe, Benoit Verbeke
Today's powertrains are becoming more and more complex due to the increasing number of gear box types requiring gearshift patterns like conventional (equipped with GSI) and automatic-manual transmissions (AT, AMT), double clutch and continuous variable transmissions (DCT, CVT). This increasing variety of gear boxes requires a higher effort for the overall optimization of the powertrain. At the same time, it is necessary to assess the impact of different powertrains and control strategies on CO₂ emissions very early in the development process. The optimization of Gear Shift Patterns (G.S.P.) has to fulfill multiple constraints in terms of objective customers' requirements, like driveability, NVH, performance, emissions and fuel consumption. For these reasons, RENAULT and AVL entered an engineering collaboration in order to develop a dedicated simulation tool: CRUISE GSP.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0392
Dongxu Li, Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie, Chi-Kuan Kao
Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by transmission output shaft, so that torque regulation is critical in transmission shift control and etc. However, since a physical torque sensor is expensive, current shift control in AT is usually achieved by tracking a turbine speed profile due to the lack of the transmission output torque information. A direct torque feedback has long been desired for transmission shift control enhancement. This paper addresses a “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm that can provide an accurate estimate on the torque variation in the vehicle transmission output shaft using (existing) speed sensors. We have developed the algorithm using both the transmission output speed sensor and anti-lock braking system speed sensors. Practical solutions are provided to enhance the accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm has been successfully implemented on both FWD and RWD vehicles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0391
Quan Zheng, Bruce Church, Ken Defore
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1314
Erik Hellström, Jan Åslund, Lars Nielsen
Hybridization and velocity management are two important techniques for energy efficiency that mainly have been treated separately. Here they are put in a common framework that from the hybridization perspective can be seen as an extension of the equivalence factor idea in the well known strategy ECMS. From the perspective of look-ahead control, the extension is that energy can be stored not only in kinetic energy, but also electrically. The key idea is to introduce more equivalence factors in a way that enables efficient computations, but also so that the equivalence factors have a physical interpretation. The latter fact makes it easy to formulate a good residual cost to be used at the end of the look-ahead horizon. The formulation has different possible uses, but it is here applied on an evaluation of the size of the electrical system. Previous such studies, for e.g.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1310
Mohamed El-Sayed, Jon Hintz
The ultimate goals for developing hybrid power train systems are improving fuel economy, reducing emissions and providing commercially viable alternative low cost transportation solutions. To achieve these goals, during hybrid system design and development, a well defined set of targets and specifications are needed. These targets and specifications are necessary for optimizing the power train subsystems, components, successful system integration, and the development of proper control system. For developing a set of well defined targets and specifications, especially when dealing with hybrid power train systems, valid and reliable road load data and duty cycle profiles are required. This data is one of the most critical elements in sizing and control of the hybrid system components such as engines, batteries, generators, and motors.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1311
Maxime Debert, Guillaume Colin, Yann Chamaillard, Michel Mensler, Ahmed Ketfi-cherif, Lino Guzzella
The energy management of a hybrid vehicle defines the vehicle power flow that minimizes fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. In a combined hybrid the complex architecture requires a multi-input control from the energy management. A classic optimal control obtained with dynamic programming shows that thanks to the high efficiency hybrid electric variable transmission, energy losses come mainly from the internal combustion engine. This paper therefore proposes a sub-optimal control based on the maximization of the engine efficiency that avoids multi-input control. This strategy achieves two aims: enhanced performances in terms of fuel economy and a reduction of computational time.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1308
Yi Gao, Ray Long, Yong Pang, Magnus Lindenmo
With electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) set to grow in the coming years, design optimizations of electric motors for automotive applications are receiving more attention. Under demanding duty cycles, the moving part within a motor, the rotor, may experience high and varying stresses, which may lead to fatigue failure. Therefore, engineers are facing challenges in designing efficient and durable motors, especially for interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motors, in which the rotors have embedded magnets with small "bridges" of laminated electrical steel to keep the magnets in place. Cost-effective stators and rotors are made from electrical steels, with high magnetic permeability and low power losses. However, national and international standards for electrical steels do not specify mechanical properties. Steel producers would normally state typical mechanical properties only, and no fatigue properties are available in published literature.
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