Viewing 1 to 30 of 83
Technical Paper
Nikolaus Keuth, Harald Altenstrasser, Arpad Kunzfeld, Eike Martini
A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e.g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper
F. Murr, E. Winklhofer, H. Friedl
Traditional power train development work is concentrated mainly on test bed and on chassis dyno. Though we can simulate a lot of real world conditions on testbed and chassis dyno today, on road application work willis gaining more attention. This means that strategies and tools for invehicle testing under real world conditions are becoming more important. Emission, performance, fuel economy, combustion noise and driving comfort are linked to combustion quality, i.e. quality of fuel mixture preparation and flame propagation. The known testing and research equipment is only partly or not at all applicable for in-vehicle development work. New tools for on the road testing are required. Following, a general view on in-vehicle power train testing will be given. Additionally, new ways to investigate cylinder and cycle specific soot formation in GDI engines with fiber optic tools will be presented.
Technical Paper
David Greif, Eberhard von Berg, Reinhard Tatschl, Giovanni Corbinelli, Mario D'Onofrio
A methodology to simulate the injection process in the internal combustion (IC) engines by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. Entire sequence of the gasoline injection processes, starting with a transient injector-flow simulation and continuing with break-up and spray propagation using AVL FIRE, is shown. In the first part, a multidimensional model for the cavitating flow in a multi-hole gasoline injector is presented, based on the two-fluid model and capable to simulate N-phase systems. Considered fluid components are liquid fuel and fuel vapor. Momentum and mass exchange between the two phases are accounted for. In the second part of the work, the link between nozzle flow and spray formation is established performing simulations including the break-up model. This calculates the initial conditions for the spray droplets, e.g., size and velocity, based on the local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), velocity and phase distribution at the nozzle orifice.
Technical Paper
Ryo Masuda, Takayuki Fuyuto, Makoto Nagaoka, Eberhard von Berg, Reinhard Tatschl
A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper
J. K. Wolfahrt, W. B. Baier, B. Wiesler, Th. Moshammer
The de-icing process of the windscreen is a demanding problem in car climatization. In the first stages of the development procedure of air ducts, the numerical simulation plays an important role due to economy of time and money. Unfortunately, the available numerical methods for the generation of the computational grid and the simulation of the de-icing process are very time consuming and are complicated in handling. Therefore normally the quality of the de-icing process is evaluated with simplified simulation procedures or even with measurements late in the design process and necessary modifications are again time and cost consuming. The aim of this paper is to describe new methods for the de-icing simulation that will reduce meshing and calculation time by showing accurate results.
Technical Paper
Naoki Hirate, Masashi Komada, Takayoshi Yoshioka, Siegmund Thomann, Franz Brandl
This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Journal Article
Paul Whitaker, Yuan Shen, Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs, Apoorv Agarwal, Kevin Byrd
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper
Hubert Friedl, Marko Certic, Alois Fuerhapter, Paul Kapus, Karl Koeck, Matthias Neubauer
For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology.
Technical Paper
S. Möller, G.K. Dutzler, P. Priesching, J.V. Pastor, C. Micó
Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation. It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.
Journal Article
Helmut Theissl, Alois Danninger, Thomas Sacher, Herwig Ofner, Erwin Schalk
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper
Reinhard Tatschl, Michael Bogensperger, Zoran Pavlovic, Peter Priesching, Henrik Schuemie, Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek
A Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is applied to the calculation of multiple SI-engine cycles in order to study the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The single-cylinder research engine adopted in the present study is equipped with direct fuel-injection and variable valve timing for both the intake and exhaust side. Operating conditions representing cases with considerably different scatter of the in-cylinder pressure traces are selected to investigate the causes of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. In the simulation the engine is represented by a coupled 1D/3D-CFD model, with the combustion chamber and the intake/exhaust ports modeled in 3D-CFD, and the intake/exhaust pipework set-up adopting a 1D-CFD approach. The adopted LES flow model is based upon the well-established Smagorinsky approach. Simulation of the fuel spray propagation process is based upon the discrete droplet model.
Journal Article
Apoorv Agarwal, Hosuk Jung, Kevin Byrd, Robert A. Stein, Ahmad Kassem, Paul Whitaker, Christian Spanner
The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
Technical Paper
Martin Atzwanger, Christian Hubmann, Wolfgang Schoeffmann, Bernhard Kometter, Hubert Friedl
The demand for improved fuel economy and the request for Zero Emission within cities require complex powertrains with an increasing level of electrification already in a short-termed timeframe until 2025. According to general expectations the demand for Mild-Hybrid powertrains will increase significantly within a broad range of implementation through all vehicle classes as well as on electric vehicles with integrated Range Extender (RE) mainly for use in urban areas. Whereas Mild Hybrid Vehicles basically use downsized combustion engines at current technology level, vehicles with a high level of powertrain electrification allow significantly different internal combustion engine (ICE) concepts. At AVL, various engine concepts have been investigated and evaluated with respect to the key criteria for a Range Extender application. A Wankel rotary engine concept as well as an inline 2 cylinder gasoline engine turned out to be most promising.
Journal Article
Achim Hepberger, Hans-Herwig Priebsch, Franz Diwoky, Harald Pramberger
As an alternative to the element based methods, recently a wave based technique (WBT) has been developed. Since it is based on the indirect Trefftz approach, exact solutions of the governing differential equation are used to approximate the dynamic field variables. This paper discusses the extensions of the WBT for the analysis of engine noise radiation problems in 3 dimensions under anechoic conditions. Furthermore, necessary extensions of shape functions, numerical integration and a methodology to create a WBT radiation models are described. The performance of the method compared to a commercial BEM solution is demonstrated with a real engine example.
Technical Paper
Stephan Brandl, Bernhard Graf
Importance of electric and hybrid vehicles steeply increased in the last few years. Especially topics like CO2 reduction and local zero emissions are forcing companies to focus on electrification. While main technical problems seem to be solvable from a technical point of view, commercial and security topics are gaining more importance. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of available batteries. As those batteries are one of the most heavy and expensive parts of these vehicles, reduction of battery size is a big topic in vehicle development. To increase a vehicle's driving range without increasing battery size some range extending backup system has to be available. Such a Range Extender should be a small system combining combustion engine and electric generator to produce the required electricity for charging the batteries whenever required.
Technical Paper
G. K. Fraidl, F. Quissek, E. Winklhofer
The combined requirement of achieving CAFE values between 32 to 38 mpg plus LEV/ULEV emission standards to comply with US legal requirements between 1995 and 2000 represents the most demanding challenge for engine engineering. Thus all possible methods of engine improvement towards fuel economy and emissions have to be considered. Besides using new ideas also the methods of engine development have to be modernized to cope with the challenge. The paper presents advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems which combine high power output, favourable torque characteristics and high fuel economy with the potential for obtaining LEV/ULEV emission values, as well as improved development techniques.
Technical Paper
David C. Quinn, Ruediger Von Hofe
The characteristically good fuel economy of the high speed direct injection diesel engine has led to increased market share as the power unit of passenger cars. This trend is particularly true in Europe and, if not halted prematurely by emissions legislation, is likely to continue. However, another characteristic of the high speed DI engine is increased noise and vibration over its gasoline counterpart. This has meant that additional noise and vibration measures are required in order to approach the competitive refinement levels of gasoline engine installations. This paper considers some of the characteristic diesel engine noise and vibration problems associated with vehicle installation and passenger comfort. The paper also discusses subjective and objective assessment and considers approaches to engineering more desirable sound quality.
Technical Paper
B. Loibnegger, G. Ph. Rainer, L. Bernard, D. Micelli, G. Turino
The development of low noise engines and vehicles, accompanied by the reduction of costs and development time, can be obtained only if the design engineer is supported by complex calculation tools in a concurrent engineering process. In this respect, the reduction of vibrations (passenger comfort) and of vehicle noise (accelerated pass by noise) are important targets to meet legislative limits. AVL has been developing simulation programs for the dynamic-acoustic optimization of engines and gear trains for many years. To simulate the structure-born and air-born noise behavior of engines under operating conditions, substantial efforts on the mathematical simulation model are necessary. The simulation tool EXCITE, described in this paper, allows the calculation of the dynamic-acoustic behavior of power units.
Technical Paper
M. Wirth, W. F. Piock, G. K. Fraidl, P. Schoeggl, E. Winklhofer
Gasoline direct injection is one of the main issues of actual worldwide SI engine development activities. It requires a comprehensive system approach from the basic considerations on optimum combustion system configuration up to vehicle performance and driveability. The general characteristics of currently favored combustion system configurations are discussed in this paper regarding both engine operation and design aspects. The engine performance, especially power output and emission potential of AVL's DGI engine concept is presented including the interaction of advanced tools like optical diagnostics and 3D-CFD simulation in the combustion system development process. The application of methods like tomographic combustion analysis for investigations in the multicylinder engine within further stages of development is demonstrated. The system layout and operational strategies for fuel economy in conjunction with exhaust gas aftertreatment requirements are discussed.
Technical Paper
Peter Heinze, Roger Hutcheson, Paul Kapus, Wolfgang Cartellieri
The influence of fuel density on exhaust emissions from diesel engines has been investigated in a number of studies and these have generally concluded that particulate emissions rise with increasing density This paper reviews recent work in this area, including the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) and reports on a complementary study conducted by CONCAWE, in cooperation with AVL List GmbH The project was carried out with a passenger car equipped with an advanced technology high speed direct injection turbocharged / intercooled diesel engine fitted with a complex engine management system which was referenced to a specific fuel density This production model featured electronic diesel control, closed loop exhaust gas recirculation and an exhaust oxidation catalyst Tests were carried out with two EPEFE fuels which excluded the influence of key fuel properties other than density (828 8 and 855 1 kg/m3) Engine operation was adjusted for changes in fuel density by resetting the electronic programmable, read-only memory to obtain the same energy output from the two test fuels In chassis dynamometer tests over the ECE15 + EUDC test cycle the major impact of fuel density on particulate emissions for advanced engine technology/engine management systems was established A large proportion of the density effect on particulate and NOx emissions was due to physical interaction between fuel density and the electronic engine management system Limited bench engine testing of the basic engine showed that nearly complete compensation of the density effect on smoke (particulate) emissions could be achieved when no advanced technology was applied
Technical Paper
Denis W. Gill, Peter L. Herzog
The worldwide trend to increasingly stringent exhaust emissions standards, together with consumer requirements, are forcing both vehicle and engine manufacturers, as well as manufacturers of ancilliary equipment, to introduce new and often novel technology in order to produce clean, quiet and socially acceptable transport at affordable prices. The combustion process lies at the heart of the engine and the quality of the combustion determines the acceptability of the product to a very large extent. The fuel injection system plays a large role in the combustion process and in consequence, the fuel system type and capabilities strongly influence the performance of the combustion system. There has never been such a range of fuel injection systems available at one time as there is today. High pressure hydraulically actuated systems /1/ compete with cam driven fuel injection systems /2/ to deliver the injection requirements demanded by the vehicles both of today and in the future.
Technical Paper
H. Philipp, G. K. Fraidl, P. Kapus, E. Winklhofer
An optical sensor system provides access to standard SI engine combustion chambers via the cylinder head gasket. Flame radiation within the plane of the gasket is observed with optical fibers which are arranged to allow the tomographic reconstruction of flame distribution. The effect of convective in-cylinder air motion generated by variations of inlet ports and combustion chamber geometries on flame propagation is directly visible. A high degree of correlation between flame intensity distribution and NOx emission levels yields a useful assessment of combustion chamber configurations with minimum emission levels. The location of knock centers is identified.
Technical Paper
P. E. Kapus, W. P. Cartellieri
The paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME, CH3 - O - CH3) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of the baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper
G. K. Fraidl, W. F. Piock, M. Wirth
Abstract Recent developments have raised increased interest on the concept of gasoline direct injection as the most promising future strategy for fuel economy improvement of SI engines. The general requirements for mixture preparation and combustion systems in a GDI engine are presented in view of known and actual systems regarding fuel economy and emission potential. The characteristics of the actually favored injection systems are discussed and guidelines for the development of appropriate combustion systems are derived. The differences between such mixture preparation strategies as air distributed fuel and fuel wall impingement are discussed, leading to the alternative approach to the problem of mixture preparation with the fully air distributing concept of direct mixture injection.
Technical Paper
H. Ofner, D. W. Gill, C. Krotscheck
Dimethyl Ether has been proposed as alternative fuel for combustion engines. The paper gives a brief overview of resources, production, distribution and use of different automotive fuels and compares Dimethyl Ether with other oxygenated synthetic fuels recently proposed. For use in combustion engines Dimethyl Ether requires the introduction of new technologies, mainly in the field of fuel injection systems for direct injection. Such a fuel injection system is described in detail and measured characteristics are shown. For assessment of Dimethyl Ether from the environmental point of view, efficiencies and emissions during production and use of different fuels are summarized and discussed. For evaluation of environmental impacts a method is introduced which compares technical processes with natural cycles of substances and thus determines their “sustainability”.
Technical Paper
Alexander Friedl
Today combustion analysis has to be used in every step of the engine development process and is no longer a tool for some specialists but most test bed operators have to deal with combustion analysis (also called Indicating). AVL reacts on the widened area of application and the broad spread of the Indicating measurement technology by introduction of user friendly user interfaces, which make the work during preparation of measurements as well as during measurements itself easier.
Technical Paper
Karl Koeck, Martin Krenn, Christian Beidl
New combustion principle concepts combined with enormous application efforts as well as rapid development of gasoline- and diesel injection systems, make high demands on the fuel consumption measuring system. Because of the high degree of automated test bed applications, challenging requirements to reliability and plausibility of measuring results at simultaneously shorter measuring times arise. The following paper describes a new fuel consumption measuring system by presenting specific application examples and shows how efficient utilisation of resources, regarding manpower and test bed capacity, can be reached and how a significant timesaving can be realised.
Technical Paper
F. Zieher*, F. Langmayr, A. Jelatancev, K. Wieser
The requirement for increased power and reduced emission and fuel consumption levels for diesel engines has created very stringent demands on the cylinder head design. In current engine development programs it is often observed that the limiting design factor is given by the thermal mechanical fatigue strength of the cylinder head. Design iterations resulting from durability testing are often necessary due to the lack of adequate simulation techniques for prediction thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure. A complete lifetime simulation process is presented in this paper with emphasis on a newly developed material model for describing the constitutive behavior of cast iron (i.e. gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron) under thermal cycling. The material model formulation is based on a continuum-damage-mechanics (CDM) approach in order to account for the tension / compression anomaly of cast iron.
Technical Paper
K. G. Mahmoud, E. Loibner, J. Krammer
The need to improve the engine performance and fuel consumption subject to ever more stringent emission standard spar the interest in the aspects of understanding and quantifying the thermal behavior of engine components and systems. Considering these points during the design of the vehicle thermal management system based on test would consume far too many resources. Fortunately, the simulation tools have become more prominent in the pre-prototype phase of the vehicle development process and they had reached a mature stage; where they can contribute successfully to a significant extend to meet the vehicle development targets. In this work, a methodology to model the Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) in order to understand and quantify its behavior has been developed. The partial systems under consideration are: the gas circuit, the cooling circuit, the lubrication circuit and the thermal capacitance of the engine structure under the vehicle driving conditions.
Technical Paper
A. G. Konstandopoulos, D. Zarvalis, E. Papaioannou, N. D. Vlachos, G. Boretto, M. F. Pidria, P. Faraldi, O. Piacenza, P. Prenninger, T. Cartus, H. Schreier, W. Brandstätter, C. Wassermayr, G. Lepperhof, V. Scholz, B. Luers, J. Schnitzler, M. Claussen, A. Wollmann, M. Maly, G. Tsotridis, B. M. Vaglieco, S. S. Merola, D. Webster, D. Bergeal, C. Görsmann, H. Obernosterer, D. Fino, N. Russo, G. Saracco, V. Specchia, N. Moral, A. D'Anna, A. D'Alessio, R. Zahoransky, E. Laile, S. Schmidt, M. Ranalli
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 83


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