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Technical Paper
Hubertus Lohner, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Karsten Hesse, Alexis Martinet, Martin Beneke, Pawandeep Kalyan, Benedikt Langer
Due to the importance of fulfilling the actual and upcoming environmental legislation, it is an Airbus main target to develop eco-efficient materials. Under consideration of the economical effects, these processes will be implemented into the production line. This paper gives an overview of Airbus and its partners research work, the results obtained within the frame of the European funded, integrated technology demonstrator (ITD) ECO Design for Airframe. This ITD is part of the joint technology initiative Clean Sky. Developments with different grade of maturity from “upstream” as the investigation of materials from renewable recourses up to materials now in use in production as low volatile organic compounds cleaner are under investigation. As a basis for future eco-efficient developments an approach for a quantitative life cycle assessment will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper
Benjamin Chouvion, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev, Carl Mason, Mark Summers
Gaps between structural components have been a common problem since the start of aviation. This has usually been caused by the manufacturing tolerances of the components in question not being sufficiently tight. An example where such issues arise is in the assembly of a wing skin to rib feet to form an aircraft wing-box, where it is commonly found that, whilst some rib feet are in contact with the wing skin, others are spaced from it. Yet a strong connection between the wing skin and the rib feet is important to maintain the structural strength of the wing-box. To eliminate the existing gaps, the current approach, used in many manufacturing production lines, involves filling in the gaps to the required shape by applying liquid or solid shim to the rib feet. This is a relatively long and expensive process. To overcome these current inherent difficulties in interface management, a method to eliminate the shimming requirement between component interfaces is presented.
Technical Paper
Otto Jan Bakker, Nirosh Jayaweera, Oliver Martin, Andrew Turnock, Peter Helgosson, Tony Smith, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev, David Tomlinson, Jon Wright, Mark Summers
The aerospace manufacturing sector is continuously seeking automation due to increased demand for the next generation single-isle aircraft. In order to reduce weight and fuel consumption aircraft manufacturers have increasingly started to use more composites as part of the structure. The manufacture and assembly of composites poses different constraints and challenges compared to the more traditional aircraft build consisting of metal components. In order to overcome these problems and to achieve the desired production rate existing manufacturing technologies have to be improved. New technologies and build concepts have to be developed in order to achieve the rate and ramp up of production and cost saving. This paper investigates how to achieve the rib hole key characteristic (KC) in a composite wing box assembly process. When the rib hole KC is out of tolerances, possibly, the KC can be achieved by imposing it by means of adjustable tooling and fixturing elements.
Technical Paper
Susanne Markus, Christian Tornow, Stefan Dieckhoff, Michel Boustie, Romain Ecault, Laurent Berthe, Clemens Bockenheimer
Composite materials are increasingly being used in the manufacturing of structural components in aeronautics industry. A consequent light-weight design of CFRP primary structures requires adhesive bonding as the optimum joining technique but is limited due to a lack of adequate quality assurance procedures. The successful implementation of a reliable quality assurance concept for adhesive bonding within manufacturing and in-service environments will provide the basis for increased use of lightweight composite materials for highly integrated aircraft structures thus minimizing rivet-based assembly. The expected weight saving for the fuselage airframe is remarkable and therefore the driver for research and development of key-enabling technologies. The performance of adhesive bonds mainly depends on the physico-chemical properties of adherend surfaces.
Technical Paper
Francisco José Redondo
A system has been designed for the A400M wherein engine air intake ice protection is provided by hot air bled from the engine cooled by air from inside the nacelle with a jet pump. Two variants of the system were developed. The first had an active temperature and pressure control downstream of the jet pump, and the second was without temperature control. Maximum temperature was a constraint for the design of the system since the engine air intake is manufactured in aluminum. In addition, several other constraints appeared during the detailed design of the system; the tight space allocation inside the nacelle limited the length of the jet pump, the low temperature provided by the engine bleed in flight idle limited the secondary flow used to cool the engine bleed, and the complex air distribution needed to supply air to the intake areas.
Arconic and Airbus recently announced a multi-year cooperative research agreement to advance metal 3D printing for aircraft manufacturing. Together, the companies will develop customized processes and parameters to produce and qualify large, structural 3D printed components.
Airbus and the Dutch aerospace industry signed an extension to their memorandum of understanding for strategic cooperation in research and technology (R&T) in place since 2005, and initiated a specific collaboration agreement on advanced thermoplastic composites.
EADS signed a cooperation agreement with Norsk Titanium Components (NTiC) covering the development of near-net-shape, plasma-based layer manufacturing technologies for aerospace, defense, and space applications.
Spirit AeroSystems Inc. has opened its new 500,000-ft² manufacturing facility in Kinston, NC. Employees at the facility will design and manufacture the composite center fuselage upper and lower shells and front wing spar for the Airbus A350 XWB.
Airbus and a group of Chinese industrial partners have established a joint venture to manufacture composite material parts and components for Airbus A350 XWB and A320 aircraft. The Chinese partners are Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Co.
Airbus and the Russian Technologies State Corp.’s integrated structure VSMPO-AVISMA Corp. signed an agreement for the supply of titanium to Airbus and other EADS divisions until 2020. The contract, considered to be the biggest and longest-term deal in the history of the Airbus/EADS cooperation with the Russian industry, includes the supply of titanium and covers die forging parts for all existing Airbus aircraft, including new programs such as the A350XWB.
Assembly of large and complex carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) components requires the use of liquid resin-based materials for applications such as shimming and aerodynamic sealing. These materials generally require curing times up to 12 h; heated air technology can reduce that time to 2 h.
Polymer composites made with fibers covered in "forests" of carbon nanotubes are tougher than traditional unmodified fiber-reinforced polymer composites.
Airbus signed an agreement with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for cooperative research activities in the field of composite materials. This agreement marks the first research cooperation between Airbus and a Japanese aerospace agency.
With GKN Aerospace's recent acquisition of the Airbus wing component and assemblies manufacturing unit at Filton, U.K., EADS/Airbus has completed its aerostructures reorganization strategy. This initiative combines the divestment of non-core activities and sites, allowing Airbus to concentrate on its core business as an aircraft designer and integrator.
Spirit AeroSystems Inc. signed a contract with Airbus to design and produce a major composite fuselage structure for the A350 XWB (Xtra Wide-Body) program. Spirit will design and manufacture the Section 15 center fuselage frame section, a composite structure approximately 65 ft long, 20 ft wide, and nearly 9000 lb.
Aleris has signed a five-year contract to provide aluminum plate and sheet in a range of alloys to Airbus for its global programs. The agreement covers supply for the years 2012 through 2016. The agreement also includes the development of a recycling program, where Aleris will recycle scrap for Airbus.
Additive manufacturing is making significant headway in aerospace production programs, as evidenced by recent announcements that Airbus and rocket manufacturer United Launch Alliance both are—or soon will be—flying aircraft that incorporate 3D-printed parts enabled by Stratasys.
Keith B. Armstrong, William Cole, Graham Bevan
This second edition has been extensively updated to keep pace with the growing use of composite materials in commercial aviation. A worldwide reference for repair technicians and design engineers, the book is an outgrowth of the course syllabus that was developed by the Training Task Group of SAE's Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) and published as SAE AIR 4938, Composite and Bonded Structure Technician Specialist Training Document. Topics new to this edition include: Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) Methods Fasteners for Composite Materials A Method for the Surface Preparation of Metals Prior to Adhesive Bonding Repair Design Although this book has been written primarily for use in aircraft repair other applications including marine and automotive are also covered.
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