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Viewing 1 to 29 of 29
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2422
Yu Zhang, Ilya Sagalovich, William De Ojeda, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, David D. Wickman
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0141
Shashi Aithal, Stefan Wild
This paper discusses the development of an integrated tool for the design, optimization, and real-time control of engines from a performance and emissions standpoint. Our objectives are threefold: (1) develop a tool that computes the engine performance and emissions on the order of a typical engine cycle (25-50 milliseconds); (2) enable the use of the tool for a wide variety of engine geometries, operating conditions, and fuels with minimal user changes; and (3) couple the engine module to an efficient optimization module to enable real-time control and optimization. The design tool consists of two coupled modules: an engine module and an optimization module.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2292
Tianlei Zheng, Yuefu Jin, Zhao Wang, Michael Wang, Freda Fung, Fatumata Kamakate, Huiming Gong
To restrain the environmental and energy problems caused by oil consumption and improve fuel economy of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, China started developing relevant standards from 2008. This paper introduces the background and development of China's national standard “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”, and mainly describes the test method schemes, driving cycle and weighting factors for calculating average fuel consumption of various vehicle categories. The standard applies to heavy-duty vehicles with the maximum design gross mass greater than 3500 kg, including semi-trailer tractors, common trucks, dump trucks, city buses and common buses. The standard adopts the C-WTVC driving cycle which is adjusted on the basis of the World Transient Vehicle Cycle[1, 2] and specifies weighting factors of urban, rural and motorway segments for different vehicle categories.
2011-01-19
Technical Paper
2011-26-0048
Aymeric Rousseau, Ram Vijayagopal
Other than in Japan, medium and heavy duty vehicles (MHDVs) are not regulated despite accounting for a significant portion of the fuel consumed (about 26% in the US in 2008). Government agencies worldwide are currently evaluating options to address that issue. Due to the large number of vehicle applications, some of them being “one of a kind”, vehicle modelling and simulation offers an attractive solution to medium and heavy duty regulations. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of vehicle simulation to support regulations.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1996
Aymeric Rousseau, Shane Halbach, Neeraj Shidore, Phillip Sharer, Ram Vijayagopal
To reduce development time and introduce technologies to the market more quickly, companies are increasingly turning to Model-Based Design. The development process - from requirements capture and design to testing and implementation - centers around a system model. Engineers are skipping over a generation of system design processes based on hand coding and instead are using graphical models to design, analyze, and implement the software that determines machine performance and behavior. This paper describes the process implemented in Autonomie, a plug-and-play software environment, to evaluate a component hardware in an emulated environment. We will discuss best practices and show the process through evaluation of an advanced high-energy battery pack within an emulated plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1998
Antoine Delorme, Dominik Karbowski
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instrumented and tested a line-haul Class 8 tractor trailer on a 4-wheel-drive heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. A vehicle model was then developed in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), Argonne National Laboratory's vehicle simulation tool, using the truck technical specifications and the recorded data, which included the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) and Controller Area Network (CAN) signals. In this paper, we describe the test scenarios and the analysis performed on the data. We then present the vehicle model and assumptions. Finally, we compare the test and simulation data, including fuel consumption and component signals, as well as the main challenges specific to heavy-duty vehicle testing and simulation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1796
Andrew Ickes, Reed Hanson, Thomas Wallner
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0314
Larry Michaels, Curtis G. Adams, Michael Juskiewicz
Abstract A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1284
Andrew Burnham, Hao Cai, Michael Wang
Abstract A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3513
W. David Pointer, Tanju Sofu, David Weber
With rising oil prices, the issue of energy economy in transportation is getting much attention. At the same time, new emissions standards for tractor-trailer vehicles introduce additional challenges for the manufacturers to achieve improvements in vehicle fuel economy. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies' Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Consortium, Argonne National Laboratory is currently developing guidelines for the use of commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to facilitate energy efficiency improvements through improved aerodynamic design of tractor-trailer vehicles. The development of these guidelines requires the consideration of the sensitivity of the accuracy of the analysis to the various modeling choices available to the end user.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4250
Andrew Dyer, Sylvain Pagerit, Makarand Datar, Daniel Mehr, Dan Negrut
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
2007-11-01
Technical Paper
2007-01-2141
S. K. Saripella, W. Yu, J. L. Routbort, D. M. France, Rizwan-uddin
The cooling system of a Class 8 truck engine was modeled using the Flowmaster computer code. Numerical simulations were performed replacing the standard coolant, 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol and water, with nanofluids comprised of CuO nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid of a 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol and water. By using engine and cooling system parameters from the standard coolant case, the higher heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids resulted in lower engine and coolant temperatures. These temperature reductions introduced flexibility in system parameters - three of which were investigated for performance improvement: engine power, coolant pump speed and power, and radiator air-side area.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3150
Essam M. EL-Hannouny, Sreenath Gupta, Christopher F. Powell, Seong-Kyun Cheong, Jinyuan Liu, Jin Wang, Raj R. Sekar
The process of spray atomization has typically been understood in terms of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability theory. However, this mechanism has failed to fully explain much of the measured data. For this reason a number of new atomization mechanisms have been proposed. The present study intends to gain an understanding of the spray dynamics and breakup processes in the near-nozzle region of heavy-duty diesel injector sprays. As this region is optically dense, synchrotron x-rays were used to gain new insights. This spray study was performed using a prototype common-rail injection system, by injecting a blend of diesel fuel and cerium-containing organometalic compound into a chamber filled with nitrogen at 1 atm. The x-rays were able to probe the dense region of the spray as close as 0.2 mm from the nozzle. These x-ray images showed two interesting features. The first was a breakup of the high density region about 22 μs After the Start Of Injection (ASOI).
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1255
Justin Kern, Nicole LeBlanc, Mike Duoba, Ted Bohn, John Anderson, Robert Larsen
In June of 2002, 15 universities participated in the third year of FutureTruck, an advanced vehicle competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Ford Motor Company. Using advanced technologies, teams strived to improve vehicle energy efficiency by at least 25%, reduce tailpipe emissions to ULEV levels, and lower greenhouse gas impact of a 2002 Ford Explorer. The competition vehicles were tested for dynamic performance and emissions and were judged in static events to evaluate the design and features of the vehicle. The dynamic events include braking, acceleration, handling, and fuel economy, while the dynamometer testing provided data for both the emissions event and the greenhouse gas event. The vehicles were scored for their performance in each event relative to each other; those scores were summed to determine the winner of the competition. The competition structure included different available fuels and encouraged the use of hybrid electric drivetrains.
2009-03-17
Article
Improving the combustion process requires knowing how it works in its smallest details, in terms of micrometers and microseconds.
2010-01-14
Article
The U.S. Department of Energy recently awarded $187 million for nine projects aimed at improving vehicle efficiency. Most of the grant money, $115 million, is targeted at advances that will increase the fuel efficiency of Class 8 long-haul freight trucks 50% by 2015. Among the technologies to be investigated are engine combustion, engine waste heat recovery, powertrain hybridization, idle reduction, and aerodynamics.
2015-10-12
Article
Recognizing the power of technologies such as energy storage and nanotechnology and seeking ways to accelerate their impact, Argonne has created two new collaborative centers that it is hoping will provide an innovative pathway for business and industry to speed discoveries to market.
2016-08-26
Article
To optimize the fan-shroud shape to maximize cooling air mass flow rates through the heat exchangers of heavy-duty trucks, researchers from Argonne National Lab, Cummins and CD-Adapco used the Adjoint approach to optimization.
2014-12-10
Article
Using advanced supercomputers and the largest X-ray imaging system in the western hemisphere, the team of researchers developed and validated software models for fuel injectors. One the most difficult to understand engine phenomenon, these validated models are useful for simulating fuel injectors and are now available to engine developers.
2014-09-22
Article
Internal combustion engines are poised for dramatic breakthroughs in improving efficiency with lower emissions, due in part to low-temperature combustion regimes. Such regimes show great efficiency and emissions potential, but they present optimization and control challenges.
2013-05-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9017
David France, David Smith, Wenhua Yu
A new concept for an efficient radiator-cooling system is presented for reducing the size or increasing the cooling capacity of vehicle coolant radiators. Under certain conditions, the system employs active evaporative cooling in addition to conventional finned air cooling. In this regard, it is a hybrid radiator-cooling system comprised of the combination of conventional air-side finned surface cooling and active evaporative water cooling. The air-side finned surface is sized to transfer required heat under all driving conditions except for the most severe. In the later case, evaporative cooling is used in addition to the conventional air-side finned surface cooling. Together the two systems transfer the required heat under all driving conditions. However, under most driving conditions, only the air-side finned surface cooling is required. Consequently, the finned surface may be smaller than in conventional radiators that utilize air-side finned surface cooling exclusively.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3511
Rose McCallen, Kambiz Salari, Jason Ortega, Paul Castellucci, John Paschkewitz, Craig Eastwood, Larry Dechant, Basil Hassan, W. David Pointer, Fred Browand, Charles Radovich, Tai Merzel, Dennis Plocher, Anthony Leonard, Mike Rubel, James Ross, J. T. Heineck, Stephen Walker, Bruce Storms, Christopher Roy, David Whitfield, Ramesh Pankajakshan, Lafayette Taylor, Kidambi Sreenivas, Robert Englar
At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the intelligent design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments related to drag reduction devices, and offer a brief discussion of our future direction.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1472
Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2251
Monika A. Minarcin, Eric Rask, Matthew R. Smith
A key strategy to improving the real-world fuel consumption and emissions of medium and heavy duty vehicles is the hybridization of these applications. Unlike the passenger vehicle market, medium and heavy duty applications are typically comprised of a range of components from a variety of manufacturers. The vocational market diversity and size places considerable demand on fuel efficiency and emission compliance. Medium and heavy duty applications have the ability to be successfully hybridized in ways that are not currently, or would not be practical within a passenger vehicle. This would also drive greater truck and bus vertical integration of the hybrid components. However, medium and heavy duty manufacturers have been prevented from certifying a full vehicle level platform due to the current engine only certification requirements.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2895
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang
Abstract This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle in a no-traffic condition. In order to study the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations were performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles were analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction was observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. YAD was based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0°, −6° and 6°. In single-lane traffic, YAD reduction was up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0550
Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Michael Traver, David Cleary, Muhsin Ameen, Sibendu Som, Daniel Probst, Tristan Burton, Eric Pomraning, P. K. Senecal
Abstract A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0578
Pinaki Pal, Daniel Probst, Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Michael Traver, David Cleary, Sibendu Som
Abstract Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8070
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Steven Dowding
Abstract Fan and fan-shroud design is critical for underhood air flow management. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a method to optimize fan-shroud shape in order to maximize cooling air mass flow rates through the heat exchangers using the Adjoint Solver in STAR-CCM+®. Such techniques using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis enables the automotive/transport industry to reduce the number of costly experiments that they perform. This work presents the use of CFD as a simulation tool to investigate and assess the various factors that can affect the vehicle thermal performance. In heavy-duty trucks, the cooling package includes heat exchangers, fan-shroud, and fan. In this work, the STAR-CCM+® solver was selected and a java macro built to run the primal flow and the Adjoint solutions sequentially in an automated fashion.
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