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Viewing 1 to 30 of 34
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0568
E. Mercker, K. R. Cooper
This paper provides a method that corrects errors induced by the empty-tunnel pressure distribution in the aerodynamic forces and moments measured on an automobile in a wind tunnel. The errors are a result of wake distortion caused by the gradient in pressure over the wake. The method is applicable to open-jet and closed-wall wind tunnels. However, the primary focus is on the open tunnel because its short test-section length commonly results in this wake interference. The work is a continuation of a previous paper [4] that treated drag only at zero yaw angle. The current paper extends the correction to the remaining forces, moments and model surface pressures at all yaw angles. It is shown that the use of a second measurement in the wind tunnel, made with a perturbed pressure distribution, provides sufficient information for an accurate correction. The perturbation in pressure distribution can be achieved by extending flaps into the collector flow.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0341
Georg Rauch, Johannes Lutz, Martin Werner, Sagar Gurwara, Peter Steinberg
Abstract This paper introduces an innovative approach, named synergetic 1D-3D-Coupling, by using synergy effects of 1D and 3D simulation in order to bring down modeling and simulation efforts. At the same time the methodology sustains the spatial resolution of a 3D model. This goal is reached by reducing the 3D fluid side with its time consuming continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence equations to a simple but precise 1D model. Because of the solid structure staying three dimensional, heat flux direction and spatial resolution have 3D accuracy but short calculation times due to the simple heat diffusion equation to be solved. The 1D model is represented by an automatically generated equation system which is capable of considering transient effects. The energy transfer between 1D fluid model and 3D structure model is realized through a neutral 1D-3D-coupling program and the application of the fluid element specific Nusselt correlations.
2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1548
Michael Spickenreuther, Frank Bersiner, Ernst Fricke
Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
1993-11-01
Technical Paper
931988
Norbert Metz, Helmut Korthas, Zissis Samaras
Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980199
Max Fuchs, Michael Eckrich, Olaf Müller, Jan Philipps, Peter Scholz
Increasing demand for dynamically controlled safety features, passenger comfort, and operational convenience in upper class automobiles requires an intensive use of electronic control units including software portions. Modeling, simulation, rapid prototyping, and verification of the software need new technologies to guarantee passenger security and to accelerate the time-to-market of new products. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of the design methods for the development of electronic control unit software at BMW. These design methods cover both discrete and continuous system parts, smoothly integrating the respective methods not merely on the code level, but on the documentation, simulation, and design level. In addition, we demonstrate two modeling and prototyping tools for discrete and continuous systems, namely Statemate and MatrixX, and discuss their advantages and drawbacks with respect to necessary prototyping demands.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980234
Heinz Leffler, Reinhard Auffhammer, Reent Heyken, Harald Röth
Wheel slip control system have found a remarkable penetration in all car segments. The information on the wheel behavior has lead to further developments which control the brake performance as well as the driving of the car in general. Latest systems introduced especially on luxury cars use wheel individual brake intervention to ensure vehicle stability under various driving maneuvers within the physical limits. Such systems use vehicle dynamic sensors and special hydraulics which serve as energy source for the automatic brake application. The technical effort of such systems like the Dynamic Stability Control DSC has limited the installation to upper class cars so far. New approaches are required to allow for a more wide spread penetration. Optimized hydraulics together with a rational design of the electronics seems to offer a basis for a more cost effective design.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981014
Max Fuchs, Dieter Nazareth, Dirk Daniel, Bernhard Rumpe
This paper presents an object-oriented method customized for a tool-assisted development of car software components. Tough market conditions motivate smart software development. ASCET SD is a tool to generate target code from graphic specifications, avoiding costly programming in C. But ASCET lacks guidelines on what to do, how to do it, in what order, like a fully equipped kitchen without a cooking book. Plans to employ the tool for BMW vehicle software sparked off demand for an adequate, object-oriented real-time methodology. We show how to scan the methodology market in order to adopt an already existing method for this purpose. The result of the adaptation of a chosen method to ASCET SD is a pragmatic version of ROOM, which we call BROOM. We present a modeling guidebook that includes process recommendations not only for the automotive sector, but for real-time software development in general.
1997-04-08
Technical Paper
971192
Harald A. Franze, Ulrich Neumann
The environmental impact of automobiles and components is of growing importance both in the public discussion and in the complex decision finding process for future car concepts. Especially more and more conflicts of objectives occur between technical, economical, ecological and political requirements. For a lasting improvement of environmental compatibility and recyclability as an element of the so-called „sustainable development” of automobiles and components, BMW is the first carmaker which has developed quantitative management tools /1, 2/. These component related instruments enable designers in the product development phase to evaluate different component variations practice-oriented and with an ecological perspective in mind. In this endeavor, BMW is placing its bets on „intelligent lightweight construction”, i. e., the ecologically-economically best component solution.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940136
Michael J. Eckrich, Gero G. Kempf, Oliver J. Rumpf
Abstract The use of micro controllers in automotive systems renders the coordination of about 150 actors (70 electric motors, 15 magnetic valves and 50 relays). The resulting complexity of those systems as well as the requested zero defects demands time consuming testing. This work describes a method of performing test-scenarios, starting from a zero defect running specification, modeled by finite state machines. The test-scenarios are intended to determine whether a given system meets all specification requirements. First, a kind of structured modelling reactive automotive systems is deduced. Next, some important test selection methods, developed for the case the specification is given in the form of a finite state machine, are considered. Finally, a procedure and method for performing minimized complete test-scenarios for automotive systems are presented.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940134
Oliver J. Rumpf, Michael J. Eckrich, Gero G. Kempf
The increasing number of local control units in automotive systems led to growing emphasis on developing and using multiplex systems. For reasons of price and robustness the use of asynchronous and slow multiplex systems is preferred. Since the communication volume now reaches critical dimensions in peak load situations during the use of those systems, new concepts on different communication levels have to be developed. Due to the use of many different message types (wide range of message length) and the statistical dependence of the communication behaviour of control units (e.g. question-answer-combinations), the application of standard methodologies is only partly suitable for a performance analysis of automotive multiplex systems.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950294
O. Rumpf, A. Gassenhuber
Abstract The increasing complexity of communication protocols for asynchronous multiplex systems requires the use of simulation during the optimisation of these protocols or the integration of other control units. Consideration of realistic communication behaviour of the connected control units is essential for performance analysis of multiplex systems. For a first pass, the use of simple statistical distributions (e.g. Poisson distribution) is suitable to get some simulation results. A better way to get realistic results is the approximation of empirical communication data through the use of more complex statistical distribution (e.g. mixed Erlang distributions). In this paper several approaches for the approximation of empirical data are presented. Beside simple statistical distributions (with one parameter), the use of more complex statistical distributions is discussed and methods for the identification of their parameters are presented.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
951847
Klemens Graser, Reinhard Hoock
A lot of very valuable information has already been gained in the process of dismantling, assorting and reconditioning plastic parts on old cars, in reconditioning defective plastic parts from workshops, and in the use of reject parts from production. This know-how is now applied primarily to increase the use of recycled plastics and to optimise the composition and design of future plastic components in the interest of recycling, since further development in these areas is essential in order to establish economically stable material cycles functioning properly in the long term. The present paper describes the most important criteria through which the materials and designs chosen affect the processes and principles of recycling in the case of plastic parts and components.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1280
Pavel Kvasnicka, Günther Prokop, Angelika Rettinger, Helmuth Stahl
Handling characteristics, ride comfort and active safety are customer relevant attributes of modern premium vehicles. Electronic control units offer new possibilities to optimize vehicle performance with respect to these goals. The integration of multiple control systems, each with its own focus, leads to a high complexity. BMW and ITK Engineering have created a tool to tackle this challenge. A simulation environment to cover all development stages has been developed. Various levels of complexity are addressed by a scalable simulation model and functionality, which grows step-by-step with increasing requirements. The simulation environment ensures the coherence of the vehicle data and simulation method for development of the electronic systems. The article describes both the process of the electronic control unit (ECU) development and positive impact of an integrated tool on the entire vehicle development process.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0432
Franz Amaseder, Guenter Krainz
There is a common understanding that hydrogen has a great potential to be the fuel of the future. In addition to the challenge of developing appropriate hydrogen propulsion systems the development of hydrogen storage systems is the second big issue. Due to its high potential in cost and weight and specific storage capacity, the BMW Group is focusing on the development of liquid hydrogen storage systems. In the next hydrogen 7-Series the BMW Group is about to make for the first time the step from demonstration fleets to cars used by external users with a liquid hydrogen storage system. To realize this significant goal, special focus has to be put on high safety standards so that hydrogen can be considered as safe as common types of fuel, and on the every day reliability of the storage system. Moreover, the development of strong partnerships with suppliers is a key factor to realize the design and identify appropriate manufacturing processes.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0104
B. Basara, F. Aldudak, S. Jakirlić, C. Tropea, M. Schrefl, J. Mayer, K. Hanjalić
In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1657
Ingo Raasch
In the early stages of conceptual design the available geometric data are very coarse and the lifespan of a design idea is very short. The structural evaluation and improvement of a design has to take both facts into account. Its focus is on the total vehicle and its performance. This can be estimated by a modeling technique, which is adequate for the lack of geometric details. Static and dynamic global stiffness as well as some aspects of crash and NVH have to be considered. Optimization will lead to the proper sizing and some indication of the potential of the structure. In order to maintain high quality standards this approach has to be supported by specialized CAE tools and extensive rules on modeling techniques and analysis procedures.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1262
Peter E. Pfeffer, D. Nigel Johnston, Matija Sokola, Manfred Harrer
The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1281
Andreas Bauer, Manfred Broy, Jan Romberg, Bernhard Schätz, Peter Braun, Ulrich Freund, Nuria Mata, Robert Sandner, Dirk Ziegenbein
This paper describes the first results from the AutoMoDe project (Automotive Model-based Development), where an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software is being developed. The results presented include a number of problem-oriented graphical notations, based on a formally defined operational model, which are associated with system views for various degrees of abstraction. It is shown how the approach can be used for partitioning comprehensive system designs for subsequent implementation-related tasks. Recent experiences from a case study of an engine management system, specific issues related to reengineering, and the current status of CASE-tool support are also presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0624
Benedikt Raidt
Abstract A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0626
Benedikt Raidt
Abstract Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0072
Stephan Blum, Norman Henkel, Thomas Lehnhaeuser, Karthik Chittepu
The quality of the paint application in automotive industry depends on several process parameters. Thus, finding an optimal solution based on experimental configuration is tedious and time consuming. A first step to reduce the effort is to model the application within the framework of a simulation environment. In this study, we present an approach for the systematic variation of design parameters of the paint process to quantify their influence on the quality of the paint application. Using that information the design space is reduced by neglecting the parameters with low impact and later used to predict an optimal set of input parameters for an optimal paint application.
2017-08-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9380
Jan-Hubert Wittmann, Lars Menger
Abstract Current regulatory developments aim for stricter emission limits, increased environmental protection and purification of air on a local and global scale. In order to find solutions for a cleaner combustion process, it is necessary to identify the critical components and parameters responsible for the formation of emissions. This work provides an evaluation process for particle formation during combustion of a modern direct injection engine, which can help to create new aftertreatment techniques, such as a gasoline particle filter (GPF) system, that are fit for purpose. With the advent of “real driving emission” (RDE) regulations, which include market fuels for the particulate number testing procedure, the chemical composition and overall quality of the fuel cannot be neglected in order to yield a comparable emission test within the EU and worldwide.
1999-05-17
Technical Paper
1999-01-1665
Thomas Morel, John Silvestri, Karl-Alfred Goerg, Rolf Jebasinski
Exhaust acoustics simulation is an important part of the exhaust system process. Especially important is the trend towards a coupled approach to performance and acoustics design. The present paper describes a new simulation tool developed for such coupled simulations. This tool is based on a one-dimensional fluid dynamics solution of the flow in the engine manifolds and exhaust and intake elements. To represent the often complex geometries of mufflers, an easy-to-use graphical pre-processor is provided, with which the user builds a model representation of mufflers using a library of basic elements. A comparison made to two engines equipped with exhaust silencers, shows that the predictions give good results.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1047
Osman Aliefendioglu, Ferit Küçükay
During the development of a software system, such as automatic transmission control unit of passenger cars, the developer must check how the system satisfies the requirements from the customers perspective. At the customer side, reliability and correctness are the most important factors in terms of the product quality. In order to achieve a certain degree of these quality factors, the adequate development methods or standards must be applied during the whole development process of the product. Testing is the most important activity of the development process to assess the product reliability and correctness. In this paper the real-time statistical-based test environment is presented. The objective is to assess the quality of automatic transmission control unit of passenger cars in its intended environment applying a usage profile.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0810
Michael Würtenberger
How can car manufacturers, which are primary mechanical engineers, become software specialists? This is a question of prime importance for car electronics in the future. Modern vehicles offer a large number of electronic and software based functions to achieve a high level of safety, fuel economy, comfort, entertainment and security which are developed under pressure of regulations, of consumers needs and of competitive time to market aspects. This contribution draws a picture, what could be important in future for in car communication and information system in terms of development process, HW & SW architectures, partnerships in automotive industry and security of industrial properties. For this purpose the automotive development is reviewed and actual examples of system designs are given.
2000-06-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-2171
Heiner Bubb, Stefan Estermann
When investigating the posture comfort in vehicles two important influencing factors can be distinguished: In order to evaluate these influences a combined laboratory-field-experiment was carried out. A real car was equipped with cameras to record the body posture and the joint angles. The static forces exerted by the driver on his contact points were recorded in a corresponding mock-up. The forces to maintain the body posture were calculated. The following results were found:
2001-04-30
Technical Paper
2001-01-1528
Michel Constant, Jan Leyssens, Filip Penne, Raymond Freymann
A joint study was conducted between BMW and Goodyear with the objective of analysing the cause and identifying methods to reduce the structure-borne interior noise in a vehicle driving on rough road surfaces. A vibro-acoustic characterization of the car was performed by measuring the car vibro-acoustic transfer functions and by using a transfer path analysis technique to identify the main suspension parts affecting the interior noise at target frequencies. The vibration transmissibility characteristics of the tire were measured and also simulated by Finite Element in [1-200Hz] frequency range. The vibro-acoustic interaction between the tire and car sub-systems was examined. A Finite Element sensitivity analysis was used to define and build new prototype tires. A 3dB(A) interior noise improvement was obtained with these new tires at target frequencies.
2000-11-01
Technical Paper
2000-01-C048
Maximilian Fuchs, Jürgen Ehret
This paper presents the challenges in automotive electronics. Considering the deficiencies of the current ECU (electronic control unit) design process, a new design process is outlined. This design process mainly focuses on the independence of the ECU hardware architecture development and the software function development.
2002-07-09
Technical Paper
2002-01-1988
Jan P. Löwenau, Martin H. Strobl
The Advanced Lighting Simulation (ALS) is a development tool for systematically investigating and optimizing the Adaptive Light Control (ALC) system to provide the driver with improved headlamps and light distributions. ALS is based on advanced CA-techniques and modern validation facilities. To improve night time traffic safety the BMW lighting system ALC has been developed and optimized with the help of ALS. ALC improves the headlamp illumination by means of continuous adaptation of the headlamps according to the current driving situation and current environment. BMW has already implemented ALC prototypes in real vehicles to demonstrate the advantages on the real road.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-21-0052
Maximilian Fuchs, Reinhard Schmerer, Armin Zeller
This paper presents new comfort and convenience features in the luxury segment and focuses especially on Comfort Access and iDrive. The Comfort Access System offers the customer the possibility of unlocking the vehicle without active use of a key, of starting the engine and at the end of the journey of locking the car again. The aim of the iDrive concept was to enable intuitive operation of the various functions with simultaneously improved ergonomics. Both, a monitor and a controller with its variable haptic are the concept’s innovation. In addition, this paper also discusses future ECU (Electronic Control Unit) networks for body electronics. The focus is on package-driven ECU network architecture, having many functions developed by different suppliers on a single ECU.
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