Criteria

Text:
Affiliation:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 102
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1374
Manuel Fischnaller, Joachim Melbert, Sebastian Scharner, Tanja Eichner
A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0648
Steve De Vos, Kristian Haehndel, Torsten Frank, Frieder Christel, Sylvester Abanteriba
Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0642
Kristian Haehndel, Angus Pere, Torsten Frank, Frieder Christel, Sylvester Abanteriba
Abstract As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0646
Kristian Haehndel, Anthony Jefferies, Markus Schlipf, Torsten Frank, Frieder Christel, Sylvester Abanteriba
Abstract At the rear of the vehicle an end acoustic silencer is attached to the exhaust system. This is primarily to reduce noise emissions for the benefit of passengers and bystanders. Due to the location of the end acoustic silencer conventional thermal protection methods (heat shields) through experimental means can not only be difficult to incorporate but also can be an inefficient and costly experience. Hence simulation methods may improve the development process by introducing methods of optimization in early phase vehicle design. A previous publication (Part 1) described a methodology of improving the surface temperatures prediction of general exhaust configurations. It was found in this initial study that simulation results for silencer configurations exhibited significant discrepancies in comparison to experimental data.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0478
Michael Weber, Matthias Unbehaun
Digital radio broadcast systems, like HD-Radio™ and Satellite Radio, provide crystal clear sound. However, since they are essentially bits and bytes, they could also be used for distributing traffic and weather information or any other supplementary information. Due to considerably enhanced compression techniques, digital broadcast systems could also carry surround sound, which significantly improves the sound perception. Integration of the digital tuners in an automotive environment are mainly through MOST ring topologies, which allow flexibly adding different tuner modules depending on customer preferences and standards used in different markets. This paper aims at providing a more detailed insight into the aforementioned trends and developments, with a specific focus on premium segment automobiles.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0541
Sebastian Thalmair, Jan Thiele, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Robert Ehart, Melaine Guillou
Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0315
Viorel Ionescu, Philipp Wernicke
In order to protect occupants from the risk of serious injury in event of side impact, passenger vehicles are designed to fulfil specific legislative and consumer impact test requirements. These are generally different for each of the major markets of the world. The tests use different configurations and percentile dummies (anthropomorphic test devices). Aside from the problem of finding an optimal design, the reliable evaluation of the robustness, i.e. the sensitivity of unavoidable scatter of design variables due to the structural response, is becoming increasingly important. For this purpose simulation is a well established tool in the development process in the automotive industry. The integration of FE-dummies and restraint systems in side impact simulations enables the study of the effect of dummy loading. ABAQUS/Explicit is a promising new software package for gaining more accuracy in crashworthiness and occupant protection simulations.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1763
Anneloes Dalenoort, Gabriella Griotto, Herman Mooi, Hans Baldauf, Gerd Weissenbach
Virtual testing has grown to be an efficient tool in vehicle passive safety design. Most simulations currently are deterministic. Since the responses observed in real-life and standardized tests are greatly affected by scatter, a stochastic approach should be adopted in order to improve the predictability of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental data. In addition, an objective judgement of the performance of numerical models with respect to experimental data is necessary in order to improve the reliability of virtual testing. In the European VITES & ADVANCE project the software tool Adviser was developed in order to fulfil these two requirements. With Adviser, stochastic simulations can be performed and the quality of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental can be objectively rated using pre-defined and user-defined objective correlation criteria. The software Adviser was used to develop a stochastic HybridIII 50th% Madymo numerical model.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0098
Alfred Zeitler, Peter Zeller
This study inquired into perceived attributes of car interior noise and correlating psychoacoustic parameters. Auditory assessments of a total of 29 vehicles were performed during cruise and acceleration in two independent road tests. Four perceptual dimensions were found to determine the sound evaluations: comfort/loudness, sportiness, harshness, and timbre. A regression model was used to predict comfort/loudness from sound level, roughness, sharpness and speech intelligibility (SVI). Instrumental assessments of engine roughness demonstrated to predict harshness to a large extent. Sportiness was substantially correlated with the increase of engine sound level due to load change. The latter finding was further examined in a third experiment, using sound synthesis in a test vehicle.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0068
Allan Schrøder Pedersen, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Martin Kunst, Ingemar Bertilsson, Isabelle de Lima, Michael Smith, Michael Wappelhorst, Per Bakke, Sandrine Sereni, Mario Durando, Thomas Marx
Eight partners from Europe and one from North America have joined efforts in a EU-supported project to find new ways for sustainable production of Mg-based engine blocks for cars. The ultimate aim of the work is to reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from operation of the vehicle. Four new magnesium alloys are considered in the project and an engine block has been series cast - 20 each in two alloys. An extensive mechanical testing program has been initiated to identify in particular the high temperature limits of the four alloys and a significant experimental study of proper bolt materials for joining is being done in parallel. Engine redesign and life cycle analysis has also been completed to secure the future sustainable exploitation of the project results. This paper presents an overview of the work and results obtained until now - 3 months before the ending date of the project.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0070
Per Bakke, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Isabelle de Lima, Hans Lilholt, Ingemar Bertilsson, Fethi Abdulwahab, Pierre Labelle
A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0069
Michael Hoeschl, Wolfram Wagener, Johann Wolf
This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2092
Giorgio Veronesi, Christopher Albert, Eugène Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Arnaud Bocquillet
Abstract In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2901
Albert Albers, Kevin Matros, Matthias Behrendt, Johannes Henschel, Heidelinde Holzer, Wolfram Bohne
The requirement of the start of the internal combustion engine (ICE) not only at vehicle standstill is new for full hybrid electric vehicles in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, the customer will not accept any deterioration with respect to dynamics and comfort. ICE-starting-systems and -strategies have to be designed to meet those demands. Within this research, a method was developed which allows a reproducible maneuver-based analysis of ICE-starts. In the first step, a maneuver catalogue including a customer-oriented maneuver program with appropriate analysis criteria was defined. Afterwards, the maneuvers were implemented and verified in a special test bench environment. Based on the method, two sample hybrid vehicles were benchmarked according to the maneuver catalogue. The benchmarking results demonstrate important dependencies between the criteria-based assessment of ICE-starts and the embedded ICE-starting-system and -strategy.
2013-11-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9121
Kristian Haehndel, Torsten Frank, Frieder Christel, Sylvester Abanteriba
Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0879
Kristian Haehndel, Torsten Frank, Frieder Martin Christel, Carsten Spengler, Gerrit Suck, Sylvester Abanteriba
The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1932
Robert Powell, Philippe Moron, Ganapathy Balasubramanian, Barbara Neuhierl, Sivapalan Senthooran, Bernd Crouse, David Freed, Cornelia Kain, Frank Ullrich
Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1997
Jan Rejlek, Giorgio Veronesi, Christopher Albert, Eugene Nijman, Arnaud Bocquillet
Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0164
Johannes Wojciak, Pascal Theissen, Kirstin Heuler, Thomas Indinger, Nikolaus Adams, Rainer Demuth
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around the vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi steady approximation significantly. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Part 2 of this study proves that a delayed and enhanced response of the surface pressures at the rear side of the vehicle is responsible for the differences between unsteady and quasi steady loads. The pressure changes at the vehicle front, however, are shown to have similar amplitudes and almost no phase shift compared to quasi steady flow conditions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0177
Pascal Theissen, Johannes Wojciak, Kirstin Heuler, Rainer Demuth, Thomas Indinger, Nikolaus Adams
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0006
Thomas Helmer, Adrian Ebner, Randa Radwan Samaha, Paul Scullion, Ronald Kates
Evaluation of safety benefits is an essential task during design and development of pedestrian protection systems. Comparative evaluation of different safety concepts is facilitated by a common metric taking into account the expected human benefits. Translation of physical characteristics of a collision, such as impact speed, into human benefits requires reliable and preferably evidence-based injury models. To this end, the dependence of injury severity of body regions on explanatory factors is quantified here using the US Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) for pedestrians in frontal vehicle collisions. The explanatory and causal factors include vehicle component characteristics, physiological and biomechanical variables, and crash parameters. Severe to serious injuries most often involve the head, thorax and lower extremities.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1301
Wolfgang Thiel, Roman Woegerbauer, David Eason
In the environmentally conscious world we live in, auto manufacturers are under extreme pressure to reduce tailpipe emissions from cars and trucks. The manufacturers have responded by creating clean-burning engines and exhaust treatments that mainly produce CO2 and water vapor along with trace emissions of pollutants such as CO, THC, NOx, and CH4. The trace emissions are regulated by law, and testing must be performed to show that they are below a certain level for the vehicle to be classified as road legal. Modern engine and pollution control technology has moved so quickly toward zero pollutant emissions that the testing technology is no longer able to accurately measure the trace levels of pollutants. Negative emission values are often measured for some pollutants, as shown by results from eight laboratories independently testing the same SULEV automobile.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2203
Philippe Moron, Robert Powell, Dave Freed, Franck Perot, Bernd Crouse, Barbara Neuhierl, Frank Ullrich, Michael Höll, Artur Waibl, Cornelia Fertl
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (> 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. The goal of this paper is to present a computational approach developed to predict the greenhouse windnoise contribution to the interior noise heard by the vehicle passengers. This method is based on coupling an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for the windnoise excitation to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver for the structural acoustic behavior.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2184
Philipp Scheibner, Andreas Wendemuth
A widely common principle of sound quality engineering is the development of objective measures determining human perception. Beside stationary sound parts, auditory events that are based on time-variant attributes have a traceable influence on human perception, particularly in the field of product sound quality. In this paper the significance and identification of the relevant sound quality parameters for power seat adjusters are investigated with a specific design of experiments (DoE). This methodology was used to advance the efficiency of subjective tests. The necessity of an efficient design is given through a relatively high number of variable parameters and, furthermore, through the demands of a qualitative experiment with limited effort for each subject in the listening tests. Instead of investigating randomly picked sounds this approach concentrates on a systematic scanning of the parameter space.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0201
Markus Schratter, Michael Karner, Peter Wimmer, Daniel Watzenig, Christian Gruber
With the huge improvements made during the last years in the area of integrated safety systems, they are one of the main contributors to the massively rising complexity within automotive systems. However, this enormous complexity stimulates the demand for methodologies supporting the efficient development of such systems, both in terms of cost and development time. Within this work, we propose a co-simulation-based approach for the validation of integrated safety systems. Based on data measurements gained from a test bed, models for the sensors and the distributed safety system are established. They are integrated into a co-simulation environment containing models of the ambience, driving dynamics, and the crash-behavior of the vehicle. Hence, the complete heterogeneous system including all relevant effects and dependencies is modeled within the co-simulation.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0656
Nils Lohmann, Manuel Fischnaller, Joachim Melbert, Thomas Musch, Peter Lamp, Sebastian Scharner, Verena Liebau
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are becoming increasingly important as an intermediate step on the roadmap to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). Li-Ion is the most important battery technology for future hybrid and electrical vehicles. Cycle life of batteries for automotive applications is a major concern of design and development on vehicles with electrified powertrain. Cell manufacturers present various cell chemistries based on Li-Ion technology. For choosing cells with the best cycle life performance appropriate test methods and criteria must be obtained. Cells must be stressed with accelerated aging methods, which correlate with real life conditions. There is always a conflict between high accelerating factors for fast results on the one hand and best accordance with reality on the other hand. Investigations are done on three different Li-Ion cell types which are applicable in the use of PHEVs.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0297
Satheesh Kandasamy, Bradley Duncan, Holger Gau, Fabien Maroy, Alain Belanger, Norbert Gruen, Sebastian Schäufele
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0985
R. T. van Tol, M. Pfestorf
The average weight of a car has increased significantly in recent years due to higher crash requirements and demands in standard equipment. Therefore, BMW has decided to use aluminium for the body front end of the new BMW 5-series. During the paint process, the 6XXX-alloys currently adopted for the body front end exhibit a considerable increase in yield strength in the E-coat dryer. The increase of strength, the so-called paint bake response of 6XXX-alloys, needs to be fully exploited to meet the increasing demand of future passive safety concepts.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1286
Alexandre Saad, Werner Bauer, Michael Haneberg, Jutta Schiffers
The paper will introduce the concept of intelligent automotive system services as an essential pattern for forthcoming Electric/Electronic (E/E) architectures. System services are infrastructure-related, having vehicle-wide functionalities with one central part (master) and optionally several peripheral parts (clients) as counterparts in every ECU. System services support the reliable operation, efficient administration and maintenance of car functions over the entire life cycle. System services constitute vehicle-wide, distributed functionalities. Therefore, a consistent, interoperable and scalable implementation and integration strategy is outlined. In addition, synergies to the standard core as well as to the AUTOSAR concept will be described.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1275
Sven A. Beiker, Karl Heinz Gaubatz, J. Christian Gerdes, Kirstin L. Rock
Measurements from a Global Navigation System in conjunction with an Inertial Measurement Unit were recently introduced in different aerial and ground vehicles as an input to control vehicle dynamics. In automobiles this approach could help to further improve braking and / or stability control systems as information like velocity over ground and side slip angle becomes available. This paper presents the technical background, validation through test results and the evaluation of potential benefits of such an “INS/GPS” setup. As a result of the extended measuring capabilities a reduction in braking distance and a more effective stability control becomes possible. The results show an excellent performance that should be exploited in future automotive applications.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 102

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: