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Viewing 1 to 30 of 31
1992-07-01
Technical Paper
921134
William C. Roberson, William D. Shontz
A study was conducted in a B-737 full flight simulator at the Boeing Customer Training facility to evaluate pilot decision making and performance under various situations in which decisions on whether or not to reject a take off had to be made and executed. A total of eight (8) situations were defined in which Go/NoGo decisions had to be made near V1 speed. Subjects included 24 Boeing instructor pilots and 24 line pilots from five different airlines. The sequence in which pilots encountered the situations was carefully balanced across subjects to control for learning effects. The results of the study are reported as quantitative data on RTO decisions, stopping performance, and procedure accomplishment plus a summary of data derived from post-run debriefings of the airline pilots. Lessons learned, conclusions, and recommendations for RTO training are presented.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
942093
Jean M. Crane, Eric S. Bang, Martin C. Hartel
The 777 flight deck will introduce two new functions, the electronic checklist function (ECL) and the flight deck communication function (FDCF), on interactive displays. Two cursor control devices (CCD) provide each pilot control of these new functions. The appearance and operation of the displays were standardized by specifying a common user interface (CUI). Ease of training and operation dictated an integrated design approach wherein the design and operational requirements for FDCF and ECL were developed together with the CCD and CUI.
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
912188
M. P. Miller, C. E. Hix
The auxiliary power unit (APU) requirements for commercial air transports have evolved from those of a convenience item to those of a highly integrated, heavily utilized, automated and sometimes essential, airplane system. This evolution has been driven by increasing demands for reliable airframe electrical and pneumatic power, fuel and weight efficiency, reduced crew workload, maintainability, and environmental accordance. Moreover, with the growth of extended range twin operations (ETOPS), the APU has become an essential back-up to primary airframe systems. This paper reviews the APU design criteria of past and present Boeing commercial jet transports and suggests the direction of future installations.
1998-04-06
Technical Paper
981232
Peter L. Gallimore
This paper briefly discusses the early background leading up to establishing the FAA Suspected Unapproved Parts (SUPs) Program Office and the Industry SUPs Steering Team. The various categories of parts comprising SUPs is reviewed. The main body of the paper reviews the various FAA and industry initiatives which target elimination of suspected unapproved parts.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985575
Timothy W. Purcell
Making TRANAIR an easier to use wing design tool is an important step toward reducing wing design cycle time. This paper shows the accuracy of TRANAIR in analysis mode for complex configurations with attached flow. This accuracy allows the design part to correctly predict improvements due to design changes. We show the current steps required for the MultiPoint (MP) design version of TRANAIR and the state of refinements toward increasing ease-of-use of this system. Finally, we discuss some of the proposed ways to further improve how the user interacts with the TRANAIR system for MP design.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932624
Dennis L. Berry
2001-09-11
Technical Paper
2001-01-2985
David L. Daggett, Gerhard E. Seidel, Robert McKinley, Robert Plencner
The commercial airplane designer is faced with the challenge of balancing many factors to achieve an optimal airplane design, namely, how to reduce jet fuel use while also maintaining or improving emissions, noise, cruise speed, operating cost, range, reliability, maintainability, payload, takeoff field length, initial cruise altitude, and landing speed. Often, fuel efficiency improvements run counter to other design constraints imposed on the aircraft manufacturer by market forces. However, emerging engine and airframe technologies will help to continue the historical trend towards reduced fuel use. Five concept airplane designs will be reviewed that use future technology to enable the design of more environmentally friendly airplanes.
1999-06-05
Technical Paper
1999-01-2288
Steve Nichols, Mike Richey
This paper addresses the steps and processes to create a full life circle of Tool Routines utilizing 3D data analysis as the driver. The paper covers the development of 3D Tool Routines for automation, the execution of the routines and the analysis of the collected historical 3D data. The process goal is to reduce the tool routine frequency by establishing and proving tool stability utilizing historical data. The historical data will also give us information in regards to design and tolerance capabilities. Graphical software programs are evolving in a way that enables us to link the different operations and software programs that encompass tool routines. Through the use of software and hardware such as laser tracker, we can achieve automation of tool routines and analysis. Customers in the aerospace, automotive and construction industries are among the beneficiaries in the application of this inspection process.
2000-09-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-3020
Donald B. Peterson
Implementation of a high speed drill motor with solid carbide drill bits, along with careful attention to all details of the process, has resulted in an extraordinary increase in drill bit life, as well as improvements in cycle time and hole quality. During the implementation of a new wing panel riveting machine for use on the 737NG and 757 models a major goal was to significantly improve the drilling process. The phase out of Freon™ as a coolant/lubricant on existing machines forced changes to the drilling process, which resulted in a significant reduction in drill life, from an average of approximately 1,500 holes per drill to 305 holes. The new process on the new machine has increased the average drill life 11,375% to over 35,000 holes, decreased the drill cycle time by 80%, and improved hole quality.
1992-04-01
Technical Paper
920944
Rodney Koop, Yukimori Moji
At the 1990 Annual Aerospace/Airline Plating and Metal Finishing Forum, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group presented information on boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing (CAA) to meet environmental regulations. This paper presents an update on the BSAA process and the status of production implementation. Background information will be reviewed including environmental issues and modifications of CAA to meet current EPA regulations. The results of BSAA process optimization, corrosion protection performance and compatibility with aircraft finishing will be given. Production implementation experience such as process control and facility requirements, including the status of BSAA for MIL-A-8625, Type IC (Anodizing, Non-chromic Acid, Meeting Type I Requirements) usage will be reviewed.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952172
Steve Brisben, James Knapp
The Automated Spar Assembly Tool (ASAT II) at the Everett, Washington, 777 Boeing manufacturing facility could be the largest automated fastening cell in the commercial aircraft industry. Based on the success of the ASAT I, Boeing's 767 spar assembly tool, the 285-foot long ASAT II cell was needed to accurately position and fasten the major spar components (chords and web), then locate and fasten over 100 components (ribposts and stiffeners) to assemble the 777 forward and rear wing spars. From its inception in 1990 to the first drilled hole in January 1993 and through two years of spar production, the more advanced ASAT II has proven to be a greater success than even its 767 ASAT I predecessor. This massive automated fastening system consistently provides accurate hole preparation, inspection, and installation of three fastener types ranging from 3/16 inches to 7/16 inches in diameter.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952178
Mark A. Woods, Bruce S. Howard, Richard A. Pogue
A new gage block system for measuring fastener gage protrusion has been developed that is precise and cost effective. A chamfered gage bore and shank constraint inserts provide improved wear characteristics and a ten to one reduction in block requirements. Accuracy and repeatability performance makes the system an attractive candidate for Statistical Process Control for the tightest tolerance fasteners. A new “block custom” calibration process assures accuracy and allows wider tolerances on gage block dimensions. Through better control of gage protrusion in fastener manufacturing, airplane manufacturers can expect improvements in fastener installation quality and eventually in customer satisfaction.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
951986
William A. McKenzie, Martin C. Hartel
The purposes of an airplane checklist are to (1) help the pilot and copilot ensure that the airplane is configured correctly before each phase of flight and (2) facilitate the management of nonnormal conditions. The use of a checklist has been essential in standardizing aircrew procedures. In 1996, Boeing will introduce the world's first airline-modifiable electronic checklist system on the Boeing 777 flight deck. Its design specifically addresses many traditional paper checklist problems associated with crew errors. Directed by airline design requirements, Boeing used a consistent, pilot-oriented flight deck philosophy to address the pilot interface, system functionality, and automation tradeoff questions.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940047
Ulf G. Goranson, Jack F. McGuire
Structural safety is an evolutionary accomplishment, and attention to detail design features is key to its achievement. A multitude of design considerations is involved in ensuring the structural integrity of Boeing jet transports that have common design concepts validated by extensive analyses, tests, and three decades of service. The active service life of commercial airplanes has increased in recent years as a result of increasing costs for fleet replacements. As airplanes approach their design service objectives, the incidences of fatigue and corrosion may become widespread. Continuing airworthiness of the aging jet fleet requires diligent performance from the manufacturer, the airlines, and airworthiness authorities. This paper gives an overview of traditional Boeing maintenance-related activities, joint industry/airworthiness authority initiatives, and the anticipated benefits for future generations of commercial airplanes.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922411
Clayton Munk, Dave Strand
The Accurate Fuselage Panel Assembly Cell (AFPAC) is a semi-automated process that was developed for accurately assembling fuselage panels on the Boeing 757 model line. This method of assembly (prior to automatic fastening) uses a new generation, accurate CNC machine tool in conjunction with reconfigurable part fixturing techniques and specialized end-of-arm tools (end effectors). These end effectors drill coordination holes in detail parts and the skin, and trim the periphery of the skin. Machine control data (MCD) for positioning the machine tool and other subsystems are developed directly from the engineering digital definition (CATIA datasets). Reconfigurable part holding and feeding mechanisms are used to allow for product changes and reduce the overall cost of the workcell. This paper describes the AFPAC assembly system and how it compares with the traditional concept of fuselage panel assembly.
1997-06-03
Technical Paper
972253
Thomas A. Greenwood, Thomas W. Pastusak
A novel method for improving the accuracy and lowering the cost of large NC drilling machines has been developed. The method employs a 3D tracking interferometer measurement system to measure and correct the position of the machine end-effector prior to each drill operation. This method eliminates many geometric and thermal errors inherent to NC drilling machines. The paper discusses the background, theory, initial implementation, test results and future enhancements of the method.
1997-06-03
Technical Paper
972251
Larry Escobedo, Scott Wilson, Dave Force, Robin Smith, Mike Robertson, Kevin Deneen, Mark Naylor
Adaptive control enables more productive use of high speed numerically controlled milling machines. With adaptive control, machines are programmed for optimum material removal, with the controller automatically reducing the material feed rate when heavy load conditions are encountered. The authors outline advantages of adaptive control and describe their testing technique for determining appropriate values for making maximally effective use of adaptive control.
1997-06-03
Technical Paper
972233
Scott D. Button, Thomas F. Hodgman
Most commercial aircraft interior panels are constructed of honeycomb cored composite sandwich panels. The panels are conventionally joined using metal brackets fastened with screws. Over the past decade, most major interior fabricators have been in transition to a method of joinery using bonded interlocking joints. This method has recently been adopted by Boeing, and is known here as Tab and Slot Joinery. These interlocking joints are defined and illustrated. The history of the development effort is outlined. Design considerations are developed. Test programs are described, including a designed experiment and a special case fatigue test. Advantages of this new joinery method over the conventional are shown.
1997-06-03
Technical Paper
972206
James N. Michael
This paper addresses the use of Hardware Variability Control (HVC) data to make process improvements in the assembly of the Next Generation 737 wing spars. The wing spars are the main structural component of the wing, and the two spars also make up two sides of each wing fuel tank. The wing spars are assembled using the Automated Spar Assembly Tool 3 (ASAT3). This paper covers the development of the ASAT3 HVC measurement plan, discusses the data collection methodology used, addresses process improvements made to the spar using the HVC data, and discusses next steps to improve the HVC plan.
1997-06-03
Technical Paper
972202
Richard S. Bastedo, Duane C. Oberg
The Department of Defense has made progress in modernizing its procurement of weapon systems. Modernization has identified a need to address Federal and military standards and specifications for parts, materials, and processes that represent many de facto national standards. The aerospace industry is proposing a transition to commercial specifications that meet the needs of Acquisition Reform. This paper reviews the history and benefits of modernization and describes the transition process.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965537
Ben Wilgers
During the commercial aircraft assembly process, many interrelated installations require alignment to a common reference centerline or location to a common reference plane. A rotational laser can be used to establish a vertical, horizontal, or other desired plane orientation to serve as a common installation reference for multiple assemblies. The cargo floor installation in the lower lobe of the 777 forward section requires that three physically separate cargo floor sections be aligned to a common centerline and lie in the same horizontal plane. Two rotational lasers are used in conjunction with laser positioning equipment, digital laser targets, and conventional tooling hardware to meet the installation criteria and provide a reliable, repeatable process.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965550
David Regal, Elfie Hofer, Thomas Pfaff
Boeing is participating in a research program to study the feasibility of building a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A program assumption is that the aircraft will not have a droop nose capability, requiring that the forward facing windows be replaced by large format displays showing the outside scene. We refer to this display as the External Vision System (XVS). The issues being addressed in this paper involve the integration of primary flight symbology into the XVS display. We point out how this integrated display is unique, falling someplace between a standard head-down primary flight display and a head-up display. We describe potential advantages of an integrated display as well as point out a number of possible problem areas. High level goals driving the display design are presented. We finish by describing a number of research and development issues, that if resolved, would contribute to the design effort.
1998-09-15
Technical Paper
982140
K.E. Lulay, P. G. Kostenick, G. E. Georgeson
High quality rivet installation is of critical importance to the aerospace industry, and the existence of gaps between the rivet head and the countersink is undesirable. Detection of gaps traditionally involves sectioning through rivet joints. Two concerns exist for this method of evaluation: it provides data only from the sectioned plane, and it has potential to alter the gaps. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to validate the effectiveness of the tradition sectioning method. It was revealed that the sectioning process generally increased the size of gaps. CT images also revealed that the gaps are not necessarily uniform around the rivet.
1998-09-15
Technical Paper
982139
Don A. Wildermuth, Kayla L. Stratton
Capacitance sensing probes have been in use for a number of years in the airframe assembly industry for characterizing diameters in straight and tapered fastener holes. A new type of capacitance probe was recently developed that simultaneously characterizes the countersink and shank diameters in holes drilled for index head rivets. The probe design and a unique methodology for a systems approach to qualifying a multi-probe inspection facility are presented in this paper.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985592
Dan D. Vicroy, Paul M. Vijgen, Heidi M. Reimer, Joey L. Gallegos, Philippe R. Spalart
A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake-characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965512
Martin Bickeboeller, William G. Strohschnitter
Boeing is currently fundamentally rethinking and radically simplifying the processes related to airplane configuration definition and production. The presentation will describe reasons for embarking on this effort and a description of the fundamental production control processes Boeing will deploy. Process Engineering will be described using Boeing's program as an example.
1997-10-13
Technical Paper
975605
Scott Muske
In today's competitive aircraft industry environment, new design, manufacturing, and assembly methods must be developed to lower costs and provide a more consistent product. One of the methods being implemented is Dimensional Management. Dimensional Management allows the evaluation of an entire manufacturing process and distribution of tolerances within that manufacturing process. Boeing has been working with Northrop-Grumman and several other suppliers to create a digital definition of the existing 747 fuselage design. This is part of an effort to implement a new manufacturing method known as Determinant Assembly. Dimensional Management plays a key role in implementing Determinant Assembly as well as incorporating into the engineering definition acceptance criteria that is better defined.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975604
Jeff Lantrip, Scott Muske, John Gleadle
The aerospace industry uses flexible complex contoured structure in aircraft. To take advantage of advancements in engineering design, assembly methods, and inspection tools, the dimensional requirements for this kind of structure can be specified using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) per ASME Y14.5M-1994, “Dimensioning and Tolerancing.” The 1994 revision of this standard includes some new features which can be used to specify the dimensional requirements for flexible complex contoured structure, but there are no examples on how GD&T can or should be applied. This paper gives some examples how GD&T can be applied on flexible complex contoured structure and how this usage specifies the dimensional requirements for such parts.
1999-10-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-3440
Peter E. Herley
With the increasing shift toward automation with respect to fastener installation, the need has evolved for clearer definition of the process capability of new fastener installation automation systems. In light of Engineering design requirements, and to address the process capability issue, Boeing has developed and implemented D6- 56617, a machine certification process for automated fastening of fuselage structure. This philosophy was a new approach in the following ways: 1. Previously, engineering oversight of automated fastening systems was limited to wing structure applications. 2. The process requires that process capabilities and performance of the automated machinery itself be established by test. 3. The process requires that detailed Process Control Documents be developed and followed. 4. The process links the statistical test data to the day to-day operating parameters of the machine.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941844
David G. Roubinet, Daniel M. Shoe, Gary Moon
During design of the 777 Airplane, light gage, near net section 2090-T86 extrusions were considered to reduce aircraft weight. The need to evaluate effects of fastener installation on 2090-T86 was indicated by a previous study documenting problems due to low short transverse tensile strength. Tests by Boeing installing fasteners into holes using interference fits showed 2090-T86 was more susceptible to damage from fastening than previously reported. Damage consisted of cracks normal to the short transverse direction around the periphery of the fastener hole. This report documents the test program conducted at Boeing.
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