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Viewing 1 to 30 of 54
2003-09-08
Technical Paper
2003-01-3031
A. Pueyo, F. Mokhtarian, F. Kafyeke
This paper presents CHT2D, a 2D hot air anti-icing simulation tool developed by the Advanced Aerodynamics group of Bombardier Aerospace. The tool has been developed from two main modules: the ice prediction code CANICE and the Navier-Stokes solver NSU2D, which is used to solve the hot air internal flow. A “weak” coupling beween the two modules based on function calls and information exchange has been priviledged. Three validation test cases are presented: for dry air conditions. Predictions from CHT2D agree quite well with the experiments. Preliminary results are also presented for a test case in icing conditions for different heat loads from the anti-icing system, to study the effect on the accumulated ice.
2003-09-08
Technical Paper
2003-01-3022
Eric Laurendeau, Josée Boudreau
Aerodynamic drag predictions using the block-structured Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver FANSC, developed at Bombardier Aerospace for the analysis of the flow around complete aircraft configurations, are presented in this paper. To this end, the traditional far-field method, complemented with semi-empirical relations, is used for evaluating induced, form and viscous drag on a complete aircraft configuration from Euler/boundary-layer flow solutions. Recent advances in Navier-Stokes CFD methods technology are also used to yield near-field integration of the aerodynamic forces. Theoretical developments are briefly discussed on the numerical methods: the basic flow solver (discretization, time-integration, etc…), Euler/boundary-layer coupling methods (direct, semi-inverse and quasi-simultaneous) and Navier-Stokes method. The far-field and near-field drag prediction methods are discussed with emphasis on the relationship they carry with the CFD flow solution.
2001-09-11
Technical Paper
2001-01-2639
Hanna Czarnecki, Zdzislaw Klim
Aircraft systems are designed with reliability, safety and cost effectiveness in mind. The certification of the aircraft is based on tests and results of theoretical analyses that show the compliance with the FAR/JAR requirements. Monitoring for safety for in-service aircraft is an important, critical and extremely complex process. The ultimate objective is to assure that the safety level is equal to the original estimate or better. The manufacturer of the aircraft is particularly responsible for overall monitoring and assessment of all safety related events and corrective actions. Many different philosophies were adopted for this purpose. The safety monitoring and audit strategy is generally based on experience, engineering judgment, event analysis and numerical quantification by using probability theory and statistical tools. The aircraft sequential entry in the service and the aging of their components lead to the non-homogeneity of the fleet.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985544
Fatih Tezok, Fassi Kafyeke, Tuncer Cebeci
Leading edge roughness is known to influence the aerodynamic performance of wings and airfoil sections. Aerodynamic tests show that these effects vary with the type and texture of the applied roughness. The quantification of the relationship between different types of roughness is not very clear. This makes the comparison of results from different tests difficult. An attempt has been made to find a relationship between randomly distributed roughness using cylinders of different heights and densities, roughness using ballotini, and equivalent sand grain roughness. A CFD method based on the Cebeci-Chang roughness model was used to generate correlations with experimental data. It is found that the variation of the size and density of individual roughness elements can be represented using one roughness parameter, Rp, which is equivalent to the sand grain roughness parameter used in the Cebeci-Chang model.
2011-11-14
Article
Though shy of taking the leap to CATIA V6, the Canadian aircraft OEM put substantial investment in a new PLM infrastructure around V5.
2009-04-29
Article
Fokker Elmo signed a contract—worth up to $300 million over a 15- to 20-year period—with Bombardier Aerospace to design and supply the electrical wiring interconnection system for the CSeries aircraft family.
2008-09-09
Article
Parker Hannifin’s Parker Aerospace segment has been chosen by Bombardier Aerospace to design and produce the fully integrated hydraulic and fuel systems for its new CSeries family of aircraft. The company estimates that the contracts will generate approximately $1.2 billion in revenues over the life of the program.
2013-10-27
Article
It is the "automation and tooling partner" who offers a performance-based and advanced manufacturing systems integration approach that offers the next step-change, say Bombardier Aerospace and AIP Aerospace Odyssey.
2013-12-04
Article
While shifting the manufacturing process of a composite part from pre-impregnated to a new liquid resin injection process, the Composites Development team at Bombardier Aerospace had to redesign the component to a new set of design allowables. The Integrated Product Development Team was able to quickly provide a turnkey solution that resulted in a positive business case for both weight and cost.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3871
Michael Kavoliunas
The Safety Management System (SMS) provides an environment where undesired events (proactively or reactively identified) are evaluated for the effect on safety using Risk Analysis. When the risk is evaluated, an interim risk reduction (mitigating action) may be applied to reduce the risk to a level that allows operations for a longer period before the safety issue is fully resolved. The risk assessment provides a means of evaluating the risk level and it may be difficult to quantify the “benefit” of interim mitigations that will reduce the risk. Prioritization of issues in the same risk category of the Risk Matrix is often simplified to a schedule and logistics basis of the final corrective action and often does not adequately show the benefit of the interim mitigating actions taken.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2566
Reuben Chandrasekharan, Nick Iarocci, Sherry Vafa, Iyad Akel
Abstract The Learjet 85 is a business jet with an unpowered manual elevator control and is designed for a maximum dive Mach number of 0.89. During the early design, it was found that the stick force required for a 1.5g pull-up from a dive would exceed the limit set by FAA regulations. A design improvement of the tailplane was initiated, using 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes CFD codes. It was discovered that a small amount of positive camber could reduce the elevator hinge moment for the same tail download at high Mach numbers. This was the result of the stabilizer forebody carrying more of the tail download and the elevator carrying less. Consequently, the elevator hinge-moment during recovery from a high-speed dive was lower than for the original tail. Horizontal tails are conventionally designed with zero or negative camber since a positive camber can have adverse effects on tail stall and drag.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2330
Olivier Pahud, Didier Hoste
The composites development team at Bombardier Aerospace has pushed the Integrated Product Development Team to a new level. The team has been created outside the business priorities and was partially funded by a provincial government initiative to create a greener aircraft. A dedicated R&D team can reduce the gap between the different disciplines by encouraging them to work as one entity and rapidly develop high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and high Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) solutions. Additionally, the interactions between the groups create a harmonization of the development philosophy and a sharing of the building block approach. This leads to a significant cost and lead time reduction in the coupon, element and detail testing. The constitution of the team also has a great impact on the level of expertise and the flexibility to adjust to new demands.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2122
Fidele Moupfouma, Amadou Ndoye, Mohsen Jalali, William Tse
Abstract Advanced commercial aircraft increasingly use more composite or hybrid (metal and composite) materials in structural elements and, despite technological challenges to be overcome, composites remain the future of the aviation industry. Composite and hybrid aircraft today are equipped with digital systems such as fly by wire for reliable operations no matter what the flying environment is. These systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic energy. During flight, aircraft can face High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF), static electricity, or lightning. The coupling of any of these threats with airframe structure induces electromagnetic energy that can impair the operation of avionics and navigation systems. This paper focuses on systems susceptibility in composite aircraft and concludes that the same electromagnetic rules dedicated to all metal aircraft for systems and wiring integration cannot be applied directly as such for composite aircraft.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2257
Shu Lin, Tim Smith, Pierre De Serres
A multi-axis serially redundant, single channel, multi-path FBW (FBW) control system comprising: serially redundant flight control computers in a single channel where only one “primary” flight control computer is active and controlling at any given time; a matrix of parallel flight control surface controllers including stabilizer motor control units (SMCU) and actuator electronics control modules (AECM) define multiple control paths within the single channel, each implemented with dissimilar hardware and which each control the movement of a distributed set of flight control surfaces on the aircraft in response to flight control surface commands from the primary flight control computer, and a set of (pilot and co-pilot) controls and aircraft surface/reference/navigation sensors and systems which provide input to a primary flight control computer and are used to generate the flight control surface commands in accordance with the control law algorithms implemented in the flight control computers.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2328
Jean-Philippe Lachance, Jean-Evrard Brunel
The objective of this document is to present the methodology used to verify the structural integrity of a redesigned composite part. While shifting the manufacturing process of a composite part from pre-impregnated to a liquid resin injection process, the Composites Development team at Bombardier Aerospace had to redesign the component to a new set of design allowables. The Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) was able to quickly provide a turnkey solution that assessed three aspects of airframe engineering: Design, Materials & Processes (M&P) and Stress. The focus of this paper will be the stress substantiation process led by the Stress Engineers. It will also bring up the synergies with M&P that are unique to the IPDT approach. The stress substantiation process required three distinct checks be confirmed.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2309
Robert C. Grant
The aging of the world population, and call for greater equality in access to public environments has led to an increase in design for persons with reduced mobility (PRM). There are numerous physical and operational constraints and parameters to overcome when designing a successful and marketable PRM environment. Each program evaluates what is to be considered reasonable based on these guidelines (cost, weight, manufacturability, airframe curvature, footprint required, regulations, and usability). However, there are other less tangible parameters to address. For example, what level of dignity or level of privacy does the PRM environment allow? Does the design require additional assistance to access, or can those who are able make independent use of the environment? Most aircraft manufacturers and design entities have recognized the need to improve accessibility aboard single aisle commercial aircraft (Airbus 320 family, Boeing 737, Embraer 190, Bombardier CSERIES).
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2149
Eric Barton, Thomas Rummell, Daniel Grenier
Bombardier faced new manufacturing process challenges drilling and fastening CSeries* aircraft panels with multi-material stacks of composite (CFRP), titanium and aluminum in which Gemcor responded with a unique, flexible CNC Drivmatic® automatic fastening system, now in production at Bombardier. This joint technical paper is presented by Bombardier, expounding on manufacturing process challenges with the C Series aircraft design requirements and Gemcor presenting a unique solution to automatically fasten CFRP aft fuselage panels and aluminum lithium (Al Li) cockpit panels with the same CNC Drivmatic® system. After installation and preliminary acceptance at Bombardier, the CNC system was further enhanced to automatically fasten the carbon fiber pressure bulkhead dome assembly.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2136
Alberto Pueyo
3D ice accretion codes have been available for a few decades but, depending on the specific application, their use may be cumbersome, time consuming and requiring a great deal of expertise in using the code. In particular, simulations of large 3D glaze ice accretions using multiple layers of ice is a very challenging and time consuming task. There are several reasons why 2D icing simulations tools are still widely used in the aircraft industry to produce realistic glaze ice shapes. 2D codes are very fast and robust, with a very short turn-around time. They produce adequate results in areas of the aircraft where 3D effects on airflow or droplets concentration can be neglected. Their use can be extended to other areas of the aircraft if relevant 3D effects can be taken into account. This paper proposes a simulation methodology that includes three levels of corrections to extend the use of 2D icing codes to most of the aircraft surfaces.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2157
Fidele Moupfouma, Zdzislaw Klim, Adam Skorek
The lightning represents a fundamental threat to the proper operation of aircraft systems. For aircraft protection, Electromagnetic Compatibility requires conductive structure that will provide among all, electromagnetic shielding and protection from HIRF and atmospheric electricity threat. The interaction of lightning with aircraft structure, and the coupling of induced energy with harnesses and systems inside the airframe, is a complex subject mainly for composite aircraft. The immunity of systems is governed by their susceptibility to radiated or conducted electromagnetic energy. The driving mechanism of such susceptibility to lightning energy is the exposure to the changing magnetic field inside the aircraft and IR voltage produced by the flow of current through the structural resistance of the aircraft. The amplitude of such magnetic field and IR voltage is related to the shielding effectiveness of the aircraft skin (wiremesh, composite conductivity).
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2198
Maryam Aramesh, Xavier Rimpault, Zdzislaw H. Klim, Marek Balazinski
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit superior characteristics such as low weight, high stiffness, and high mechanical and physical properties. Inheriting such an outstanding combination of specifications, they are nowadays considered as the promising materials in the aerospace and biomedical industries. However, the presence of high abrasive reinforcing particles in MMCs leads to severe manufacturing issues. Due to the tool-particle interactions which occur during the machining of MMCs, high tool wear and poor surface finish are induced and those elements are considered as the main drawbacks of cutting MMCs. In this study, dry turning experiments were conducted for two different inserts and coated carbide on a bar of titanium metal matrix composite (Ti-MMC). Semi-finishing machining is operated with cutting parameters based on the tool supplier's recommendations which were not fully optimized. The maximum flank wear length (VBBmax) was selected as the tool wear criteria.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2201
Joshua Benhabib
Manufacturing operations introduce unreliability into hardware that is not ordinarily accounted for by reliability design engineering efforts. Inspections and test procedures normally interwoven into fabrication processes are imperfect, and allow defects to escape which later result in field failures. Therefore, if the reliability that is designed and developed into an equipment/system is to be achieved, efforts must be applied during production to insure that reliability is built into the hardware. There are various ways to improve the reliability of a product. These include: Simplification Stress reduction/strength enhancement Design Improvement Using higher quality components Environmental Stress Screening before shipment Process Improvements, etc. This paper concentrates on ‘Manufacturing Process Improvement’ effort through the use of design of experiments, (DOE). Hence, improved levels of reliability can be achieved.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2276
Greg Doudrich, Guillaume Corriveau, Denis Walch, Kahina Oudjehani, Franck Dervault
Implementing Design for Environment (DfE) into the design process requires a strategic integration. Furthermore, as DfE is continuously evolving, flexible processes need to be implemented. This article focuses on the integration of DfE into an optimization framework with the objective of influencing next-generation aircraft. For this purpose, DfE and Structures groups are developing together a set of new environmental indicators covering all life cycle stages of the product by coupling a list of yes/no questions with an environmental matrix. The following indicators are calculated: Regulation risk, Impact of manufacturing the part, CO2 emissions and Recyclability potential. These indicators will be used as constraints in the multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework, meaning that the structure will be designed while complying with environmental targets and anticipating future regulation changes.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2248
Eric Theroux, Yan Galarneau, Mingyuan Chen
Statistical process control (SPC) has been extensively used in many different industries including automotive, electronics, and aerospace, among others. SPC tools such as control charts, process capability analysis, sampling inspection, etc., have definitive and powerful impact on quality control and improvement for mass production and similar production systems. In aerospace manufacturing, however, applications of SPC tools are more challenging, especially when these tools are implemented in processes producing products of large sizes with slower production rates. For instance, following a widely accepted rule-of-thumb, about 100 units of products are required in the first phase of implementing a Shewhart type control chart. Once established, it then can be used for process control in the second phase for actual production process monitoring and control.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2318
Gustavo Fujiwara, Luciano Martinez Stefanini, Otavio Silvares
A particular field of aerospace engineering is dedicated to the study of aircraft that are so energetically efficient, that the power produced by a human being enables it to takeoff and maintain sustained flight without any external or stored energy. These aircraft are known as Human-Powered Aircraft (HPA). The objective of the present work is to design a single-seat HPA applying multidisciplinary optimization techniques with an objective function that minimizes both the power required and the stall speed, representing respectively, an easier and safer aircraft to fly. In the first stage, a parametric synthesis model is created to generate random aircraft and assess their aerodynamic(utilizing a 3D vortex lattice method code and a component drag buildup method for the drag polar), stability and control(utilizing static stability criteria), weight (estimated using historical data) and performance (using the thus calculated data) characteristics.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2329
Jean-Charles Saint-Marc, Hamid Dalir
During the course of an aircraft program, cost and weight savings are two major areas demanding constant improvements. An Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) was set to the task of proposing potential improvements to an aircraft under development. From a list of potential parts, the IPDT selected one which was considered as the most suitable to leverage a co-curing process. In the aircraft manufacturing industry, any major modification to a part design should follow the program's means of compliance to certification. Furthermore, to demonstrate the new design's safety, sizing methodology and all supplementary testing must fit in the certification strategy. The IPDT approach was used to ensure the maturity of both process and part. Indeed, a mature turnkey solution can be implemented quickly on the shop floor. This IPDT approach is detailed in another SAE 2013 technical paper entitled: “A Novel Approach for Technology Development: A Success Story” [3].
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2321
Siddhartho K. Banerjee, Percey Thomas, Xiao Cai
Current transport aircraft are mature systems, thus require increased fidelity at the beginning of the design process to allow further optimization. Furthermore, a desire exists to explore unconventional aircraft configurations at the conceptual level. This has motivated the development of a tool which effectively manages the trade-off between high-fidelity levels, flexibility and short turn-around times. This paper presents a CATIA V5-based parametric aircraft geometry modeler developed by Bombardier Aerospace. The aim of the tool is to provide consistent high-fidelity geometric data early in the conceptual aircraft design process. The intended near-term use of the modeler is two-fold: during the early design phase, the modeler computes geometric data such as areas, volumes, ESDU aircraft parameters, etc. In the competitive analysis domain, the tool provides a high-quality three-dimensional model with manageable effort.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2142
Mostafa S.A. El Sayed, Miguel Alejandro Gutierrez Contreras, Nicholas Stathopoulos
With the high design/performance requirements in modern aircrafts, the need for a flexible airframe structural modeling strategy during the different phases of the airframe development process becomes a paramount. Hybrid structural modeling is a technique that is used for aircraft structural representation in which several Finite Element Modeling concepts are employed to model different parts of the airframe. Among others, the Direct Matrix Input at a Grid-Point (DMIG) approach has shown superiority in developing high fidelity, yet, simplified Finite Element Models (FEM's). While the deformation approach is a common choice for loads recovery in structures represented by stick models, using structural models simulated by the DMIG representation requires the adoption of a different approach for loads recovery applications, namely, the momentum approach.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2206
Gustavo Franco Esdras, Susan Liscouet-Hanke
During the development of an aircraft, a comprehensive understanding of the electrical load profile is essential to properly estimate the required electrical power to be generated and distributed by the electrical system, also known as EPGDS - Electrical Power Generation and Distribution System. By sizing the EPGDS early in the development process, system parameters like weight and volume can be estimated and applied to the multidisciplinary design optimization process, in search for optimized design solutions at the conceptual aircraft level when developing integrated aircraft systems. With this in mind, a methodology was developed to estimate the amount of electrical power required by the aircraft systems during a typical mission flight cycle.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2214
Louis Laberge Lebel, Paul Trudeau
The need for efficient manufacturing approaches has emerged with the increasing usage of composites for structural components in commercial aviation. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), a process where a fiber preform is injected with resin into a closed tool, can achieve high fiber content required for structural components as well as improved dimensional accuracy since all surfaces are controlled by a tool surface. Moreover, RTM is well suited for parts that can be standardized throughout the aircraft, such as a fuselage frames and stringers. The objective of this investigation is to develop a preforming approach for a C-Shaped Fuselage frame. Two approaches are proposed: tri-axial braiding and hand lay-up of Non-Crimp Fabrics. The fiber architecture of the basic materials as well as the complete preforms is explained. The necessary preforming operations are detailed. The quality control measurement of fiber orientation and thickness are presented.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2217
Sunil Mistry
This study investigates challenges associated with integrating a passenger (PAX) door on complex compound curvature (CCC) fuselages. Aerospace companies are investigating concepts that no-longer have constant cross-section (CS) fuselages. The PAX door is based on a generic semi-plug door for a long range business jet (BJ). This study investigates limitations of locating the door by varying the transition zone angle. A parametric CATIA tool, coupled with the use of finite element model (FEM) results can highlight key drivers in the design and location of PAX doors, creating a first-draft structural layout. The associated impact on the design and structural architecture for a fold down PAX door with integrated stairs is discussed. The impact of CCCs on the PAX door design is investigated with consideration to location, kinematics and function of the door.
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