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Viewing 1 to 30 of 133
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1946
Federica Franzoni, Massimo Milani, Luca Montorsi, Valeri Golovitchev
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1929
J. Yang, V. I. Golovitchev, P. Redon, J. Javier Lopez Sanchez
The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in increased NOx emissions; this presents a barrier to the widespread use of biodiesel. The origins of this phenomenon were investigated using the CFD KIVA3V code, which was modified to account for the physical properties of biodiesel and to incorporate semi-detailed mechanisms for its combustion and the formation of emissions. Parametric φ-T maps and 3D engine simulations were used to assess the impact of using oxygen-containing fuels on the rate of NO formation. It was found that using oxygen-containing fuels allows more O₂ molecules to present in the engine cylinder during the combustion of biodiesel, and this may be the cause of the observed increase in NO emissions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0652
Peter Gullberg, Raja Sengupta
Underhood Thermal Management has become an important topic for the majority of automotive OEM's. To keep combustion engines cool and manage waste heat efficiently is an important part in the design of vehicles with low fuel consumption. To be able to predict cooling performance and underhood airflow with good precision within a virtual design process, it is of utmost importance to model and simulate the cooling fan efficiently and accurately, and this has turned out to be challenging. Simulating the cooling fan in a vehicle installation involves capturing complex fluid dynamic interaction between rotating blades and stationary objects in the vicinity of the fan. This interaction is a function of fan rotation rate, fan blade profile, upstream and downstream installation components. The flow is usually highly turbulent and small geometry details, like the distance between the blade tip and the fan shroud, have strong impact on the fan performance characteristics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0653
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl
Abstract The work investigates the integration between tools for analysis and simulation of cooling systems at Volvo Group Trucks Technology. At the same time it is a consequent step in evaluating GT-SUITE for the purposes of analysis and simulation of such systems. The focus is on 1D simulation tools, which are generally preferred in the context of transient simulations of engine and power train installation systems. The Cooling Analysis and Simulations group at Volvo Group Trucks Technology use a variety of 1D simulation tools for analysis of cooling performance. Volvo Power Train, on the other hand, use among others GT-SUITE for engine simulations. It is expected to improve the quality of the simulation, (i.e the accuracy of the results) and improve system integration by using one tool for both areas of simulation. This work delivers two transient models of FH 13L cooling system integrated with a predictive model of the engine and a detailed model of the main coolant circuit.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-052
Valeri I. Golovitchev, Jonas Gustavsson, Giuseppe Cantore, Luca Montorsi, Felice E. Corcione
Computational simulations of the spray combustion and emissions formation processes in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine and in a small-bore DI diesel engine with a complicated injection schedule were performed by using the modified KIVA3V, rel. 2 code. Some initial parameter sets varying engine operating conditions, such as injection pressure, injector nozzle diameter, EGR load, were examined in order to evaluate their effects on the engine performance. Full-scale combustion chamber representations on 360-deg, Cartesian and polar, multiblock meshes with a different number of sprays have been used in the modelling unlike the conventional approach based on polar sector meshes covering the region around one fuel spray. The spray combustion phenomena were simulated using the detailed chemical mechanism for diesel fuel surrogate (69 species and 306 reactions).
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-051
Jin Kusaka, Nobuhiko Horie, Yasuhiro Daisho, V. I. Golovichev, Shigeki Nakayama
To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-046
Tobias Husberg, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt, Johan Engström
This study aims to show how both NOx and soot are affected by EGR dilution when constant, as well as variations in equivalence ratio is applied together with multiple injection strategies. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder heavy duty research engine. The effects of both EGR and equivalence ratio on partly premixed combustion were investigated. Multiple injections strategies were combined with high EGR levels and lean mixtures. Multiple injections were used to control the combustion phasing and the level of the premixed combustion rate. The diesel combustion conditioning by means of premixed combustion rate, EGR level and oxidant equivalence ratio, leads to low engine emissions. In the load range and configuration tested, emission levels below future emission standards e.g. EURO V have been shown, with no BSFC penalty or exhaust aftertreatment.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-039
Andreas Berntsson, Ingemar Denbratt
Future requirements for emission reduction from combustion engines in ground vehicles might be met by using the HCCI combustion concept. In this concept a more or less homogenous air fuel mixture is compressed to auto ignition. This gives good fuel consumption compared to a normal SI engine and its ability to burn lean mixtures at low temperatures has a positive impact on exhaust emissions. However, there are challenges associated with this concept, for instance its limited operating range and combustion control. The objective of this work is to investigate a hybrid concept, based on a combination of HCCI combustion of n-heptane and SI combustion of hydrogen. The basic idea is to initiate HCCI combustion with a spark ignited stratified lean hydrogen mixture. To verify that the combustion sequence consists of flame front combustion followed by HCCI combustion, photographs of OH chemiluminescence from the combustion were taken.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1646
Tobias Husberg, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt, Alaa Omrane, Marcus Aldén, Johan Engström
Piston temperature experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel research engine, based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine both by use of optical temperature sensitive phosphor and of thermocouples mounted on the piston surface. In the former case, a thin coating of a suitable thermographic phosphor was applied to the areas on the piston surface to be investigated. The optical measurements of piston temperatures made involved use of an optical window and of an endoscope. The possibility of using optical fibres into guide light in and out of the engine was also investigated. Results of the optical and of the thermocouple measurements were compared and were also related to more global data with the aim of exploring the use of thermographic phosphors for piston- temperature measurements in Diesel engines. Thermographic phosphors thermometry was found to represent an alternative to the thermocouple method since it easily can be applied to various piston geometries.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0029
Arjan Helmantel, Ingemar Denbratt
One of the problems encountered when operating Diesel engines in HCCI mode is a too early start of combustion, due to the low ignition resistance of Diesel fuels. Correct phasing of the combustion process requires a lower in-cylinder temperature during compression. One possibility of regulating the temperature is to adjust the intake valve closing timing and thus the effective compression ratio. A single cylinder research engine, configured as a passenger car type DI Common Rail Diesel engine, was fitted with a fully adjustable hydraulic valve train, which allowed free settings of the valve timing events. Premixed combustion was achieved by injecting the fuel during the compression stroke, prior to ignition, in multiple steps. Different combinations of intake valve closing timing and external EGR were tested as well as the possibility to use internal EGR for combustion control.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0075
Malin Alriksson, Ingemar Denbratt
The possibilities for extending the range of engine loads in which soot and NOx emissions can be minimised by using low temperature combustion in conjunction with high levels of EGR was investigated in a series of experiments with a single cylinder research engine. The results show that very low levels of both soot and NOx emissions can be achieved at engine loads up to 50 % by reducing the compression ratio to 14 and applying high levels of EGR (up to approximately 60 %). Unfortunately, the low temperature combustion is accompanied by increases in fuel consumption and emissions of both HC and CO. However, these drawbacks can be reduced by advancing the injection timing. The research engine was a 2 litre direct injected (DI), supercharged, heavy duty, single cylinder diesel engine with a geometry based on Volvo's 12 litre engine, and the amount of EGR was increased by adjusting the exhaust back pressure while keeping the charge air pressure constant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0337
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
Abstract The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2695
Xiaoqi Cui, Arjan Helmantel, Valeri Golovichev, Ingemar Denbratt
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to compare the effects of fuel composition on combustion parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in engine tests and simulations with five fuels: a Diesel-water emulsion, a Diesel-ethanol blend, a Diesel-ethanol blend with EHN (cetane number improver), a Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and an ultra-low sulfur content Diesel. The engine used in the experiments was a light duty, single cylinder, direct injection, common rail Diesel engine equipped with a cylinder head and piston from a Volvo NED5 engine. In tests with each fuel the engine was operated at two load points (3 bar IMEP and 10 bar IMEP), and a pilot-main fuel injection strategy was applied under both load conditions. Data were also obtained from 3-D CFD simulations, using the KIVA code, to compare to the experimental results and to further analyze the effects of water and ethanol on combustion.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2813
Jan Eismark, Michael Balthasar, Anders Karlsson, Timothy Benham, Magnus Christensen, Ingemar Denbratt
Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2815
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
When increasing EGR from low levels to a level that corresponds to low temperature combustion, soot emissions initially increase due to lower soot oxidation before decreasing to almost zero due to very low soot formation. At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are low, but not sufficiently low to comply with future emission standards and at the EGR level where low temperature combustion occurs CO and HC emissions are too high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities for shifting the so-called soot bump (where soot levels are increased) to higher EGR levels, or to reduce the magnitude of the soot bump using very high injection pressures (up to 240 MPa) while reducing the NOx emissions using EGR. The possibility of reducing the CO and HC emissions at high EGR levels due to the increased mixing caused by higher injection pressure was also investigated and the flame was visualized using an endoscope at chosen EGR values.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2787
Monica AC Johansson, Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased.
2009-10-01
Technical Paper
2009-01-3067
Peter Gullberg, Lennart Löfdahl, Steven Adelman, Peter Nilsson
A common fan model to use in automotive under hood simulations is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model and within the industry, for this specific application, this model is well known to under predict performance. In a former paper, referenced 2009-01-0178, a simple “speed correction” of the MRF model was proposed by the authors'. The correction was shown to apply across different operating speeds for a specific fan. In this paper the generality and limitation of this correction across fans of different type, design and dimensions are investigated. Investigated in this paper is as well the sensitivity of the MRF model to specific methodology of use. In this paper it is shown that the speed correction of 14% proposed in the former paper applies widely, hence, although the MRF model is erroneous the error is consistent.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1719
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
In order to avoid the high CO and HC emissions associated with low temperature when using high levels of EGR, partially premixed combustion is an interesting possibility. One way to achieve this combustion mode is to increase the ignition delay by adjusting the inlet valve closing timing, and thus the effective compression ratio. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possibilities of using late and early inlet valve closure to reduce NOx emissions without increasing emissions of soot or unburned hydrocarbons, or fuel consumption. The effect of increasing the swirl number (from 0.2 to 2.5) was also investigated. The combustion timing (CA50) was kept constant by adjusting the start of injection and the possibilities of optimizing combustion using EGR and high injection pressures were investigated. Furthermore, the airflow was kept constant for a given EGR level.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0907
Mikael Thor, Bo Egardt, Tomas McKelvey, Ingemar Andersson
Combustion model structures based on Vibe functions are outlined and investigated in this work. The focus of the study is the use of such model structures for estimation of diesel combustion properties by reconstructing in-cylinder pressure from measurements of crankshaft torque. Investigated combustion properties include the start and phasing of the combustion as well as maximum values of the in-cylinder pressure and its derivative. The accuracy associated with the proposed estimation method is evaluated using ideal torque data, i.e. torque calculated from in-cylinder pressure, that is generated using both simulations and experiments. The results indicate that the uncertainty associated with the estimation of a selected combustion property tends to increase if that property is located close to TDC, where the signal-to-noise ratio is low for a torque signal.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2182
Peter Gullberg, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Nilsson
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972936
Håkan Sandquist, Johan Wallesten, Karin Enwald, Stefan Strömberg
This work investigates the influence of valve overlap strategies on residual gas fraction, combustion parameters and cycle to cycle IMEP variations on a Volvo four-valve pentroof single cylinder SI engine at idle. The mass fraction of residual gas was recorded as a function of valve timing. The measurements employed both symmetrically positioned overlaps with varied overlap duration and constant overlap duration where the overlap center position was displaced relative to TDC. The engine was running on true idle and the exhaust-intake pressure difference was approximately 0.7 bar. Results from one dimensional engine simulations have been compared with the experimental data. It is shown that there are factors affecting the burn duration as much as, or under certain circumstances even more than, the residual gas fraction. A displacement of the overlap center position 10 CAD ATDC results in increased burn duration and cyclic IMEP variations while the residual gas fraction decreases.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971669
Joakim Bood, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Fabian Mauss, Klaas Burgdorf, Ingemar Denbratt
Cycle-resolved end-gas temperatures were measured using dual-broadband rotational CARS in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements were used as an indicator for knock and as input data to numerical calculations. The chemical processes in the end-gas have been analysed with a detailed kinetic mechanism for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane at different Research Octane Numbers (RON'S). The end-gas is modelled as a homogeneous reactor that is compressed or expanded by the piston movement and the flame propagation in the cylinder. The calculated temperatures are in agreement with the temperatures evaluated from CARS measurements. It is found that calculations with different RON'S of the fuel lead to different levels of radical concentrations in the end-gas. The apperance of the first stage of the autoignition process is marginally influenced by the RON, while the ignition delay of the second stage is increased with increasing RON.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971670
Klaas Burgdorf, Anders Karlström
The wavelet transform is used in the analysis of the cylinder pressure trace and the ionic current trace of a knocking, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine. Using the wavelet transform offers a significant reduction of mathematical operations when compared with traditional filtering techniques based on the Fourier transform. It is shown that conventional knock analysis in terms of average energy in the time domain (AETD), corresponding to the signal's energy content, and maximum amplitude in the time domain (MATD), corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the bandpass filtered signal, can be applied to both the reconstructed filtered cylinder pressure and the wavelet coefficients. The use of the filter coefficients makes possible a significant additional reduction in calculation effort in comparison with filters based on the windowed Fourier transform.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972964
Lisa Jacobsson, Jerzy Chomiak
A series of experimental studies of diesel spray combustion was carried out using non-circular and back-step orifices. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder engine and in a constant volume combustion chamber. In the engine tests, elliptic orifices with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1 were compared with circular orifices. The elliptic orifices had sharp inlets and the circular orifices had rounded inlets. Elliptic orifices aligned with either the minor axis or the major axis in the direction of the nozzle tip were tested. The orifice shapes had minor effects on the heat release, ignition delay, and emissions of smoke, CO and HC. However, substantial differences were observed for emissions of NOx: for the vertical elliptic orifices, emissions up to 37.6 percent lower than with circular orifices were observed. In the combustion bomb tests, rectangular and back-step orifices were compared with circular orifices, all with sharp inlets.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972993
Andrei N. Lipatnikov, Jerzy Chomiak
A model of premixed turbulent combustion is modified for multi-dimensional computations of SI engines. This approach is based on the use of turbulent flame speed in order to suggest a closed balance equation for the mean combustion progress variable. The model includes a single unknown input parameter to be tuned. This model is tested against two sets of experimental data obtained by Bradley et al [17, 18 and 19] and Karpov and Severin [15] in fan-stirred bombs. The model quantitatively predicts the development of the turbulent flame speed, the effects of the initial pressure, temperature, and mixture composition on the turbulent flame speed, and the effects of r.m.s. turbulent velocity and burning mixture composition on the rate of the pressure rise. These results were computed with the same value of the aforementioned unknown input parameter of the model.
1993-11-01
Technical Paper
933050
Sixten Berglund
An engine model for use in computer simulation of transient behavior in drivetrain and vehicle systems is presented. Two elements, important for deviation (e.g. turbo-lag) from steady state characteristics, are the inertia of the supercharging unit (turbo shaft) and the fuel injection control system. No extensive combustion calculations are carried out within the model. Instead it uses condensed results from existing combustion models and measurements. The model is semi-empirical. Some of the engine specific properties needed for simulation are (e.g. for a turbocharged diesel): engine data in steady state operation, mappings of compressor and turbine performance, inertia of the engine components condensed to the crankshaft, turbo shaft inertia, displacement, compression ratio and the essentials of the fuel injection control strategy. Input parameters to the computer program based on the model are accelerator pedal position and external torque acting on the flywheel.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952512
Henrik Simonsen, Jerzy Chomiak
The ignition delay of ethanol with different nitrate and polyethylene glycol based ignition improvers was investigated in a single-cylinder DI Diesel engine. The nitrate-based improvers provided a shorter ignition delay than the polyethylene glycol improvers, but the results indicate that the efficiency of the polyethylene glycol improvers increases with the length of the molecular chains. Comparison with reference fuels gives a cetane number of approximately 44 for ethanol with 4% of the best nitrate-based improver versus 40 for ethanol with 7% polyethylene glycol improver. It is shown, that the random ignition delay for all the fuels has a normal distribution, and that the reference fuel of every measurement series has a constant expected ignition delay. Ignition delay measurements in a constant-volume combustion vessel failed to produce the same trends as in the engine for the ethanol fuels.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971596
V. Golovitchev, N. Nordin, J. Chomiak
Methanol, MeOH, is one of the most attractive alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. In diesel applications, methanol's poor ignition properties necessitate the use of expensive additives for ignition improvement [1]. Dimethyl ether, DME, as a combustion improver for methanol, was recently evaluated in [2]. This study is directed towards a better understanding of the auto-ignition and combustion of a blend fuel composition consisting of liquid methanol and gaseous dimethyl ether aspirated with the combustion air by using the results of numerical simulation. The numerical model was based on the computer code KIVA-3. The computational results show that the use of DME as an ignition improver is only reasonable for gas temperatures below 900 K. At typical diesel conditions, an amount of DME in a quantity less than 10-15 volumetric percent of oxygen content in the combustion volume is sufficient for ignition improvement.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982537
V. I. Golovitchev, N. Nordin, J. Chomiak
The CFD model, based on the LANL KIVA-3 computer code, modified to account for the multi-step dimethyl ether, DME/air, oxidation chemistry, was developed and used to study the neat DME combustion dynamics in a constant volume at Diesel-like conditions and in the Volvo AH10A245DI Diesel engine. Constant volume simulations confirm high ignition quality of neat DME in air. The results of engine modeling illustrate that the injection schedule used for Diesel fuel is not optimal for DME. Surprisingly, the positive gain and peak pressure levels comparable with those for Diesel fuel were obtained using an early (∼ -20 ATDC) injection through a nozzle of a larger diameter at reduced injection pressures and velocities (∼150m/s) preventing too rapid spray atomization. At these conditions, combustion heat release has a specific two-stage character with a peak value placed behind the TDC.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982530
Savo Gjirja, Erik Olsson, Anders Karlström
ABSRACT This paper depicts the main topics of the experimental investigation on alcohol engine development field, aiming at the engineering targets for the emission levels. The first part of this study was focused on engine design optimization for running on ethanol mixed with poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) as ignition improver. It was shown that some design changes in compression ratio, turbine casing, injector nozzle configuration and exhaust pressure governor (EPG) activation, lead to a better engine thermodynamics and its thermochemistry. The second objective of this study was the investigation of engine performance and emission levels, when the ignition improver diethyl ether (DEE) would be generated on board via catalytically dehydration of ethanol, and used directly as soluble mixture or separately fumigated.
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