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Viewing 1 to 30 of 33
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0710
Zhijian James Wu, Bryon Wasacz
The fuel air ratio imbalance between individual cylinders can result in poor fuel economy and severe exhaust emissions. Individual cylinder fuel air ratio control is one of the important techniques used to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emission. California Air Resources Board (CARB) also has required automotive manufacturers to equip with on-board diagnosis system for cylinder fuel air ratio imbalance detection starting in 2011. However, one of the most challenging tasks for the individual cylinder fuel air ratio control and cylinder imbalance diagnosis is how to retrieve the cylinder fuel air ratio information effectively at low cost. This paper presents a novel and practical signal processing based fuel air ratio estimation method for individual cylinder fuel air ratio balance control and on-board fuel air ratio imbalance diagnosis.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1502
Shankar Natarajan, Sathish Kumar S, Ricardo Amaral, Sadek Rahman
Simulation has become an integral part in the design and development of an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system. Simulation is widely used for both system level and component level analyses and are carried out with one-dimensional (1D) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. This paper describes a 1D approach to model refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin to simulate the soak and cool down analysis. Soak and cool down is one of the important tests that is carried out to test the performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle. Ability to simulate this cool down cycle is thus very useful. 1D modeling is done for the two-phase flow through the refrigerant loop and air flow across the heat exchangers and cabin with the commercial software AMESim. The model is able to predict refrigerant pressure and temperature inside the loop at different points in the cycle.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1503
Sathish Kumar S, Shankar Natarajan, Michael V Rinaldi
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the amount of work done by the compressor is also influenced by the suction line which meters the refrigerant flow. Optimizing the AC suction line routing has thus become an important challenge and the plumbing designers are required to come up with innovative packaging solutions. These solutions are required in the early design stages when prototypes are not yet appropriate. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution. In this paper, an approach of creating a modeling tool for suction line pressure drop prediction is discussed. Using DFSS approach L12 design iterations are created and simulations are carried out using 1D AMESim software. Prototypes are manufactured and tested on HVAC bench calorimeter. AC suction line pressure drop predicted using the 1D modeling co-related well with the test data and the error is less than 5%.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0902
Virgiliu-Adrian Savu, Yung-Li Lee, Anthony Han, Azadeh Narimissa, Amir Kazemi
Abstract Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0985
Xiaoming Chen, Ching-Kuo Hsiung, Ken Schmid, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Chris Roman
Abstract Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0943
Paul R. Stibich, Yu Hsien Wu, Weidong Zhang, Michao Guo, Kumar Srinivasan, Sreekanth Surapaneni
Abstract This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0921
Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Mike Gundle, Mike Rowley, Alan Aloe, Frederick Zweng, Eric Blackburn, Chandra Thandhayuthapani, Chandra Thonta, Edward Law, Kah Wah Long, Mike Temkin, Zachary Calkins
Abstract Fuel Tank Straps very often get different durability fatigue test results from different types of durability testing such as shaker table vibration, road test simulator (RTS) vehicle testing and proving ground vehicle durability testing. One test produces good durability results and other may indicate some durability risk. A special study was conducted to address this inconsistency. It was found that fuel level in the tank plays a big role in fuel tank strap durability. Higher fuel levels in a tank produce higher loads in straps and lower fatigue life. This paper will use a CAE fuel tank strap model and acquired proving ground strap load data to study fuel level influence in fuel tank strap durability. The fuel level study includes a full tank of fuel, 3 quarters tank of fuel, a half tank of fuel and one quarter tank of fuel.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0926
Weidong Zhang, Mingchao Guo, Paul Stibich, Ram Bhandarkar
Abstract This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0912
Wenxin Qin, Fred Zweng, Sandip Datta
Abstract In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0913
Guofei Chen, Mingchao Guo, Weidong Zhang
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0644
Yu Hsien Wu, Sreekanth Surapaneni, Kumar Srinivasan, Paul Stibich
Abstract Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0407
Jafar Albinmousa, Adrian Pascu, Hamid Jahed, M.F. Horstemeyer, Alan Luo, D. Chen, Steve Lambert, J. Jordon, S. Begum, Xuming Su, Q.Q. Duan, Richard Osborne, Z. Zhang, Lin Zhang, T. Luo, Yuansheng Yang
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1270
Hussein Dourra
Two on-line algorithms have been developed to acquire driveline component loads in terms of revolutions at torque and rainflow cycle counting matrix. These algorithms have been implemented in real-time on a standard engine controller unit and have been optimized for fast run-time and low memory requirements. The revolutions at torque algorithm is intended to count the number of driveshaft revolutions in each torque level for each gear and store the number of counts in the engine controller memory. The rainflow cycle counting algorithm is intended to count driveshaft torque cycles and to store the number of counts in a two dimensional “from-to” matrix format in the engine controller memory. The revolutions at torque histogram data and the rainflow cycle counting matrix are then downloaded from the vehicle using the data collection device. Download occurs when the vehicle is serviced at a dealership.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1009
Touhid Zarrin-Ghalami, Ali Fatemi, Yung-Li Lee
Elastomers have large reversible elastic deformation, good damping and high energy absorption capabilities. Due to these characteristics along with low cost of manufacturing, elastomeric components are widely used in many industries and applications, including in automobiles. These components are typically subjected to complex multiaxial and variable amplitude cyclic loads during their service life. Therefore, fatigue failure and life prediction are important issues in the design and analyses of these components. Availability of an effective CAE technique to evaluate fatigue damage and to predict fatigue life under complex loading conditions is a valuable tool for such analysis. This paper discusses a general CAE analytical technique for durability analysis and life prediction of elastomeric components. The methodology is then illustrated and verified by using experimental fatigue test results from an automobile cradle mount.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1003
Barry (Baizhong) Lin
The common practice in finite element based fatigue calculation with multiple channels of road load is to perform a set of unit load static stress analysis and conduct stress time history construction later during fatigue calculation. The main advantage of this so-called quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is to avoid time-consuming dynamic stress analysis and also reduce static stress analysis from millions of real load cases to a few dozens unit-load cases. The main disadvantage of this quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is the absence of vibration-induced stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue analysis. A decade ago, a modal transient finite element based fatigue calculation was proposed to introduce vibration-induced stresses into finite element based fatigue calculation. The idea is to add vibration-induced modal stresses to load-induced instant stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue calculation.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0949
Rebeca Lumbreras, Xichen Sun, Gary Barber, Qian Zou
There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1201
Mingchao Guo, Kaizhi Quan, Suresh Bhosale, Congyue Wang, Sridhar Srikantan
Contacts or interactions commonly exist between adjacent components in automotive structures, and most of the time they dominate stress status of the components. However, when the routine pseudo stress approach is employed in fatigue life estimations, simulating contacts present special challenges. This may result in coarse stress status and corresponding coarser fatigue life estimations at the contact locations. In this paper, concept, development and procedures of two techniques to consider contacts in fatigue life estimations of automotive structures are described in detail. One is still pseudo stress approach based, but employs additional 1-D connection elements to simulate contacts. The other is nonlinear stress approach based, but equivalent constantly repeating cyclic critical load cases are introduced and utilized. The contacts are simulated by interface setup provided in the software.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1204
Wenxin Qin
Most manufacturing and assembly processes like stamping, clamping, interference fits introduce a pre-stress condition in components or assemblies. Very often these stresses are high enough and alter the mean stress state resulting in significant effect on fatigue life performance and thus cannot be ignored. If the pre-stress is compressive, it will increase the allowable stress range and improve fatigue life performance; on the other hand if these stresses are tensile, they will decrease the allowable stress range resulting in a degradation of fatigue life. At times it becomes critical to effectively introduce the pre-stress condition in order to accurately represent the stress state in an FEA based durability simulation. Accounting for the pre-stress state in FEA based constant amplitude loading fatigue life simulation is relatively straight forward, but when it comes to random variable amplitude multi-channel loads simulation, the problem becomes more complicated.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1206
Weidong Zhang, Mingchao Guo, Sridhar Srikantan
An accurate representation of proving ground loading is essential for nonlinear Finite Element analysis and component fatigue test. In this paper, a rainflow counting based multiple blocks loading development procedure is described. The procedure includes: (1) Rainflow counting analysis to obtain the relationship between load range and cumulative repeats and the statistical relationship between load range and mean load; (2) Formation of preliminary multiple loading blocks with specified load range, mean load, and the approximate cycle repeats, and construction of the preliminary multiple loading blocks; (3) Calibration and finalization of the repeats for preliminary multiple loading blocks according to the equivalent damage rule, meaning that the damage value due to the block loads is equivalent to that from a PG loading.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1171
Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Sathya Dev, Deepak Bhuyan, Parvez Syed, Sarin Babu Thokala
Automotive industry's migration to usage of HSS (High Strength Steels), AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels) from conventional steels for their low weight and high strength properties has had its significant effects on die wear. The unpredictability of die wear can pose manufacturing issues, for example, undesirable tool life. Hence die wear has been gaining immense attention and lot of research work has been carried out to provide a die wear prediction method. This paper focuses on the method of estimating wear mathematically based on the mechanics behind die wear phenomenon. This is also an effort to study wear on die for an automotive component in critical areas for which the amount of wear are calculated. This study is further to be correlated with production data from die maintenance record, explicit measurement of die wear, etc., to validate the estimation.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0017
Nancy Zeng, Randy L. Dickerman
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0954
Ron Shreeve, Kah Wah Long, Jamal Alghanem
Strain gages have been widely used for measuring strain or deformation. They are very reliable and accurate. However, for application on fabric material, strain gages have their limitations. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation around the rear window on a convertible top. The test needed to be non destructive, the vehicle and convertible top could not be damaged. The deformation or strain measured on the fabric was used to estimate the force experienced at the interface between the glass and the fabric during an opening/closing application. A speckle pattern was created on the convertible fabric where deformation was to be measured with washable paint. The image of the measured area was first recorded. The convertible top was then latched down and the fabric was stretched. A second image was recorded again. Based on the two images, the deformation/strain between the two conditions was measured.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0986
Dajun Zhou, Changqing Du, John Siekirk, John McGuire, Xiaoming Chen, Bernard S. Levy
Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0329
Sandeep Makam, Yung-Li Lee, Pradeep Attibele
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. The concept of one-sided lower tolerance limits for a normal distribution was first introduced by G. J. Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments. This developed methodology can be used to generate confidence bounds for any parametric distribution. The ready-to-use table for the one-sided lower tolerance limits for a Weibull distribution is presented.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0173
Andrew D. Clark, Derek O. Northwood, Randy J. Bowers, Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
Carburized parts often see use in powertrain components for the automotive industry. These parts are commonly quenched and tempered after the carburizing process. The present study compared the austempering heat treatment to the traditional quench-and-temper process for carburized parts. Samples were produced from SAE 8620, 4320, and 8822 steels and heat treated across a range of conditions for austempering and for quench-and-tempering. Distortion was examined through the use of Navy C-Ring samples. Microstructure, hardness, and Charpy toughness were also examined. X-ray diffraction was used to compare the residual stress found in the case of the components after the quench-and-temper and the austempering heat treatments. Austempering samples showed less distortion and higher compressive residual stresses, while maintaining comparable hardness values in both case and core. Toughness measurements were also comparable between both processes.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0955
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Joshua Kamrad
Time-temperature analysis methods are usually applied to predict the useful life of automotive components. Components life is affected by exposure to heat during vehicle service life. The extent of reduction in component life, which may be caused by material thermal degradation, depends on the component temperature and the time duration at that temperature. The rate of material thermal degradation of automotive components varies widely depending on material thermal stability, vehicle duty cycle, and the thermal environment that the component is exposed to. Thermodynamic properties such as the activation energy of each material are used to determine the rate of thermal degradation [1,2]. In this approach, material thermal degradation models are used to predict component life during the service life of a vehicle. As the rate of thermal degradation increases with increasing material temperature, the useful life of a component will be reduced as the material temperature increases.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0756
Jaewon Lee, Jwo Pan, Yung-Li Lee
An analytical load distribution solution for calculation of the loads exerted by the rolling elements on the outer raceway in cylindrical roller bearings under radial loading is proposed in this paper. The loads exerted by the rolling elements are obtained based on an assumption that the profile of the maximum contact pressures of rolling elements resemble the profile of the contact pressure of the corresponding lumped cylinder. Based on this assumption, an analytical load distribution solution which gives the loads exerted by the rolling elements on the outer raceway is derived based on the non-conforming contact solution of Hertz and the conforming contact solution of Persson. These loads can be calculated from the analytical solution with the total applied load and the normalized contact pressure profile of the corresponding lumped cylinder. Two-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted to validate the proposed analytical solutions.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0757
John P. Quigley, Yung-Li Lee
Fatigue analysis in the time domain using the rainflow cycle counting algorithm is considered the most accurate method for estimating damage. Dirlik's method has been found to be very accurate for damage estimation in the frequency domain. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of Dirlik's method for ocean engineering and wind turbines but few have shown how well Dirlik performs in automotive applications. This study compares Dirlik's method with the rainflow cycle counting and with other frequency domain methods. The study analyzes measured data for an automotive component subjected to five test track load conditions. In addition, fourteen of Dirlik's original spectra and seven additional spectra which combine sine and random spectra are studied. It was found that Dirlik's method predicts more damage than the rainflow cycle counting method when applied to the original data used in creating the method.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0487
Nima Shamsaei, Ali Fatemi
A procedure for fatigue life estimation of components and structures under variable amplitude multiaxial loadings based on simple and commonly available material properties is presented. Different aspects of the analysis consisting of load cycle counting method, plasticity model, fatigue damage parameter, and cumulative damage rule are presented. The only needed material properties for the proposed procedure are hardness and monotonic and axial cyclic deformation properties (HB, K, n, K′ and n′). Rainflow cycle counting method is used for identifying number of cycles. Non-proportional cyclic hardening is estimated from monotonic and axial cyclic deformation behaviors. A critical plane approach is used to quantify fatigue damage under variable amplitude multiaxial loading, where only material hardness is used to estimate the fatigue curve, and where the needed deformation response is estimated based on Tanaka's non-proportionality parameter.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0978
Robert C. McCune, Joy Forsmark, Brian Schneider, Alan Luo, Helen Gu, William Schumacher, Xi Chen, Florina Vartolas
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
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