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Viewing 1 to 30 of 38
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2125
Pari Tathavadekar, Kuang-Jen Liu, Senthil Rajan, Patrick Johnson
Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) or vibration absorbers are widely used in the industry to address various NVH issues, wherein, tactile-vibration or noise mitigation is desired. TMDs can be classified into two categories, namely, tuned-to-resonance and tuned-to-discrete-excitation. An overwhelming majority of TMD applications found in the industry belong to the tuned-to-resonance category, so much of information is available on design considerations of such dampers; however, little is published regarding design considerations of dampers tuned-to-discrete-excitation. During this study, a problem was solved that occurred at a discrete excitation frequency away from the primary resonance frequency of a steering column-wheel assembly. A solution was developed in multiple stages. First the effects of various factors such as mass and damping were analyzed by using a closed-form solution.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1032
Mohammed K Billal, B V Moorthy, Dan Aquilina, Steven Schenten
Abstract A snap-fit is a form-fitting joint, which is used to assemble plastic parts together. Snap-fits are available in different forms like a projecting clip, thicker section or legs in one part, and it is assembled to another part through holes, undercuts or recesses. The main function of the snap-fit is to hold the mating components, and it should withstand the vibration and durability loads. Snap-fits are easy to assemble, and should not fail during the assembling process. Based on the design, these joints may be separable or non-separable. The non- separable joints will withstand the loads till failure, while separable joints will withstand only for the design load. The insertion and the retention force calculation for the snaps are very essential for snap-fit design. The finite element analysis plays a very important role in finding the insertion and the retention force values, and also to predict the failure of the snaps and the mating components during this process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0543
Santosh Uttam Bhise, Meyyappan Valliappan
Abstract This paper highlights a simplified CAE model technique, which can simulate and predict door crush strength performance quickly. Such quick models can be used for DFSS and Design change studies. The proposed method suggests an equivalent sub model technique using only the door beam with tuned stiffness end springs to predict FMVSS214S full vehicle crush performance. Such models can be solved in minutes and hence very useful for DFSS studies during product design. The proposed method can be used to finalize door beam design for identical size of vehicle doors to meet required FMVSS214S crush performance. The paper highlights the door beam end springs tuning for identical size of cars and SUVs. Four vehicles were considered for the study. A single spring F-D (force -displacement) is tuned which correlated well for frond door of all the four vehicles. A separate unique spring F-D was needed which correlated well for rear door of all the 4 vehicles.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2152
C. Q. Liu
Based on Woodbury-Sherman-Morrison formula, a general and efficient method for torsional damper tuning is presented. This method is based on exact calculation of the resulting Frequency Response Functions (FRF's) of the system with the damper by using the original (old) FRF's of the original (baseline) system and the damper's parameters (the mass polar moment of inertia, stiffness and damping coefficient). The only requirement for this method is to have the baseline FRF's at the active points of the structure where the damper is to be attached and those point where the resulting FRF's are of interest. The baseline FRF's can be obtained by either analytical or experimental methods. Once this requirement is met, all possible scenarios of the dampers for their potential and feasibility can be efficiently evaluated before being put into service without the need for costly hardware modification and test cycles on actual structure.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0257
Kalu Uduma, Jianping Wu, Brian Beaudet, Darshan Subhash Pawargi
This paper discusses steps for identifying, evaluating and recommending a quantifiable design metric or metrics for Side Airbag (SAB) development. Three functionally related and desirable attributes of a SAB are assumed at the onset, namely, effective SAB coverage, load distribution and efficient energy management at a controlled force level. The third attribute however contradicts the “banana shaped” force-displacement response that characterizes the ineffective energy management reality of most production SAB. In this study, an estimated ATD to SAB interaction energy is used to size and recommend desired force-deformation characteristic of a robust energy management SAB. The study was conducted in the following three phases and corresponding objectives: Phase 1 is a SAB assessment metric identification and estimation, using a uniform block attached to a horizontal impact machine.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0898
Hussein Dourra, Ali Mouratad
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2624
A. T. Little, A. Selamet, A. Iqbal, R. A. Reese, R. K. Vick
This study investigates the autoignition of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) using a detailed kinetic model. The chemical kinetics software CHEMKIN is used to facilitate solutions in a constant volume reactor and a variable volume reactor, with the latter representing an IC engine. Experimental shock tube and HCCI engine data from literature is compared with the present predictions in these two reactors. The model is then used to conduct a parametric study in the constant volume reactor of the effect of inlet pressure, inlet temperature, octane number, fuel/air equivalence ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the autoignition of PRF/air mixtures. A number of interesting characteristics are demonstrated in the parametric study. In particular, it is observed that PRFs can exhibit single or two stage ignition depending on the inlet temperature. The total ignition delay, whether single or two stage, is correlated withn-C7H16/O2 ratio.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1222
Zhijian James Wu, Li (Linda) Chen
This paper presents the studies on how to efficiently and easily implement ECU application algorithms using the Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of the Copperhead microcontroller. With the introduced development and testing concepts and methods, users can easily establish their own PC based SPE emulation system. All application unit testing and verification work for the fixed point implementation using SPE functions can be easily conducted in PC without relying on a costly real time test bench and expensive third party dedicated software. With this simple development environment, the code can be run in both embedded controllers and PCs with exact bit to bit numerical behavior. The paper also demonstrates many other benefits such as code statistics information retrieval, floating simulation mode, automated code verification, online and offline code sharing.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1218
Waseem Jaradat, Joseph Hassan, Guy Nusholtz, Khalil Taraman, Sanaa Taraman
This paper analyzes the difference in impact response of the forehead of the Hybrid III and THOR-NT dummies in free motion headform tests when a dummy strikes the interior trim of a vehicle. Hybrid III dummy head is currently used in FMVSS201 tests. THOR-NT dummy head has been in development to replace Hybrid III head. The impact response of the forehead of both the Hybrid III dummy and THOR dummy was designed to the same human surrogate data. Therefore, when the forehead of either dummy is impacted with the same initial conditions, the acceleration response and consequently the head Injury criterion (HIC) should be similar. A number of manufacturing variables can affect the impacted interior trim panels. This work evaluates the effect of process variation on the response in the form of Head Injury Criterion (HIC).
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0538
Hussein Dourra, Ali Mourtada
Abstract The new Chrysler six-speed transaxle makes use of an underdrive assembly to extend a four-speed automatic transmission to six-speed. It is achieved by introducing double-swap shifts. During double-swap shift, learning the initial clutch torque capacity of the underdrive assembly's subsystem has a direct impact on the shift quality. A new method is proposed to compute and learn the initial clutch torque capacity of the releasing element. In this paper, we will outline a new mathematical method to compute and learn the accurate starting point of the clutch torque capacity for double swap shift control. The performance of the shift is demonstrated and the importance of the adaptation to shift quality is highlighted. An nth order lookup table is presented; this table contains n rows and m columns.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0733
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy
During initial phases of vehicle development process, it is usually required to understand the temperature profile for all components. It is usually more effective and less costly if the thermal issues are determined and addressed before actual vehicles are built. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis tools are typically used for thermal management of the vehicle environment. However, for transient thermal analysis problems, running a full CFD requires solving the mass, momentum, and energy equations. This typically requires a lengthy computation time and extensive computer resources. The problem becomes more challenging when trying to conduct CFD analysis for several design iterations and for different duty cycles that may be of a transient nature. Therefore, the application of one-dimensional analysis early in the development phase can help point out the areas of prime concern.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0191
Bijoy K. Saraf, Michael N. Trutzel, Sukhbir S. Bilkhu, Kalu Uduma, Raj S. Roychoudhury
This paper discusses the simulation based methodology for designing and developing a deployable vehicle door interior trim, an Active Side Bolster (ASB), and its interaction (in FEA simulation) with an ATD in side impact crash test modes like FMVSS2141 Oblique Pole, IIHS2 and LINCAP. The FEA models, especially with the complexity of the full vehicle structure, the ATDs3 and the airbags, require extensive correlation using vehicle tests. A methodology is outlined here to ensure that the model results could be used to generate FEA ATD assessments without a significant numerical contamination of the results. These correlated FEA models for side impact vehicle tests and ATDs were used to simulate various side impact crash test conditions; such as IIHS barrier, the FMVSS-214 Oblique Pole and LINCAP. The ATD responses from the baseline vehicle FEA models and those modified with the addition of an ASB in the door shows improvement in assessment values due to the introduction of the ASB.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0145
F. Hunt, Q. Yang, H. Badarinarayan, K. Okamoto, D. Zhou
Friction stir welding (FSW) shows advantages for joining lightweight alloys for automotive applications. In this research, the feasibility of friction stir welding aluminum for an automotive component application was studied. The objective of this research was to improve the Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) technique used to weld an aluminum closure panel (CP). The spot welds were made using the newly designed swing-FSSW technique. In a previous study (unpublished), the panel was welded from the thin to thick side using both an 8 mm and a 10 mm diameter tool. The 10 mm tool passed various fatigue tests; however, the target was to improve performance of the 8 mm tool, especially to increase the number of cycle before the first crack appearance during fatigue testing. In this study fatigue tests and static strength was recorded for weld specimens that were welded from thick-to-thin with an 8 mm diameter tool.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0506
Mingde Su, Guy Nusholtz, Venkatesh Agaram
A 2D model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact analysis that was presented in an earlier paper [1], has been used to study several two-vehicle frontal impacts with different incidence angles, frontal overlap offsets, and mass ratios. The impacts have been evaluated in terms of energy and momentum change in the bullet vehicle and the target vehicle. Based on comparisons between pre- and post-impact longitudinal, lateral, and angular components of kinetic energy, and linear and angular momenta, the impacts experienced by the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle have been classified as collinear or oblique. These results have been used to propose a definition of frontal impact based on vehicle kinematics during a crash.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0880
Donald M. Baskin, David B. Reed, Thomas N. Seel, Martyn N. Hunt, Mevluet Oenkal, Zoltan Takacs, Axel B. Vollmer
A process for simultaneously optimizing the mechanical performance and minimizing the weight of an automotive body-in-white will be developed herein. The process begins with appropriate load path definition though calculation of an optimized topology. Load paths are then converted to sheet metal, and initial critical cross sections are sized and shaped based on packaging, engineering judgment, and stress and stiffness approximations. As a general direction of design, section requirements are based on an overall vehicle “design for stiffness first” philosophy. Design for impact and durability requirements, which generally call for strength rather than stiffness, are then addressed by judicious application of the most recently developed automotive grade advanced high strength steels. Sheet metal gages, including tailored blanks design, are selected via experience and topometry optimization studies.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1103
Xiaobo Yang, Yongxin Men, Michael N. Rowley
In this study, two common types of suspension are used to study back-calculated spindle loads sensitivity to the availability of suspension component loads, under a severe loading proving ground event. The previously back-calculated spindle loads (Targets) are initially used as the inputs to resolve suspension component loads, which are considered as the “perfectly measured data”. With full factorial design of experiments (DOE), the back-calculated spindle loads using the known suspension component loads are then compared with the targets to produce the sensitivity of the spindle loads in comparison with the suspension components.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1175
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy
Automotive thermal protection is one of the key areas in the vehicle development process. Critical decisions are usually based on temperature measurement during vehicle testing. Thermocouples are most widely used to determine the temperature of each component during specific test cycle. Therefore, the reliability and accuracy of the thermocouple measurements are of significant importance to the design and release engineers. Errors associated with temperature measurements of automotive components may be caused by radiation from exhaust surfaces such as exhaust manifold, catalytic converter, muffler or exhaust pipes. Other sources of error may be caused by the effect of ambient temperature or airflow if thermocouples are not properly installed. Several errors could arise from the attachment method of the thermocouple to the component or material of interest.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1421
Victoria Campagna, Randy Bowers, Derek O. Northwood, Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
The focus of this study was to determine the residual stress and retained austenite profiles for carbonitrided and nitrocarburized SAE 1010 plain carbon steel and to relate these profiles to one another and to the distortion resulting from heat treatment. Navy C-ring specimens were used for the purpose of this study and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to measure both residual stress and retained austenite. The findings from this research are then applied to a manufacturing application involving the surface hardening of a thin shelled, plain carbon steel automotive component.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1422
Erin Boyle, Derek O. Northwood, Randy Bowers, Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1431
Dhananjay S. Joshi, Xijia Zhu, Kanwerdip Singh
External aerodynamic simulations are becoming more important because of regulatory pressures on fuel economy improvements and shorter design cycles. Experimental work is typically done on scaled models to get drag and cooling flow information. This is a time consuming process. Numerical simulations might provide a complementary path to get the answers in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such approach.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1430
Surendra Gaikwad, Kunal Arora, Vamshi Korivi, Su K. Cho
The intake and exhaust port design plays a substantial role in performance of combustion systems. The port design determines the volumetric efficiency and in-cylinder charge motion of the spark-ignited engine which influences the thermodynamic properties directly related to the power output, emissions, fuel consumption and NVH properties. Thus intake port has to be appropriately designed to fulfill the required charge motion and high flow performance. While turbulence intensity and air-mixture quality affect dilution tolerance and fuel economy as a result, breathing ability affects wide open throttle performance. Traditional approaches require experimental techniques to reach a target balance between the charge motion and breathing capacity. Such techniques do not necessarily result in an optimized solution.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1433
Timothy C. Scott, Dhananjay S. Joshi, Frank Chianese
In 1972, the first SAE paper describing the use of computer simulation as a design tool for automotive air conditioning was written by these authors. Since then, many such simulations have been used and new tools such as CFD have been applied to this problem. This paper reviews the work over that past 35 years and presents several of the improvements in the basic component and system models that have occurred. The areas where “empirical” information is required for model support and the value of CFD cabin and external air flow modeling are also discussed.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1443
Yang Hu, Manjunath S. Nagarajarao, Xinhai Zhu
Springback compensation studies on a few selected auto panels from the hot selling Chrysler 300C are presented with details. LS-DYNA® is used to predict the springback behavior and to perform the iterative compensation optimization. Details of simulation parameters using LS-DYNA® to improve the prediction accuracy are discussed. An iterative compensation algorithm is also discussed with details. Four compensation examples with simulation predictions and actual panel measurement results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® predictions. An aluminum hood inner and a high strength steel roof bow are compensated, constructed and machined based on simulation predictions. The measurements on actual tryout panels are then compared with simulation predictions and good correlations were achieved. Iterative compensation studies are also done on the aluminum hood inner and the aluminum deck lid inner to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® compensation algorithm.
2007-10-07
Technical Paper
2007-01-3947
Richard Burns, Danet Suryatama, Paul McCormick, Paul Stoloff
Many different studies have been performed to understand brake roughness, and in particular how brake rotor Disc Thickness Variation (DTV) is generated. The intent of this paper is to analytically explore through non- linear finite element modeling methods the effects of wheel joint variables on brake rotor mounted Lateral RunOut (LRO). The phenomenon of LRO is believed to be a primary contributor to DTV generation and resulting brake roughness. CAE analyses were conducted in non-linear contact mechanics in which real contacts between components exist. Various joint designs were simulated to compare rotor LRO and coning. Several parameters inherent to the design of wheel joints were varied and studied. A comparative approach was used to develop specific design recommendations for LRO reductions.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4003
Y. He, A. Selamet, R. A. Reese, R. K. Vick, A. A. Amer
The introduction of tumble into the combustion chamber is an effective method of enhancing turbulence intensity prior to ignition, thereby accelerating the burn rates, stabilizing the combustion, and extending the dilution limit. In this study, the primary intake runners are partially blocked to produce different levels of tumble motion in the cylinder during the air induction process. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine at maximum brake torque timing under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar BMEP at 1200 rpm. A method has been developed to quantify the tumble characteristics of blockages under steady flow conditions in a flow laboratory, by using the same cylinder head, intake manifold, and tumble blockages from the engine experiments.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-3992
Y. He, A. Selamet, R. A. Reese, R. K. Vick, A. A. Amer
In-cylinder charge motion is known to significantly increase turbulence intensity, accelerate combustion rate, and reduce cyclic variation. This, in turn, extends the tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the introduction of EGR results in much lowered nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and reduced fuel consumption. The present study investigates the effect of charge motion in a spark ignition engine on fuel consumption, combustion, and engine-out emissions with stoichiometric and EGR-diluted mixtures under part-load operating conditions. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine under 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure at 1600 rpm over a spark range around maximum brake torque timing. The primary intake runners are partially blocked to create different levels of tumble, swirl, and cross-tumble (swumble) motion in the cylinder before ignition.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1137
Michael Hall, Hussein Dourra
This paper presents methods for analyzing and visualizing the relationship between input torque, clutch torque, output torque and input acceleration during the inertia phase of a shift. The methods presented are an expansion of the lever analogy [1]. The methods are useful for understanding how geartrain inertia affects control, both its magnitude and distribution. Clutch energy and shift speeds are also easy to calculate and understand using the tools presented. Lastly the methods show why the optimum control strategies for various transmission configurations (such as DCT's, planetary transmissions, etc.) are different in the inertia phase.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1178
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy, Edward A. Luibrand
A fundamental problem in the development of automotive thermal protection strategies is the understanding of the effect of time and temperature on vehicle components life and their performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Due to restrictions on emissions and the stringent requirements for improved fuel economy, the use of polymers and synthetic materials has been widely adopted in automotive applications. It is therefore critical to develop a process to estimate life of engineering materials based on thermal testing and material physical properties. While a series of carefully selected vehicle tests can determine components temperatures during different testing conditions, a need still exists to determine the expected component life and performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Kinetic models have been widely used, in literature, to determine the aging of polymeric and composite materials over time.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1179
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy, G. M. Woronowycz, E. A. Luibrand, G. Nixon, J. T Kohler, Jie Xia
This paper describes the development of an engineering analysis tool that assesses the life of vehicle components, after exposure to heat. As a standard engineering practice, each component or part of a component has a “long term” and a “short term” temperature goal based on the part’s material physical properties. At higher temperatures, component’s physical properties degrade at a faster rate, and the component’s useful life can be significantly reduced. The extent of degradation depends upon the duration of exposure, the magnitude of the over-temperature and rate of thermal degradation. This tool utilizes actual vehicle test data from test cells or road testing, material physical properties, and expected vehicle duty cycle to determine the expected component life. When component temperature goals are exceeded, the software calculates the total duration of time above the goal temperature.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0818
Michael Guo, Yang Hu, Rana Sanghera
In this paper the nature and analytical methodologies for sheet metal panel oil canning are introduced. Lab tests, numerical predictions using finite element analysis and their correlations on oil canning of a door outer panel are described. Different modeling approaches in finite element analysis are discussed, and a simplified approach of loading by using a coupling element is recommended.
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