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Viewing 1 to 19 of 19
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0912
Wenxin Qin, Fred Zweng, Sandip Datta
Abstract In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0405
David A. Wagner, Stephen Logan, Kangping Wang, Timothy Skszek
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0410
Alan A. Luo, Joy Forsmark, Xichen Sun, Scott Shook
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1218
Waseem Jaradat, Joseph Hassan, Guy Nusholtz, Khalil Taraman, Sanaa Taraman
This paper analyzes the difference in impact response of the forehead of the Hybrid III and THOR-NT dummies in free motion headform tests when a dummy strikes the interior trim of a vehicle. Hybrid III dummy head is currently used in FMVSS201 tests. THOR-NT dummy head has been in development to replace Hybrid III head. The impact response of the forehead of both the Hybrid III dummy and THOR dummy was designed to the same human surrogate data. Therefore, when the forehead of either dummy is impacted with the same initial conditions, the acceleration response and consequently the head Injury criterion (HIC) should be similar. A number of manufacturing variables can affect the impacted interior trim panels. This work evaluates the effect of process variation on the response in the form of Head Injury Criterion (HIC).
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0145
F. Hunt, Q. Yang, H. Badarinarayan, K. Okamoto, D. Zhou
Friction stir welding (FSW) shows advantages for joining lightweight alloys for automotive applications. In this research, the feasibility of friction stir welding aluminum for an automotive component application was studied. The objective of this research was to improve the Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) technique used to weld an aluminum closure panel (CP). The spot welds were made using the newly designed swing-FSSW technique. In a previous study (unpublished), the panel was welded from the thin to thick side using both an 8 mm and a 10 mm diameter tool. The 10 mm tool passed various fatigue tests; however, the target was to improve performance of the 8 mm tool, especially to increase the number of cycle before the first crack appearance during fatigue testing. In this study fatigue tests and static strength was recorded for weld specimens that were welded from thick-to-thin with an 8 mm diameter tool.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0270
Steven R. Sorenson, Aaron M. Lock
Noise and vibration signals which are stationary are frequently analyzed for frequency content using Fourier Transform methods. Frequency content can be clearly displayed, but temporal characteristics of signals can easily be obscured in a frequency spectrum. Several commonly available methods of analyzing nonstationary signals are available, such as short-time Fourier Transform and wavelet analysis. Smearing of data in the time and/or frequency domains leads to limited usefulness of these methods in analyzing rapidly varying signals. This also applies to stationary signals with perceivable temporal characteristics. The Wigner Distribution is a time-frequency analysis which can analyze rapidly varying signals and show the effects of rapid changes in signal characteristics. It is appealing because it fully preserves all the information present in the original signal.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1421
Victoria Campagna, Randy Bowers, Derek O. Northwood, Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
The focus of this study was to determine the residual stress and retained austenite profiles for carbonitrided and nitrocarburized SAE 1010 plain carbon steel and to relate these profiles to one another and to the distortion resulting from heat treatment. Navy C-ring specimens were used for the purpose of this study and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to measure both residual stress and retained austenite. The findings from this research are then applied to a manufacturing application involving the surface hardening of a thin shelled, plain carbon steel automotive component.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1422
Erin Boyle, Derek O. Northwood, Randy Bowers, Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1431
Dhananjay S. Joshi, Xijia Zhu, Kanwerdip Singh
External aerodynamic simulations are becoming more important because of regulatory pressures on fuel economy improvements and shorter design cycles. Experimental work is typically done on scaled models to get drag and cooling flow information. This is a time consuming process. Numerical simulations might provide a complementary path to get the answers in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such approach.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1430
Surendra Gaikwad, Kunal Arora, Vamshi Korivi, Su K. Cho
The intake and exhaust port design plays a substantial role in performance of combustion systems. The port design determines the volumetric efficiency and in-cylinder charge motion of the spark-ignited engine which influences the thermodynamic properties directly related to the power output, emissions, fuel consumption and NVH properties. Thus intake port has to be appropriately designed to fulfill the required charge motion and high flow performance. While turbulence intensity and air-mixture quality affect dilution tolerance and fuel economy as a result, breathing ability affects wide open throttle performance. Traditional approaches require experimental techniques to reach a target balance between the charge motion and breathing capacity. Such techniques do not necessarily result in an optimized solution.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1433
Timothy C. Scott, Dhananjay S. Joshi, Frank Chianese
In 1972, the first SAE paper describing the use of computer simulation as a design tool for automotive air conditioning was written by these authors. Since then, many such simulations have been used and new tools such as CFD have been applied to this problem. This paper reviews the work over that past 35 years and presents several of the improvements in the basic component and system models that have occurred. The areas where “empirical” information is required for model support and the value of CFD cabin and external air flow modeling are also discussed.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1443
Yang Hu, Manjunath S. Nagarajarao, Xinhai Zhu
Springback compensation studies on a few selected auto panels from the hot selling Chrysler 300C are presented with details. LS-DYNA® is used to predict the springback behavior and to perform the iterative compensation optimization. Details of simulation parameters using LS-DYNA® to improve the prediction accuracy are discussed. An iterative compensation algorithm is also discussed with details. Four compensation examples with simulation predictions and actual panel measurement results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® predictions. An aluminum hood inner and a high strength steel roof bow are compensated, constructed and machined based on simulation predictions. The measurements on actual tryout panels are then compared with simulation predictions and good correlations were achieved. Iterative compensation studies are also done on the aluminum hood inner and the aluminum deck lid inner to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® compensation algorithm.
2007-10-07
Technical Paper
2007-01-3947
Richard Burns, Danet Suryatama, Paul McCormick, Paul Stoloff
Many different studies have been performed to understand brake roughness, and in particular how brake rotor Disc Thickness Variation (DTV) is generated. The intent of this paper is to analytically explore through non- linear finite element modeling methods the effects of wheel joint variables on brake rotor mounted Lateral RunOut (LRO). The phenomenon of LRO is believed to be a primary contributor to DTV generation and resulting brake roughness. CAE analyses were conducted in non-linear contact mechanics in which real contacts between components exist. Various joint designs were simulated to compare rotor LRO and coning. Several parameters inherent to the design of wheel joints were varied and studied. A comparative approach was used to develop specific design recommendations for LRO reductions.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0971
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy, Panagiotis D. Kalantzis, Muqsid A. Syed, David J. Snyder
Due to the stringent requirements to reduce the tail pipe emissions of NOx, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems are used to remove NOx using ammonia. When a urea solution is injected into the exhaust system, urea will undergo hydrolysis and decomposition reaction that produces ammonia. At the catalyst surface, ammonia will react with the exhaust gases to convert NOx into nitrogen, N2 and water, H2O. One of the challenging problems is to make sure the urea solution is available for the SCR system at cold start conditions. At extreme cold temperatures, the urea solution will begin to freeze at −12°C. At the start up of a vehicle under such low ambient temperatures, a heating system is used to provide the heat required for melting the frozen urea. Therefore, there will be a time lag between the vehicle start up and the availability of urea solution to the SCR system.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0418
Honglin Mi, Keyu Li, Mike Wiezbowski
The paper studies the distributions of residual stresses in auto components after induction hardening. Three prototype parts are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature fields of the analyzed parts are quantitatively simulated during quenching by simulating surface heating to the austenitization temperature of the material. Secondly, the formation and states of the residual stresses are predicted. Therefore the distribution of residual stress is simulated and shows compressive stresses on the surface of components so that the strength can be improved. The simulated results by computer are compared with experimental results. The good comparison indicates that the results obtained by the FEA analysis are reliable. Thus, it can be concluded that the FEA (Finite element analysis) program is effectively developed to simulate heating and quenching processes and residual stresses distribution.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0425
Chunyan Nan, Derek O. Northwood, Randy J. Bowers, Xichen Sun, Peter Bauerle
Nitrocarburizing is an economical surface hardening process and is proposed as an alternative heat treatment method to carbonitriding. The focus of this study is to compare the size and shape distortion and residual stresses resulting from the ferritic nitrocarburizing and gas carbonitriding processes for SAE 1010 plain carbon steel. Gas, ion and vacuum nitrocarburizing processes utilizing different heat treatment temperatures and times were performed to compare the different ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. Navy C-Ring specimens and prototype stamped parts were used to evaluate size and shape distortion. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the residual stresses in the specimens. Overall, the test results indicate that the nitrocarburizing process gives rise to smaller dimensional changes than carbonitriding, and that the size and shape distortion can be considerably reduced by applying appropriate ferritic nitrocarburizing procedures.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0411
Tony Konstantino, Joseph Rozman, Zulfikar Ali
Ring gear bolts in differentials are often modified in size to accommodate the additional clamp load that is required due to an increase in torque from a vehicle's powertrain. Depending on a given program several constraints need to be considered. These include cost, validation time, reliability / durability and timing for implementation. In this paper, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure for analyzing stresses in ring gear bolts within a rear differential assembly is outlined and the computational results are then compared to quasi-static bench test results that were developed to measure bending and tension loads in the ring gear bolts during loading and unloading of the axle pinion. A dynamometer test is then developed to duplicate the failure mode and provide a comparison of the design changes proposed and the expected improvement in durability.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0489
Jaewon Lee, Jwo Pan, Yung-Li Lee, Simon Ho
Effects of roller diameter and number on the contact pressures, subsurface stresses and the fatigue lives of cam roller follower bearings are investigated in this paper. Finite element analyses under plane strain conditions were conducted to identify the effects of the diameter and number of the rolling elements and the thickness of the outer ring. The fatigue life of the inner pin generally increases as the roller diameter increases. But, reducing the number of rollers to accommodate larger rollers does not necessarily increase the fatigue life. The inevitable decrease of the thickness of the outer ring due to the increase of the roller diameter results in the increase of compliance for the outer ring. This increase of compliance leads to excessive deformation of the outer ring and consequently more load must be carried by fewer number of rolling elements.
2008-08-07
Article
Jeep's stylish diesel-electric concept features simplified fabrication and assembly and no wiring, making it easy to recycle.
Viewing 1 to 19 of 19

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