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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2884
Jones Muller, Jay Ochterbeck, Jeffrey Perez, Paul Rogers
The current work addresses efforts to characterize multiple-evaporator capillary pumped loops. Both experimental and analytical approaches were used to predict performance of parallel evaporators and corresponding effects from adjacent operating evaporators. The effects of low and high power dissipation and the distribution of powers among the evaporators were tested. Additionally, a pressure balance model is given where the maximum heat transfer capacity for an evaporator operating under a multi-evaporator condition is determined based on pressure distribution throughout the loop. The model and experiment comparisons demonstrated how the heat load distribution among evaporators affects the maximum capillary limit for individual evaporators operating in a multiple evaporator mode.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1802
Bashar Alzuwayer, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Pierluigi Pisu, Pietro Giovenco, Paul Venhovens
Predicting fuel economy during early stages of concept development or feasibility study for a new type of powertrain configuration is an important key factor that might affect the powertrain configuration decision to meet CAFE standards. In this paper an efficient model has been built in order to evaluate the fuel economy for a new type of charge sustaining series hybrid vehicle that uses a Genset assembly (small 2 cylinders CNG fueled engine coupled with a generator). A first order mathematical model for a Li-Ion polymer battery is presented based on actual charging /discharging datasheet. Since the Genset performance data is not available, normalized engine variables method is used to create powertrain performance maps. An Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) has been implemented to determine how much power is supplied to the electric motor from the battery and the Genset.
2013-05-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9018
AbdelRaouf Mayyas, Robert Prucka, Pierluigi Pisu, Imtiaz Haque
This manuscript provides a review of different types and categorization of the chassis dynamometer systems. The review classifies the chassis dynamometers based on the configuration, type of rollers and the application type. Additionally the manuscript discusses several application examples of the chassis dynamometer including: performance and endurance mileage accumulation tests, fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions, noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH). Different types of the vehicle attachment system in the dynamometer cell and its influences on the driving force characteristics and the vehicle acoustic signature is also discussed. The text also highlights the impact of the use of the chassis dynamometer as a development platform and its impact on the development process. Examples of using chassis dynamometer as a development platform using Vehicle Hardware In-the-Loop (VHiL) approach including drivability assessment and transmission calibrations are presented.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1407
Qimin (Jimmy) Yao, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Novice drivers are often ill-equipped to safely operate a motor vehicle due to their limited repertoire of skills and experiences. However, automotive simulation tools can be applied to better educate young drivers for a number of common driving scenarios. In this paper, the Clemson Automotive Training System (CATS) will be presented to educate and train novice drivers to safely operate four wheel passenger vehicles on paved roadways. A portable automotive simulator can be programmed to emulate a variety of high-crash rate scenarios and roadway geometries. Drivers receive instructions regarding proper driving techniques and behaviors with an opportunity to practice the given vehicle maneuver. An on-line evaluation methodology has been designed to analyze the drivers' capabilities at handling these roadway events. First, a pre-simulation questionnaire evaluates their basic understanding of everyday driving situations.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1733
Kevin Zaseck, Aristotelis Babajimopoulos, Matthew Brusstar, Zoran Filipi, Dennis N. Assanis
This paper introduces a Hydraulic Linear Engine (HLE) concept and describes a model to simulate instantaneous engine behavior. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed an HLE prototype as an evolution of their previous six-cylinder, four-stroke, free-piston engine (FPE) hardware. The HLE design extracts work hydraulically, in a fashion identical to the initial FPE, and is intended for use in a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Unlike the FPE, however, the HLE utilizes a crank for improved timing control and increased robustness. Preliminary experimental results show significant speed fluctuations and cylinder imbalance that require careful controls design. This paper also introduces a model of the HLE that exhibits similar behavior, making it an indispensible tool for controls design. Further, the model's behavior is evaluated over a range of operating conditions currently unobtainable by the experimental setup.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0101
Akshay Narasimhan, John Ziegert, Lonny Thompson
The Michelin Tweel tire structure has recently been developed as an innovative non-pneumatic tire which has potential for improved handling, grip, comfort, low energy loss when impacting obstacles and reduced rolling resistance when compared to a traditional pneumatic tire. One of the potential sources of vibration during rolling of a non-pneumatic tire is the buckling phenomenon and snapping back of the spokes in tension when they enter and exit the contact zone. Another source of noise was hypothesized due to a flower petal ring vibration effect due to discrete spoke interaction with the ring and contact with the ground during rolling as the spokes cycle between tension and compression. Transmission of vibration between the ground force, ring and spokes to the hub was also considered to be a significant contributor to vibration and noise characteristics of the Tweel.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0268
Jeffery R. Anderson, E. Harry Law
Traditional Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for automobiles is usually accomplished through the use of estimated vehicle dynamics from simplified models that rely on parameters such as cornering stiffness that can change with the vehicle state and time. This paper proposes a different method for electronic stability control of oversteer by predicting the degree of instability in a vehicle. The algorithm is solely based on measurable response characteristics including lateral acceleration, yaw rate, speed, and driver steering input. These signals are appropriately conditioned and evaluated with fuzzy logic to determine the degree of instability present. When the “degree of instability” passes a certain threshold, the appropriate control action is applied to the vehicle in the form of differential yaw braking. Using only the measured response of the vehicle alleviates the problem of degraded performance when vehicle parameters change.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981025
Yingjin Cui, Wenyu Pan, James H. Leylek, Randall G. Sommer, Sunil K. Jain
Abstract Very large scale, 3D, viscous, turbulent flow simulations, involving 840,000 finite volume cells and the complete form of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were conducted to study the mechanisms responsible for total pressure losses in the entire intake system (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a straight-six diesel engine. A unique feature of this paper is the inclusion of physical mechanisms responsible for cylinder-to-cylinder variation of flows between different cylinders, namely, the end-cylinder (#1) and the middle cylinder (#3) that is in-line with the inlet duct. Present results are compared with cylinder #2 simulations documented in a recent paper by the Clemson group, Taylor, et al. (1997). A validated comprehensive computational methodology was used to generate grid independent and fully convergent results.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981026
William Taylor, James H. Leylek, Randall G. Sommer, Sunil K. Jain
Abstract Computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to the intake regions of a diesel engine in the design stage at Caterpillar. Using a complete, tested and validated computational methodology, fully viscous 3-D turbulent flow simulations are performed for three valve lifts, with the goal of identifying and understanding the physics underlying loss in the intake regions of IC engines. The results of these simulations lead to several design improvements in the intake region. These improvements are made to the computational domain, and flow simulations are again performed at three different valve lifts. Improvements in overall total pressure loss of between 5% and 33% are found in the computed results between the original and modified (improved) domains. Physical mechanisms responsible for these improvements are documented in detail.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1232
John H. Chastain, John R. Wagner
Advanced engine cooling systems can enhance the combustion environment, increase fuel efficiency, and reduce tailpipe emissions with less parasitic engine load. The introduction of computer controlled electro-mechanical valves, radiator fans, and coolant pumps require mathematic models and real time algorithms to implement intelligent thermal control strategies for prescribed engine temperature tracking. Smart butterfly valves can replace the traditional wax-based thermostat to control the coolant flow based on both engine temperature and operating conditions. The electric water pump and radiator fan replace the mechanically driven components to reduce unnecessary engine loads at high speeds and provide better cooling at low speeds.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1592
Yaling Ma, Adrian M. Mistreanu, J. Logan Marshall, James H. Leylek
Part V of this five-part paper investigates the flow field and the total pressure loss mechanisms for three valve lifts in the exhaust region of a V8 racecar engine using the robust, systematic computational methodology described in Part I. The replica of the engine geometry includes a cylinder, detailed combustion chamber, exhaust valve, valve seat, port, and “exhaust pipe”. A set of fully-converged and grid-independent solutions for the steady, time-averaged (or RANS), non-linear Navier-Stokes equations are obtained using dense and high quality grids, involving 2.1∼3.0 finite volumes, and unusually strict convergence criteria. Turbulence closure is attained via the realizable k-ε (RKE) model used in conjunction with the non-equilibrium wall function near-wall treatment. The validation presented in Part I showed that flow rate results from the “blind simulations” agree well with the experimental measurements.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3569
Joshua B. Stewart, E. Harry Law
Current military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan are unique because the battlefield can be described as a non-linear, asymmetrical environment. Units operate in zones that are susceptible to enemy contact from any direction at any time. The response to these issues has been the addition of add-on armor to HMMWV's and other tactical vehicles. The retro-fitting of armor to these vehicles has resulted in many accidents due to rollover and instability. The goal of this paper is to determine possible causes of the instability and rollover of up-armored tactical vehicles and to develop simulation tools that can analyze the steady-state and transient dynamics of the vehicles. Models and simulations include a steady-state rollover scenario, analysis of understeer gradient, and a transient handling analysis that uses models of both a human driver and a vehicle to analyze vehicle response to an obstacle avoidance maneuver.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1739
E. H. Law, Ibrahim Janajreh
Understanding the effects of tire and vehicle properties on the rollover propensity of tractor semi-trailer trucks is essential. The major objective of the project described by this paper was to develop a simplified computational tool that can be used to understand and predict the effects of various tire characteristics and truck design parameters on rollover under steady cornering and non-tripped conditions. In particular, this tool may be used to help understand the basic mechanisms governing rollover propensity of trucks equipped with New Generation Wide Single tires as contrasted with conventional tires. Effects of tire flexibility, roll-compliant suspensions, fifth - wheel lash and nonlinear suspension characteristics are included in the model and are presented below. Design parameter data used as input to the model were obtained from Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2622
C. Trangsrud, E. H. Law, I. Janajreh
An investigation of the vertical dynamics of a tractor semi-trailer traversing a random road profile was conducted. This paper presents the development of a 14 degree-of-freedom (DOF), dynamic ride model of a tractor semi-trailer. It is based on work previously conducted by Vaduri and Law [1] and Law et al [2]. The DOFs include: (a) vertical displacements of each of the five axles, the tractor frame, the engine on its mounts, the cab on its suspension, and the driver's seat; (b) pitch displacements of the trailer with respect to the tractor, the cab, and the rigid tractor frame; and, (c) the first bending or beaming modes of the tractor and trailer frames. The model also incorporates suspension friction, and tire non-uniformities. The simulation of the model is conducted using MATLAB software.
2004-11-30
Technical Paper
2004-01-3509
Jamie L. Morales, E. Harry Law
This paper describes the development of a simplified model and simulation of a stock car subjected to both steady and random winds on a super speedway. Results indicate how lap times are affected by design and operational parameters and by winds. The simulation models a super speedway such as Talladega or Daytona. Inputs to the simulation include wind speed, wind direction, speed of wind gusts, and the duration and frequency of wind gusts. The program will output both total elapsed time and segregated times per each track section. Also, along with elapsed times, the output will include other characteristics pertaining to the performance of the car that allow the user to obtain a basic understanding of the general performance of the car. This paper will show how the car was modeled. Results for both head winds and crosswinds are shown.
2004-11-30
Technical Paper
2004-01-3541
Haipeng Li, Richard S. Figliola
In this study, an automotive cooling system of the engine was analyzed using an exergy-based approach. The goal was to minimize the exergy destroyed by reducing the entropy generated and by minimizing the parasitic power loss. By running a two-objective optimization using a genetic algorithm within a certain range of water flow rate, a series of Pareto curves were obtained. At each speed there exists an optimal water flow rate that corresponds to the minimum consumed power and is close to a minimum in exergy destroyed. We show how an exergy method can yield operating conditions and design parameter values to reduce parasitic power losses.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0048
John F. Eberth, John R. Wagner, Brian A. Afshar, Randy C. Foster
The functionality and performance of an internal combustion (spark or compression ignition) engine's thermal management system can be significantly enhanced through the application of mechatronics technology. The replacement of the conventional thermostat valve and mechanical coolant pump in the heating/cooling system by a servo-motor driven smart valve and variable flow pump permits powertrain control module regulated coolant flow through the engine block and radiator. In this paper, a dynamic mathematical model will be created for a 4.6L spark ignition engine to analyze various thermal management system architectures. The designs to be studied include the factory configuration, a smart valve upgrade, and the smart valve combined with a variable flow pump and radiator fan. Representative results are presented and discussed to demonstrate improvements in the engine warm-up time, temperature tracking, and component power consumption.
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-2999
Scott Holloway, Mary V. Holloway, James H. Leylek
This paper is a review of turbulence models and computational methods that have been produced at Clemson University's Advanced Computational Research Laboratory. The goal of the turbulence model development has been to create physics-based models that are economically feasible and can be used in a competitive environment, where turnaround time is a critical factor. Given this goal, all of the work has been focused on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations in the eddy-viscosity framework with the majority of the turbulence models having three transport equations in addition to mass, momentum, and energy. Several areas have been targeted for improvement in turbulence modeling for complex flows such as those found in motorsports aerodynamics: the effects of streamline curvature and rotation on the turbulence field, laminar-turbulent transition, and separated shear layer rollup and breakdown.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1167
Scott Holloway, James H. Leylek, William D. York, Bahram Khalighi
This paper describes a computational and experimental effort to document the detailed flow field around a pickup truck. The major objective was to benchmark several different computational approaches through a series of validation simulations performed at Clemson University (CU) and overseen by those performing the experiments at the GM R&D Center. Consequently, no experimental results were shared until after the simulations were completed. This flow represented an excellent test case for turbulence modeling capabilities developed at CU. Computationally, three different turbulence models were employed. One steady simulation used the realizable k-ε model. The second approach was an unsteady RANS simulation, which included a turbulence closure model developed in-house. This simulation captured the unsteady shear layer rollup and breakdown over the front of the hood that was expected and seen in the experiments but unattainable with other off-the-shelf turbulence models.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0593
Beshoy Morkos, Prabhu Shankar, Sudhakar Teegavarapu, Ashwin Michaelraj, Joshua D. Summers, Andreas Obieglo
This paper focuses on redesigning the headlamp subsystem functional architecture. The design involves meeting three major functional requirements: Achieving the lumen requirements according to Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 324 regulations, Meeting the illumination pattern, and Maintaining the Light Emitting Diode’s (LED) junction temperature at 90°C. White LEDs are considered in the design to satisfy the functional requirements due to their high lumen efficacy, compact size, and long life. These benefits, when compared to existing headlight systems benchmarked, present enough potential to warrant further conceptual virtual prototyping. The prototyping focused on solutions that allowed control of sizing and numbering of LEDs, illumination pattern limits, and temperature to achieve the multiple functions a dynamic headlight system. A primary challenge in this design is to maintain the LED’s junction temperature within a recommended operational range.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0562
Marisa Orr, David Stowe, Samantha Thoe, Kathryn Northup, Matthew Torok, Annie O’Dell, Joshua D. Summers, Vincent Blouin, Paul Joseph
This paper describes the development of test equipment for determining the wear viability of various lunar wheel tread materials with service lives of up to ten years and 10,000 km. The problem is defined, and concepts are proposed, evaluated, and selected. An abrasive turntable is chosen for simplicity and accuracy of modeling the original wheel configuration. Additionally, the limitations of the test are identified, such as the sensitivity to off-vertical loading, and future work is projected in order to more effectively continue testing. Finally, this paper presents the challenges of collaborative research effort between an undergraduate research team and industry, with government lab representatives as customers
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0533
D. Norfleet, J. Wagner, K. Alexander, P. Pidgeon
Automotive simulators offer an immersive environment to operate vehicle systems in a safe and repeatable manner. A fundamental question exists regarding their effectiveness for an identified task. For instance, driving simulators can play a significant role in evaluating vehicle designs, developing safety regulations, supporting human factors engineering research, administering driver training and education, and offering individual entertainment. Some of the driving simulator technology users include automotive manufacturers and suppliers, research laboratories at universities and government agencies, driver education and training programs, and motorsports and racing entertainment venues. In each case, the simulator capabilities and functionality must encompass the expectations of the driver to permit their perception of realistic scenarios for evaluation. This paper investigates three driving simulators in terms of their hardware and software, as well as their applications.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0342
Sudhakar Teegavarapu, Prabhu Shankar, Ajit S. Kanda, Beshoy Morkos, Ashwin Michaelraj, Joshua D. Summers, Andreas Obieglo
This paper proposes a conceptual design tool that could direct designers towards concepts that lead to reduced gaps on the exterior of an automobile. Apart from the manufacturing and assembly tolerance stack up, the design and integration method of the body panels in an automobile contribute to the gap. . A benchmark study suggested cursory concepts to avoid or minimize the gaps. The proposed design tool uses a modified morphological chart approach to populate a table with concepts obtained from the benchmark study and by other means. The design tool also incorporates decision alternatives and hence is different from a morphological chart. The design tool can be used to highlight the occurrence of a high level tolerance stack up chain on the structural/mounting members. Conceptual component architectures are arranged in such a fashion to facilitate combinations through visual means.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0971
Stefano Sabatini, Irfan Kil, Travis Hamilton, Jeff Wuttke, Luis Del Rio, Michael Smith, Zoran Filipi, Mark A. Hoffman, Simona Onori
Abstract The Three Way Catalyst (TWC) is an effective pollutant conversion system widely used in current production vehicles to satisfy emissions regulations. A TWC’s conversion efficiency degrades over time due to chemical and/or thermal mechanisms causing the catalyst to age. This reduction in conversion efficiency must be accounted for to ensure full useful life emissions compliance. This paper presents an experimental study of the aging impact on TWC performance. Four TWCs differentiated by their age, given in terms of miles driven, were tested. It is shown that the dynamics of oxygen storage are substantially affected by aging of the TWC. A previously developed physics-based oxygen storage model [1] is subsequently used to incorporate the effect of aging on the total Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC). Parameter identification results for the different age catalysts show that total oxygen storage capacity decreases substantially with aging and is insensitive to operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0126
Joshua W. Finn, John R. Wagner
Abstract Hybrid vehicle embedded systems and payloads require progressively more accurate and versatile thermal control mechanisms and strategies capable of withstanding harsh environments and increasing power density. The division of the cargo and passenger compartments into convective thermal zones which are independently managed can lead to a manageable temperature control problem. This study investigates the performance of a Peltier-effect thermoelectric zone cooling system to regulate the temperature of target objects (e.g., electronic controllers, auxiliary computer equipment, etc) within ground vehicles. Multiple thermoelectric cooling modules (TEC) are integrated with convective cooling fans to provide chilled air for convective heat transfer from a robust, compact, and solid state device. A series of control strategies have been designed and evaluated to track a prescribed time-varying temperature profile while minimizing power consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0620
Zhe Wang, Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka
Abstract Accurate in-cylinder air charge estimation is important for engine torque determination, controlling air-to-fuel ratio, and ensuring high after-treatment efficiency. Spark ignition (SI) engine technologies like variable valve timing (VVT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are applied to improve fuel economy and reduce pollutant emissions, but they increase the complexity of air charge estimation. Increased air-path complexity drives the need for cost effective solutions that produce high air mass prediction accuracy while minimizing sensor cost, computational effort, and calibration time. A large number of air charge estimation techniques have been developed using a range of sensors sets combined with empirical and/or physics-based models. This paper provides a technical review of research in this area, focused on SI engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0612
Rohit Koli, Konstantinos Siokos, Robert Prucka, Shyam Jade, Jason Schwanke
Abstract Low-pressure cooled EGR (LP-cEGR) systems can provide significant improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency and knock resistance. However, open-loop control of these systems is challenging due to low pressure differentials and the presence of pulsating flow at the EGR valve. This research describes a control structure for Low-pressure cooled EGR systems using closed loop feedback control along with internal model control. A Smith Predictor based PID controller is utilized in combination with an intake oxygen sensor for feedback control of EGR fraction. Gas transport delays are considered as dead-time delays and a Smith Predictor is one of the conventional methods to address stability concerns of such systems. However, this approach requires a plant model of the air-path from the EGR valve to the sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0419
Whitney Poling, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Anil Sachdev, Xiaohua Hu, Arun Devaraj, Fadi Abu-Farha
Abstract The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
Abstract Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0310
Xinran Tao, John R. Wagner
Abstract The pursuit of greater fuel economy in internal combustion engines requires the optimization of all subsystems including thermal management. The reduction of cooling power required by the electromechanical coolant pump, radiator fan(s), and thermal valve demands real time control strategies. To maintain the engine temperature within prescribed limits for different operating conditions, the continual estimation of the heat removal needs and the synergistic operation of the cooling system components must be accomplished. The reductions in thermal management power consumption can be achieved by avoiding unnecessary overcooling efforts which are often accommodated by extreme thermostat valve positions. In this paper, an optimal nonlinear controller for a military M-ATV engine cooling system will be presented. The prescribed engine coolant temperature will be tracked while minimizing the pump, fan(s), and valve power usage.
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