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Viewing 1 to 30 of 32
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0812
Kyoo Sil Choi, Xiaohua Hu, Xin Sun, Mark Taylor, Emmanuel De Moor, John Speer, David Matlock
Abstract In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of material parameters of the constituent phases on the macroscopic tensile behavior of Q&P steel and to perform a computational material design approach for performance improvement. For this purpose, a model Q&P steel is first produced and various experiments are then performed to characterize the model steel. Actual microstructure-based model is generated based on the information from EBSD, SEM and nano-indentation test, and the material properties for the constituent phases in the model are determined based on the initial constituent properties from HEXRD test and the subsequent calibration of model predictions to tensile test results. The influence of various material parameters of the constituents on the macroscopic behavior is then investigated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0539
Hong Lin, Robert R. Binoniemi, Gregory A. Fett, Thomas Woodard, Edward F. Punch, Chester Van Tyne, Brian C. Taylor, David K. Matlock
Prediction of fatigue performance of large structures and components is generally done through the use of a fatigue analysis software, FEA stress/strain analysis, load spectra, and materials properties generated from laboratory tests with small specimens. Prior experience and test data has shown that a specimen size effect exists, i.e. the fatigue strength or endurance limit of large members is lower than that of small specimens made of same material. Obviously, the size effect is an important issue in fatigue design of large components. However a precise experimental study of the size effect is very difficult for several reasons. It is difficult to prepare geometrically similar specimens with increased volume which have the same microstructures and residual stress distributions throughout the entire material volume to be tested. Fatigue testing of large samples can also be a problem due to the limitation of load capacity of the test systems available.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0530
Mikko Joonas Kähkönen, Emmanuel De Moor, John Speer, Grant Thomas
Abstract Quenching and partitioning (Q&P) is a novel heat treatment to produce third generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS). The influence of carbon on mechanical properties of Q&P treated CMnSi-steels was studied using 0.3C-1.5Mn-1.5Si and 0.4C-1.5Mn-1.5Si alloys. Full austenitization followed by two-step Q&P treatments were conducted using varying partitioning times and a fixed partitioning temperature of 400 °C. The results were compared to literature data for 0.2C-1.6Mn-1.6Si, 0.2-3Mn-1.6Si and 0.3-3Mn-1.6Si Q&P treated steels. The comparison showed that increasing the carbon content from 0.2 to 0.4 wt pct increased the ultimate tensile strength by 140 MPa per 0.1 wt pct C up to 1611 MPa without significantly decreasing ductility for the partitioning conditions used. Increased alloy carbon content did not substantially increase the retained austenite fractions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0522
Robert Cryderman, Danielle Rickert, Kelly Puzak, John Speer, David Matlock, Michael Burnett
Abstract Fracture split forged steel connecting rods are utilized in many new high performance automotive engines to increase durability. Higher strength levels are needed as the power density increases. Fracture splitting without plastic deformation is necessary for manufacturability. Metallurgical design is a key for achieving the required performance levels. Several medium carbon steels containing 0.07 wt pct P, 0.06 wt pct S and various amounts of Mn, Si, V, and N were produced by vacuum induction melting laboratory heats and hot working the cast ingots into plates. The plates were cooled at varying rates to simulate typical cooling methods after forging. Microstructures were generally ferrite and pearlite as evaluated by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests, high strain rate notched tensile tests, and Charpy V-notch impact tests to assess “splittability”.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0530
Emmanuel De Moor, David K. Matlock, John G. Speer, C. Fojer, J. Penning
Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P) is receiving increased attention as a novel Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) processing route as promising tensile properties of the “third generation” have been reported. The current contribution reports hole expansion ratios (HER) of Q&P steels and compares the values with HERs obtained for “conventional” AHSS processing routes such as austempering and Quench & Tempering (Q&T). Intercritically annealed C-Mn-Al-Si-P and fully austenitized C-Mn-Si microstructures were studied. Optimum combinations of tensile strength and HER were obtained for fully austenitized C-Mn-Si Q&P samples. Higher HER values were obtained for Q&P than for Q&T steels for similar tempering/partitioning temperatures. Austempering following intercritical annealing results in higher HER than Q&P at similar tensile strength levels. In contrast, Q&P following full austenitization results in higher hole expansion than austempering even at higher strength levels.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920534
Robert S. Hyde, Rachael E. Cohen, David K. Matlock, George Krauss
Crack initiation and propagation in an SAE 4320 steel gas carburized to a 1.0 mm case depth was examined in specimens subjected to bending fatigue. Cellulose acetate replicas of incrementally loaded specimens showed that small, intergranular cracks were initiated during static loading to stress levels just above the endurance limit. The intergranular cracks arrest and serve as initiation sites for semi-elliptical, transgranular fatigue crack propagation. The maximum depth of stable crack propagation was between 0.17 and 0.23 mm, a depth which corresponds to the maximum hardness of the carburized case. Three equations which provide approximations to the stress distribution in the fatigue specimens were used to calculate KIC for the carburized case with values of maximum applied stress and measured stable crack geometry.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920532
B.G. Kirby, P. LaGreca, C.J. Van Tyne, D.K. Matlock, G. Krauss
Three heats of 0.40% carbon microalloyed steel, containing either 0.03 % or 0.10% sulfur, and with and without a 0.09% vanadium addition, were subjected to metallographic analysis and mechanical property testing. Bars were heated to austenitizing temperatures, between 1000°C and 1300°C. Significant amounts of intragranular ferrite, which has been associated with improved toughness, formed only in specimens containing vanadium and high sulfur which were austenitized above 1100°C. The balance of the microstructure consisted of ferrite which formed at prior austenite grain boundaries and large amounts of pearlite. High densities of manganese sulfide particles in the steels with high sulfur content effectively retarded austenite grain growth. The formation of significant amounts of intragranular ferrite decreased mean free ferrite spacing, effectively refined the pearlite structure, and lowered the Charpy V-notch impact transition temperature.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930809
T. A. Hylton, C. J. Van Tyne, D. K. Matlock
The frictional behavior of two nominally 70 g/m2 electrogalvanized sheet steels, mechanically processed with a series of surface roughnesses and coating morphologies, were evaluated with the bending under tension test. The crystallographic textures for the as-received materials were different; one was primarily prismatic with a friction coefficient of 0.14 and the other was primarily low angle pyramidal with a friction coefficient of 0.20. The friction coefficients were changed by surface modifications and values as high as 0.31 were observed. Friction data are discussed in terms of surface roughness, interfacial contact pressure, true contact area, and crystallographic texture. Results are interpreted on the basis of the deformation characteristics of the zinc coatings and with respect to overall sheet formability characteristics.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930814
G. J. Coubrough, D. K. Matlock, C. J. Van Tyne
Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/sec with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930966
B. G. Kirby, C. J. Van Tyne, D. K. Matlock, G. Krauss, R. Turonek, R. J. Filar
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930963
Rachael E. Cohen, George Krauss, David K. Matlock
The bending fatigue performance of four heats of carburized, commercially-produced SAE 4320 steel was evaluated. Simulated gear tooth in bending (SGTB) cantilever beam specimens from each heat were identically carburized and fatigue tested in the direct quenched condition after carburizing. The microstructure and fracture surfaces of all specimens were characterized with light and electron microscopy. The four direct quenched sets of specimens performed similarly in low cycle fatigue. Endurance limits among the direct quenched specimens ranged between 1100 and 1170 MPa (160 and 170 ksi) and intergranular cracking dominated fatigue crack initiation. An additional set of specimens from one of the heats was reheated after carburizing. The fatigue performance of the reheated specimens was superior to that of the direct quenched specimens in both the low and high cycle regions. The effects of inclusion content, microstructure, and residual stresses on fatigue performance are discussed.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980955
Jennifer R. Glennon, John G. Speer, David K. Matlock
The influence of coatings on fatigue behavior has been examined for the following commercially produced sheet steels: uncoated titanium stabilized interstitial-free (IF); electrogalvanized titanium stabilized IF; hot-dip galvanized aluminum killed, drawing quality (AKDQ); and galvannealed AKDQ. Fully reversed bending fatigue tests were conducted at ambient temperature on Krouse-type flexural fatigue machines. A dependence of crack development was observed and correlated to the microstructure and properties of the different coatings. Furthermore, a functional design relationship for each material was determined through stress-life analysis. The experimentally determined fatigue properties were compared to conventional estimates based on tensile properties which ignore coating effects. The results of this work suggest that ductile coatings may enhance fatigue resistance, while brittle coatings may reduce fatigue life.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950212
D. Medlin, G. Krauss, D. K. Matlock, K. Burris, M. Slane
The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960313
Seung-Cheal Jung, D. J. Medlin, G. Krauss
The effects of subzero treatments on the bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels were investigated by cantilever bending fatigue testing. Specimens were machined from SAE-4320 and SAE-9310 bar stock steel, gas-carburized, quenched, tempered at 175°C, subzero cooled to -73°C and -196°C, and tempered at 175°C. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray diffraction for residual stress and retained austenite contents, microhardness testing, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. Refrigeration treatments caused additional transformation of retained austenite and increased surface hardness and compressive residual stresses. Bending fatigue endurance limits for the SAE-4320 specimens were determined to be 1310 MPa for the as-carburized condition, 1170 MPa for the -73°C condition, and 1280 MPa for the -196°C condition.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0896
Ryan M. Wagar, John G. Speer, David K. Matlock, Patricio F. Mendez
The effects of several variables on pitting fatigue life of carburized steels were analyzed using a geared roller test machine (GRTM). The material variables that were primarily used to influence retained austenite include aim surface carbon concentration (0.8 % and 0.95 %), alloy (SAE 4320 and a modified SAE 4122), and cold treatment (performed on one material condition per alloy). Testing variables included contact stress in addition to a variation in lambda ratio (oil film thickness/surface roughness), arising from variation in roughness among the machined surfaces. Test results are presented, and differences in performance are considered in terms of material and testing variables. A primary observation from these results is an improvement in contact fatigue resistance apparently arising from cold-treatment and the associated reduction of retained austenite at the surface.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0986
Dustin A. Turnquist, David K. Matlock, John G. Speer, George Krauss
The effects of elevated testing temperature on the fatigue behavior of carburized steel were evaluated by testing modified Brügger bending fatigue specimens at room temperature, 90 °C and 150 °C. SAE 4023, SAE 4320, and SAE 9310 steel were studied to assess the influence of alloy content and stability of retained austenite. Fatigue samples were gas-carburized and tested in air at 30 Hz with a stress ratio of 0.1. An infrared spot lamp was used to heat samples to 90 °C (150 °F) or 150 °C (302 °F) during testing. S-N curves were developed for the room temperature baseline tests as well as elevated temperature tests. The endurance limits determined are as follows: SAE 4023-RT (1170 MPa), SAE 4023-90°C (1140 MPa), SAE 4320-RT (1210 MPa), SAE 4320-90°C (1280 MPa), SAE 9310-RT (1380 MPa), SAE 9310-90°C (1240 MPa).
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1006
Hong Lin, Gregory A. Fett, Robert R. Binoniemi, James A. Sanders, David K. Matlock, George Krauss
A series of bending fatigue tests were conducted and S-N data were obtained for two groups of 4320 steel samples: (1) carburized, quenched and tempered, (2) carburized, quenched, tempered and shot peened. Shot peening improved the fatigue life and endurance limit. The S-N data exhibited large scatter, especially for carburized samples and at the high cycle life regime. Sample characterization work was performed and scatter bands were established for residual stress distributions, in addition to fracture and fatigue properties for 4320 steel. Moreover, a fatigue life analysis was performed using fracture mechanics and strain life fatigue theories. Scatter in S-N curves was established computationally by using the lower bound and upper bound in materials properties, residual stress and IGO depth in the input data. The results for fatigue life analysis, using either computational fracture mechanics or strain life theory, agreed reasonably well with the test data.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1007
Richard E. Thompson, David K. Matlock, John G. Speer
The bending fatigue performance of high temperature (1050 °C) vacuum carburized Nb modified 8620 steel, with niobium additions of 0.02, 0.06 and 0.1 wt pct, was evaluated utilizing a modified Brugger specimen geometry. Samples were heated at two different rates (20 and 114 °C min-1) to the carburizing temperature resulting in different prior austenite grain structures that depended on the specific Nb addition and heating rate employed. At the lower heating rate, uniform fine grained prior austenite grain structures developed in the 0.06 and 0.1 Nb steels while a duplex grain structure with the presence of large (>200 μm grains) developed in the 0.02 Nb steel. At the higher heating rate the propensity for abnormal grain growth was highest in the 0.02 Nb steel and complete suppression of abnormal grain growth was achieved only with the 0.1 Nb steel.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1395
B. S. Levy, C. J. Van Tyne
Drawbeads in production stamping dies often have insufficient penetration of the male bead into the female cavity. With insufficient penetration, the actual bending radii of the sheet metal are larger than the geometrical radii of the drawbead. The actual bending radii in the sheet directly affect the force that restrains sheet movement. To predict the restraining stress due to a drawbead, it is necessary to know the actual bending radii in the sheet as it passes though the drawbead. Data from a previous study are used to develop empirical regression equations for predicting measured radii of the sheet that is bent around the radii in a drawbead. A physical model for the evolution of the sheet radii as the drawbead closes is proposed. This model is consistent with the empirical equations and the mechanics of the sheet bending process.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1394
B. S. Levy, C. J. Van Tyne
Knowledge of the net thinning strain that occurs in a sheet as it is bent over a single radius is an important component in understanding sheet metal formability. The present study extends the initial work of Swift on thinning during plane-strain bending to sheet steels with power law stress-strain behavior and with the inclusion of friction. The experimental data come from studies on the enhanced forming limit curve on DQSK steel and analysis of the curl behavior of 590R and DP600 steels. Results for single radius bending from these studies are used in the present investigation. It has been found that the amount of net thinning strain depends on back tension, initial plane-strain yield strength, and the maximum true bending strain calculated for the neutral plane at the mid-thickness of the sheet.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0419
Whitney Poling, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Anil Sachdev, Xiaohua Hu, Arun Devaraj, Fadi Abu-Farha
Abstract The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0512
B.S. Levy, C. J. Van Tyne, J. M. Stringfield
With the increased use of tubular steel products, especially for automotive hydroforming applications, there is increased interest in understanding the mechanical properties measured by tensile tests from specimens of different orientations in the tube. In this study, two orientations of tensile specimens were evaluated -- axial specimens with and without flattening and flattened circumferential specimens. Three steels were evaluated -- two thicknesses of aluminum killed drawing quality (AKDQ) steel and one thickness of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel. Mechanical property data were obtained from the flat stock, conventional production tubes and quasi tubes. Quasi tubes were produced from the flat stock on a 3-roll bender, but the quasi tube was not welded or sized.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1045
T. B. Hilditch, D. K. Matlock, B. S. Levy, J. F. Siekirk
The response of HSLA steel, 590R, and dual-phase steel, DP-600, to non-uniform deformation imposed in a laboratory Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) test apparatus was evaluated. Samples were deformed with both low and high back tension forces at bend angles of 45 and 90 degrees, and evaluated to determine the “side-wall curl”, i.e. the curvature in the sheet section in contact with the die. The results indicate that there are no consistent differences between the two steels, 590R and DP-600. It was found that back tension, tensile strength and sheet thickness were the primary factors affecting curl. The bend angle has an influence on curl, with the curl radius at a 90° bend angle being greater than the curl radius at a 45° bend angle.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0615
John A. Johnson, George Krauss, David K. Matlock
The fatigue behavior of five microalloyed steels, processed with hardnesses between 25-28 HRC containing microstructures ranging from precipitation-hardened ferrite-pearlite to bainite, were evaluated in both low cycle (strain controlled) and high cycle (stress controlled fatigue. The vanadium-bearing steels included, 15R30V, 1522 MoVTi, 1522 MoVTiS, 1534 MoVTi, and 1534 MoVTiSi. Conventional quench and tempered 4140 steel was used as a reference. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) data for all steels were similar. Subtle microstructural-dependent differences in the high-strain amplitude region of the LCF curves were attributed to the effects of retained austenite, present in some of the non-traditional bainitic steels. In high cycle fatigue, all steels exhibited similar properties, except for the ferrite-pearlite steel (15R30V) which exhibited the lowest endurance limit, an observation which was attributed to crack nucleation in coarse-grained ferrite.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0602
Bastiaan E. Cornelissen, David K. Matlock, George Krauss, Brigitte Gondesen, Franz T. Hoffmann
This study evaluated the bending fatigue performance of a modified SAE 4320 steel as a function of carburizing technique. S-N curves and endurance limits were established by fatigue testing modified Brugger-type specimens that are designed to simulate a single gear tooth. Fractured specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy to determine crack initiation sites, establish the extent of stable crack propagation, and analyze surface oxide types and distributions. Test results show that plasma-carburizing boosted the endurance limit of an oxidation-susceptible gear steel from 1100 MPa to 1375 MPa. Fatigue endurance limits in excess of 1400 MPa had previously been achieved in gas-carburized SAE 4320 steels by reheat treatments and reductions in high-oxidation potential elements. The level of improvement observed in this study suggests that any of these advanced processing techniques can allow significant size reductions and weight savings in automotive transmission gears.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0603
Dana J. Medlin, Bastiaan E. Cornelissen, David K. Matlock, G. Krauss, Raymond J. Filar
This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0526
K. D. Clarke, R. J. Comstock, M. C. Mataya, D. K. Matlock, J. G. Speer, G. P. Martins
High strain rate sheet tensile tests (up to 300s-1) and Ohio State University (OSU) formability tests (up to an estimated strain rate of 10s-1) were performed to examine the effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties and formability of five ferritic stainless steels: HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 409 (HP-10 409), ULTRA FORM® 409 (UF 409), HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 439 (HP-10 439), two thicknesses of 18 Cr-Cb™ stainless steel, all supplied by AK Steel, and Duracorr®, a ferrite-tempered martensite dual-phase stainless steel supplied by Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Tensile results show that increasing strain rate resulted in increases in yield stress, flow stress, and stress at instability for all alloys tested. In addition, increases in uniform and total elongation were also found for each of the five alloys.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0525
T. B. Hilditch, S-B. Lee, J. G. Speer, D. K. Matlock
The influences of laboratory-induced hydrogen on the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of selected sheet steels including conventional DQSK and HSLA steels as well as newer DP and TRIP grades were evaluated. The effects of cold work, simulated paint baking, and natural aging were considered. Hydrogen effects were observable by increased flow stress, decreased ductility, altered neck geometry, and altered fracture mechanisms. Differences among the steels and conditions were observed and interpreted on the basis of microstructure, fracture behavior, and theories of hydrogen embrittlement.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-1003
Jason J. Spice, David K. Matlock, Greg Fett
The effectiveness of three different techniques, designed to improve the bending fatigue life in comparison to conventionally processed gas-carburized 8620 steel, were evaluated with modified Brugger bending fatigue specimens and actual ring and pinion gears. The bending fatigue samples were machined from forged gear blanks from the same lot of material used for the pinion gear tests, and all processing of laboratory samples and gears was done together. Fatigue data were obtained on standard as-carburized parts and after three special processing histories: shot-peening to increase surface residual stresses; double heat treating to refined austenite grain size; and vacuum carburizing to minimize intergranular oxidation. Standard room-temperature S-N curves and endurance limits were obtained with the laboratory samples. The pinions were run as part of a complete gear set on a laboratory dynamometer and data were obtained at two imposed torque levels.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0146
B. S. Levy, C. J. Van Tyne, Y. H. Moon, C. Mikalsen
In stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the deviations from desired part geometry caused by springback from a radius, curl, twist, and bow are major impediments to successfully producing AHSS parts. In general, the conventional elastic modulus is used to quantify the strain that occurs on unloading. This unloading strain causes deviations from desired part geometry. Considerable evidence in the literature indicates that for tensile testing, the conventional elastic modulus does not accurately describe the unloading strain. The present study uses new data and results from the literature to examine the average slope of tensile stress strain curves on unloading. This slope is termed the effective unloading modulus. The results from this study quantitatively describe how the effective unloading modulus decreases with increasing strength, prestrain, and unloading time.
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