Viewing 1 to 13 of 13
Technical Paper
W. G. Dukek
Of the many research approaches investigated over the years to measure the lubrication properties of aviation turbine fuels, the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE) has emerged as the most significant test. BOCLE was originally a lubricant research device modified for low viscosity jet fuel when the Air Force encountered fuel control problems in 1965 with JP-4. It proved to be capable of detecting the presence of additives such as corrosion inhibitors which improve boundary lubrication properties and also the absence of natural lubricity agents in highly refined jet fuel. The Coordinating Research Council carried out several programs to investigate test variables such as cylinder type, humidity control and load. A semi-automated version using Falex test rings has now been commercialized and is being used to test fuels from aircraft experiencing abnormal pump wear and fuel control hang-up.
Technical Paper
Ronald D. Beck
There have been plastics in automobiles almost as long as there have been plastics. This paper deals with plastic molded parts from the 1930’s through 1970. These parts include steering wheels, tail light lenses, knobs, electrical connectors, fasteners, speedometer wheels, distributor caps, water pump impellers, dials, and various decorative ornaments.
Journal Article
Tsung-Yu Pan, Zhili Feng, Michael Santella, Jian Chen
Development of reliable magnesium (Mg) to steel joining methods is one of the critical issues in broader applications of Mg in automotive body construction. Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has been demonstrated successfully to join Mg to steel and to achieve strong joints. In this study, corrosion test of ultrasonic spot welds between 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 and 0.8 mm thick galvanized mild steel, without and with adhesive, was conducted. Adhesive used was a one-component, heat-cured epoxy material, and was applied between overlapped sheets before USW. Corrosion test was conducted with an automotive cyclic corrosion test, which includes cyclic exposures of dipping in the 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) bath, a constant humidity environment, and a drying period. Lap shear strength of the joints decreased with the cycles of corrosion exposure. Good joint strengths were retained at the end of 30-cycle test.
Technical Paper
Peter E. M. Frere, Sans W. Emmert
The timing of lubricating oil changes for passenger vehicles are based on set time or mileage intervals specified by their manufacturers. A few vehicle manufacturers use more sophisticated methods such as logging the engine speed and temperature and calculating the oil change intervals from this data. Neither technique tells the vehicle user anything about the true state of the oil. A novel form of viscosity sensor based on a vibrating piezoceramic element has been developed. Based on the output from such a device, a more accurate determination of the oil change interval can be made and abnormal conditions (such as the leakage of fuels into the lubricating oil) can be detected. This paper gives a brief description of the device itself and shows results from prototype samples.
Technical Paper
Robert N. Kramer, Joseph M. Loibl, Richard L. Morrison, Carol S. Saunby, Verne L. Roberts
This study investigates occupant containment characteristics of tempered and laminated automotive moveable side glass in rollover collisions. FMVSS 216 test protocols were used to induce roof damage or sheet metal damage around the window opening in Lincoln Navigators equipped with tempered and laminated side glass. Dummy-drop tests were then performed to investigate relative containment. The results demonstrate that, for rollovers in which the window structure is compromised, tempered side glass and laminated side glass perform comparably relative to occupant containment. Also discussed are the general strength characteristics of different types of glass construction, the availability of laminated side glass in recent model U.S. vehicles, and anecdotal data supporting the conclusions of testing.
Journal Article
Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Carlos Agudelo, Achim Reich, Karl-Heinz Wollenweber, Harald Abendroth
The ISO TC22/SWG2 - Brake Lining Committee established a task force to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. SAE paper 2010-01-1697 “Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes” [1] presents the findings from the phases 1 and 2 of the “Test Variability Project.” The task force was created to address the issue of test variability and to establish possible ways to improve test-to-test and lab-to-lab correlation. This paper presents the findings from phase 3 of this effort-description of factors influencing test variability based on DOE study. This phase concentrated on both qualitative and quantitative description of the factors influencing friction coefficient measurements during dynamometer testing.
Technical Paper
G. E. Totten, R. J. Bishop, G. H Kling, J. Reichel
There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper
H. Mao, J. Brevick, C. Mobley, V. Chandrasekar, D. Rodrigo, M. Murray, R. Esdaile
Die cast AZ91D and AM60 magnesium alloy components are finding increasing usage in automotive applications. Both hot and cold chamber die cast components of these alloys generally exhibit several common microstructural features, including “skin”, porosity banding, and porosity distributed about the component centerline. Methods for quantitatively characterizing these microstructural features are described and representative values for skin thicknesses, porosity band dimensions and porosity band locations from selected die castings will be presented. The expected influence of these common microstrucutral features on mechanical properties and acceptability of die cast magnesium components for given applications are discussed.
Technical Paper
D. Rodrigo, M. Murray, H. Mao, J. Brevick, C. Mobley, V. Chandrasekar, R. Esdaile
Reported tensile and fatigue properties of die cast AZ91D and AM60B magnesium alloys indicate that those values depend on the size and shape of the test samples and their global porosities. This paper reviews the mechanical properties reported in the open literature for these die cast alloys and indicates that section thickness and global porosity are inadequate for predicting the tensile and fatigue properties of die cast AZ91D and AM60B magnesium alloys.
Technical Paper
Juergen Reichel, Marc C. Wahl
Hydraulic fluids of the HFC category are aqueous polymer solutions with a fire resistance enhancing water content of 35 to approx. 50 %. The use of HFC fluids, above all in mobile and stationary drives in mining and in casting is subject to restrictions resulting from a number of features of a fluid. Field practice has shown that while axial-piston pumps may be successfully operated using HFC fluids, rolling bearing failures reduce their operational lifetimes. The bearing failures essentially result from material fatigue. This can be remedied by new quality steel for roller bearings. The combination of high fatigue life and corrosion resistance assures a wide application range for nitrogen-treated steel qualities.
Technical Paper
P. D. D. Rodrigo, M. Murray, H. Mao, V. Chandrasekar, Y. Kisioglu, A. Deshpande, J. Brevick, C. Mobley, R. Esdaile
This paper provides a review of the fatigue properties reported in the open literature for die cast magnesium-based alloys. Recently developed fatigue data, in the form of stress versus number of cycles to failure for bending fatigue (R=-1), are presented for die cast AM60B and AZ91D alloy specimens with thicknesses between 1 and 10 mm. The effects of specimen thickness and macrostructural features, such as porosity distributions and surface features (parting line and ejection pin marks), on the fatigue data are discussed.
Technical Paper
Dennis Davidson, Larry Thompson, Frank Lutze, Butch Tiburcio, Kevin Smith, Cindy Meade, Tom Mackie, Duncan McCune, Herb Townsend, Rebecca Tuszynski
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper
Harry W. Walton
A review of many years of published work has shown that hydrogen embrittlement can occur under rolling contact conditions. Breakdown of lubrication and contamination with water have been cited as the probable sources of atomic hydrogen. In this paper, a unique fracture morphology is identified and the mechanism of the fracture progression from initiation to final catastrophic failure is proposed. Development of beneficial residual compressive stress near the contacting surfaces is one approach used to avoid this type of failure. Several alternative methods capable of developing a more desirable stress distribution will be discussed.
Viewing 1 to 13 of 13


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