Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
Technical Paper
Chadwyck T. Musser, Jerome E. Manning, Min Shen
In order to effectively use CAE to meet wind noise NVH targets, it is important to understand the main wind noise transfer paths. Testing confirmation of these paths by means of acoustic wind tunnel test is expensive and not always available. An on-road test procedure including a “windowing” method (using barriers) was developed to measure wind noise contribution at important higher frequencies through the main transfer paths, which were shown by test to be the glasses at a typical operating condition in which wind noise was dominant. The test data was used to correlate a full-vehicle SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) model that placed emphasis on the glass properties, main noise transfer paths, and interior acoustic spaces while simplifying all other transmission paths. A method for generating wind noise loads was developed using measured glass vibration data, exterior pressure data, and interior acoustic data.
Technical Paper
Robert J. Locker, Constance B. Sawyer, Paul S. Schmitt
The design of a canned ceramic oval converter, 77mm by 146.8mm, is described along with subsequent demonstration of its high temperature (1050°C) durability. A new mat deterioration phenomenon was recognized, and will be described. The mat deterioration results from sintering of the vermiculite and glass fiber structure when exposed to temperatures greater than approximately 1000°C. Due to the extremely high temperature experienced in the supporting mat of an oval converter exposed to 1050°C, an alternative mat configuration was utilized to eliminate potential mat sintering. An inner layer of non-intumescent mat (1500g/m2) was used in conjunction with an outer layer of intumescent mat (3100g/m2). The inner mat provided sufficient thermal protection to the outer intumescent mat, maintaining considerable holding pressure on the ceramic substrate. A tourniquet closure technique was developed to uniformly compress a hybrid mat system around the entire perimeter of the oval converter.
Technical Paper
Shahid Lakhwani, Katherine W. Hughes
Current trends in automotive emissions control have tended towards reduced mass substrates for improved light-off performance coupled with a reduction in PGM levels. This trend has led to increasingly thinner walls in the substrates and increased open frontal areas, with a potential of reducing the overall mechanical strength of the substrate relative to the thicker walled lower cell density supports. This change in demand driven technology has also led to developments, at times costly, in the processing of the catalytic converter system. Changes in mat materials, handling technology and coating variables are only a few sources of overall increased system costs. Corning has introduced the Celcor® XS™ product to the market which significantly increases the strength of thin and ultra thin walled substrates.
Technical Paper
S. B. Ogunwumi, P. D. Tepesch, T. Chapman, C. J. Warren, I. M. Melscoet-Chauvel, D. L. Tennent
Compositions in the mixed strontium/calcium feldspar ([Sr/Ca]O·Al2O3·2SiO2) - aluminum titanate (Al2O3·TiO2) system have been investigated as alternative materials for the diesel particulate filter (DPF) application. A key attribute of these compositions is their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Samples have been prepared with porosities of >50% having average pore sizes of between 12 and 16μm. The superior thermal shock resistance, increased resistance to ash attack, and high volumetric heat capacity of these materials, coupled with monolithic fabrication, provide certain advantages over currently available silicon carbide products. In addition, based on testing done so far aluminum titanate-based filters have demonstrated chemical durability and comparable pressure drop (both bare and catalyzed) to current, commercially available, silicon carbide products.
Technical Paper
Leslie E. Hampton, Deborah L. Shanley, Weiguo Miao, Ingo-C. Tilgner, Bich-van Lê, Shahin Hodjati
High emission performance standards and precious metals costs have pushed the catalytic substrate toward high cell density and thin wall, such as the 600/4, 600/3 and 900/2 products. Due to the inherently lower mechanical strength of these products, coupled with a shift from underbody to close-coupled placement, a concern was expressed that the severe thermal and mechanical conditions may cause structural damage to the substrate, which in turn could impact the catalyst performance. One source of reduced performance during use is the loss of catalyst due to erosion. A previous study1 indicated that the existence of particulate in an air-stream could cause substrate erosion. However, it was not clear if other factors could contribute to or accelerate the erosion process. In order to address this question, experiments were performed to examine the influence of high velocity flow, temperature, impingement angle, particulate characteristics, and coating effect on erosion.
Journal Article
Susan C. Lauderdale, Seth T. Nickerson, Jonathan D. Pesansky, Charles M. Sorensen
The effect of web thickness on emission performance, pressure drop, and mechanical properties was investigated for a series of catalyzed ceramic monolith substrates having cell densities of 900, 600 and 400 cpsi. As expected, thinner webs provide better catalyst light off performance and lower pressure drop, but mechanical strength generally decreases as web thickness is reduced. Good correlations were found between emission performance and geometric parameters based on bare and coated parts. An improved method for estimating the effects of cell density and web thickness on bare substrate strength is described, and the effect of porosity on material strength is also examined. New mechanical strength correlations for ceramic honeycombs are presented. The availability of a range of ceramic product geometries provides options for gasoline exhaust emission design and optimization, especially where increased levels of performance are desired.
Technical Paper
Ameya Joshi, Yi Jiang, Peter Flörchinger, Steven Ogunwumi
In this paper, we report the modeling of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx using ammonia on a commercial vanadia-titania based catalyst. The model combines a steady-state two-dimensional channel model with a transient two- or three-dimensional monolith model of the whole catalytic monolith converter. The reaction mechanism includes the standard and fast SCR reactions and also the high-temperature oxidation of ammonia to model the decrease in conversion observed at higher temperatures. We used in-house experimental data spanning a wide range of inlet compositions and temperatures to validate the model. The model was found to be in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper
S. T. Gulati, S. Widjaja, W. Xu, D. R. Treacy, J. A. Yorio
This paper provides elastic analysis of compressive stresses in the matrix and skin regions of automotive substrates during 3D- and 2D-isostatic strength testing. The matrix region is treated as transversely isotropic material and the skin region as isotropic material, each with their independent elastic properties. Such a solution helps quantify load sharing by the matrix and skin regions which, in turn, affect compressive stresses in each region. The analysis shows that the tangential compressive stresses in the skin and matrix differ significantly at the interface due to high stiffness ratio of skin versus matrix. The resulting strain in the skin is more severe for thin and ultrathin wall substrates and may lead to localized bending of interfacial cells thereby inducing premature failure. Methods to reduce compressive strain in both the matrix and skin without affecting performance-related advantages are discussed.
Technical Paper
Suresh T. Gulati
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper
Robert J. Locker, Constance B. Sawyer
In this study quantitative techniques were established to assess the low temperature durability of commercially available mat systems. A new low temperature dynamic resistive thermal exposure (LT-RTE) test method was developed. The mats were evaluated in thermal cycling with maximum substrate skin temperatures from 280°C to 450°C. Results indicate that at low use temperatures the residual shear strength of the mat fell to ∼5-15KPa following 280°C cycling. Under the same LT-RTE exposure conditions an equivalent mat system, following thermal preconditioning to 500°C for 3 hours, possessed a residual shear strength of ∼30KPa. An alternative mat system with a lower shot content fiber was also evaluated, following the same thermal preconditioning previously described. This alternative mat was found to exhibit substantially higher residual shear strengths following LT-RTE aging. A residual shear strength of ∼95KPa was observed for this alternative mat following 280°C LT-RTE aging.
Technical Paper
X. Sun, M. A. Khaleel, R. W. Davies, S.T. Gulati
An axisymmetric finite element model is generated to simulate the windshield glass damage propagation subjected to impact loading of a flying object. The windshield glass consists of two glass outer layers laminated by a thin poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) layer. The constitutive behavior of the glass layers is simulated using brittle damage mechanics model with linear damage evolution. The PVB layer is modeled with linear viscoelastic solid. The model is used to predict and examine through-thickness damage evolution patterns on different glass surfaces and cracking patterns for different windshield designs such as variations in thickness and curvatures.
Technical Paper
J. Paul Day
A concern has been expressed regarding the durability of the ceramic thin wall and ultra-thin wall substrates under severe thermal and mechanical conditions. Damage that might result from these conditions would most likely lead to a reduction in catalyst performance. One of the potential damage mechanisms for automotive catalysts is erosion resulting from the impingement of particles onto the front face of the catalyst system. A basic study of the particulate erosion phenomenon of cellular ceramic substrates was undertaken in order to determine, in a controlled setting, the substrate, particulate, and flow conditions that might bring this damage about. This report will discuss a room temperature study of the effects of particle size, particle density, gas flow rate, cellular part orientation, and cellular design parameters on the erosion of ceramic substrates.
Technical Paper
Heidi Knon, Peter Floerchinger
Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
Technical Paper
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Evangelos Skaperdas, Mansour Masoudi
As demand for wall-flow Diesel particulate filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular of the accumulated soot mass, under a wide range of operating conditions become important. This effort is currently hampered by a lack of a systematic knowledge of the accumulated particulate deposit microstructural properties. In this work, an experimental and theoretical study of the growth process of soot cakes in honeycomb ceramic filters is presented. Particular features of the present work are the application of first- principles measurement and simulation methodology for accurate determination of soot cake packing density and permeability, and their systematic dependence on the filter operating conditions represented by the Peclet number for mass transfer. The proposed measurement methodology has been also validated using various filters on different Diesel engines.
Technical Paper
S.T. Gulati*, L. E. Hampton, D. W. Lambert
This paper examines the relative thermal shock requirements for ceramic catalysts in underbody vs. close-coupled positions. The higher operating temperature in the latter position may imply higher coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal stresses, depending on substrate/washcoat interaction, than those for underbody position. An analysis of thermal stresses, using relevant physical properties and temperature gradients, is presented for both close-coupled and underbody catalysts. Three different high temperature close-coupled catalysts, employing advanced ceramic substrates with 600/3, 600/4 and 900/2 cell structure, and an underbody catalyst with 400/6.5 standard ceramic substrate are examined. Such an analysis is valuable for designing the optimum aspect ratio (length/diameter) and packaging system, which will minimize thermal and mechanical stresses over the desired lifetime of 120K vehicle miles.
Technical Paper
L. S. Socha, J. P. Day, E. H. Barnett
This study investigated the performance of various designs of ceramic monolithic catalyst supports for automotive emissions control. A test was conducted to examine the relationship of monolith volume, precious metal loading, cell density, and monolith frontal area on FTP emissions. The conclusion is that higher volume and/or higher cell density monoliths will yield improved catalytic performance using equal or less total precious metal per converter.
Viewing 1 to 16 of 16


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