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Viewing 1 to 28 of 28
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1228
Graciela Becci, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Alexandros Mouzakitis, James Marco, Andrew David Moore
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0064
Jafar Alzaili, David Hammond
The objective of this work is to investigate the thin water film characteristics by performing a range of experiments for different icing conditions. Our focus is on the SLD conditions where the droplets are larger and other effects like splashing and re-impingement could occur. Three features for the thin water film have been studied experimentally: the water film velocity, wave celerity and its wavelength. The experiments are performed in the icing facilities at Cranfiled University. The stability of the water film for the different conditions has been studied to find a threshold for transient from continues water film to non-continues form. A new semi-empirical method is introduced to estimate the water film thickness based on the experimental data of water film velocity in combination of theoretical analysis of water film dynamics. The outcome of this work could be implemented in SLD icing simulation but more analysis is needed.
2008-06-30
Article
The Hexagon Loxham Precision Laboratory, a new facility designed for leading-edge ultra precision research, has been opened at Cranfield University in the U.K. Cranfield has strong links with aerospace technology, and the laboratory will aid significant research into the manufacture of mirrors for the NASA James Webb Space Telescope and will also help scientists develop technologies for finding Earth-like planets and forms of life in space.
2016-02-19
Article
easyJet has set new targets for 2020 that will contribute to a reduction of 7% over the next five years compared to ‎it‎s emissions today.
2013-02-18
Article
The projected growth of global commercial aviation requires a more efficient way to keep airplanes flying reliably: new technical capabilities have emerged to support this upcoming expansion.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2120
David Judt, Kevin Forster, Helen Lockett, Craig Lawson, Philip Webb
Abstract In the civil aircraft industry there is a continuous drive to increase the aircraft production rate, particularly for single aisle aircraft where there is a large backlog of orders. One of the bottlenecks is the wing assembly process which is largely manual due to the complexity of the task and the limited accessibility. The presented work describes a general wing build approach for both structure and systems equipping operations. A modified build philosophy is then proposed, concerned with large component pre-equipping, such as skins, spars or ribs. The approach benefits from an offloading of the systems equipping phase and allowing for higher flexibility to organize the pre-equipping stations as separate entities from the overall production line. Its application is presented in the context of an industrial project focused on selecting feasible system candidates for a fixed wing design, based on assembly consideration risks for tooling, interference and access.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2266
Helen Lockett, Sarah Fletcher, Nicolas Luquet
Abstract The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators' cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced. To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in the enclosed wing environment to better enable operator access and reduce production time.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2086
Ravinka Seresinhe, Craig Lawson, Roberto Sabatini
Global aviation is growing exponentially and there is a great emphasis on trajectory optimization to reduce the overall environmental impact caused by aircraft. Many optimization techniques exist and are being studied for this purpose. The CLEAN SKY Joint Technology Initiative for aeronautics and Air transport, a European research activity run under the Seventh Framework program, is a collaborative initiative involving industry, research organizations and academia to introduce novel technologies to improve the environmental impact of aviation. As part of the overall research activities, “green” aircraft trajectories are addressed in the Systems for Green Operations (SGO) Integrated Technology Demonstrator. This paper studies the impact of large commercial aircraft trajectories optimized for different objectives applied to the on board systems.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2219
Peter Foote
The first cross-industry guidelines for the implementation of structural health monitoring for aerospace applications have been created as a SAE International Aerospace Recommended Practices document: SAE ARP 6461 ‘Guidelines for Implementation of Structural Health Monitoring on Fixed Wing Aircraft’ [1]. These guidelines have brought together manufacturers, operators / users, systems integrators, regulators, technology providers and researchers to produce information on the integration of SHM into aircraft maintenance procedures, generic requirements and advice on validation, verification and airworthiness. The take-up of SHM in the aerospace industry has been slow, in part due to the lack of accepted industry practices surrounding not just the technology itself (sensors and sensor systems) but also the associated issues arising from the introduction of new methods into aircraft maintenance.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2400
Craig Lawson, Irfan Madani, Ravinka Seresinhe, Devaiah K. Nalianda
Abstract With the rapid growth in passenger transportation through aviation projected to continue into the future, it is incumbent on aerospace engineers to seek ways to reduce the negative impact of airliner operation on the environment. Key metrics to address include noise, fuel consumption, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide emissions, and contrail formation. The research presented in this paper generates new aircraft trajectories to reduce these metrics, and compares them with typical scheduled airline operated flights. Results and analysis of test cases on trajectory optimization are presented using an in-house aircraft trajectory optimization framework created under the European Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative, Systems for Green Operation Integrated Technology Demonstrator. The software tool comprises an optimizer core and relatively high fidelity models of the aircraft's flight path performance, air traffic control constraints, propulsion and other systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2467
Luca Gallo, Bernard Tashie-Lewis, Panos Laskaridis, Paul Miller, Mark Husband
Abstract The present work focuses on developing an integrated airframe, distributed propulsion, and power management methodology for liquid-hydrogen-fuelled HALE UAVs. Differently from previous studies, the aim is to assess how the synergies between the aforementioned sub-systems affect the integrated system power requirement, production, and distribution. A design space exploration study was carried out to assess the influence of distributing motor-driven fans on three different airframes, namely a tube-and-wing, a triple-fuselage, and a blended-wing-body. For the considered range of take-off masses from 5,000 to 15,000 kg, the 200 kW payload power requirement under examination was found to re-shape the endurance trends. In fact, the drop in specific fuel consumption due to the engine design point change alters the trends from nearly flat to a 25% maximum endurance increase when moving towards heavier take-off masses.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2449
Solange Baena, Joseph K-W Lam, Craig Lawson
Abstract This paper focuses on the investigation of the nature, process and effects of ice accretion on different feed pump strainers upstream of the aircraft feeding system. A suitable test rig was designed to circulate Jet A-1 containing water/ice contaminants at cold temperatures through the strainers. Following an extensive literature review, a number of screening tests were performed. These provided a strong base for an exhaustive study of fuel icing in the dynamic environment offered by the test rig. The effects of the rate of fuel cooling on the nature of ice were examined. As expected, it was observed that the yield of ice generated on the mesh screen increased with the water concentration in the fuel. It was also revealed that at higher cooling rates, a crust of snow formed on top of softer ice on the mesh screen.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2795
Solange Baena, Craig Lawson, Joseph Kah-Wah Lam
Water is always present in jet fuel, usually in a mixture of forms. At very low temperatures this phenomenon can lead to the formation of ice crystals within the aircraft fuel system, which can then stay in suspension within the entire volume of fuel. Pumps within the fuel system transfer fuel around the system. Pumps such as boost pumps that are typically used in fuel systems are protected by a weave type filter mesh at the inlet. Ice accretion on the surface of this mesh has operational implications as it can cause non optimal fuel flow. In this investigation, two fundamental tools are being used: 1) a high fidelity MATLAB model of a mesh strainer, pick-up line and pump, and 2) a test rig of the modelled system. The model is being used to investigate fuel system performance when exposed to fuel containing water/ice contaminants at cold temperatures.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2594
Hugo Pervier, Devaiah Nalianda, Ramon Espi, Vishal Sethi, Pericles Pilidis, David Zammit-Mangion, Jean-Michel Rogero, Ricardo Entz
The aviation sector has played a significant role in shaping the world into what it is today. The rapid growth of global economies and the corresponding sharp rise in the number of people now wanting to travel on business and for pleasure, has largely been responsible for the development of this industry. With a predicted rise in Revenue Passenger Kilometers (RPK) by over 150% in the next 20 years, the industry will correspondingly be a significant contributor to environmental emissions. Under such circumstances optimizing aircraft trajectories for lowered emissions will play a critical role amongst various other measures, in mitigating the probable environmental effects of increased air traffic. Aircraft trajectory optimization using evolutionary algorithms is a novel field and preliminary studies have indicated that a reduction in emissions is possible when set as objectives.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3808
Frank Noppel, Riti Singh
As aviation is one of the fastest growing industrial sector world wide, air-traffic emissions are projected to increase their stake in the contribution to global warming. According to recent studies, both CO2 and contrails will be the principal air-traffic pollutants. Since the environmental impact of contrails is potentially larger, their avoidance is becoming discussed in the aeronautical community. Work on this topic has been carried out at Cranfield University in form of a PhD project. A project summary is given in this paper where contrail avoidance strategies and the different aspects of contrail avoidance are highlighted. The first section provides an overview on the formation principles of contrails based on a literature review. Different technologies are given in the second part, and their introduction is discussed in the last section.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2202
Jonathan G. Pelham, Ip-Shing Fan, Ian Jennions, Jim McFeat
UAS (Unmanned aircraft system), widely known to the general public as drones, are comprised of two major system elements: an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and a Ground Control Station (GCS). UAS have a high mishap rate when compared to manned aircraft. This high mishap rate is one of several barriers to the acceptance of UAS for more widespread usage. Better awareness of the UA real time as well as long term health situation may allow timely condition based maintenance. Vehicle health and usage are two parts of the same solution to improve vehicle safety and lifecycle costs. These can be worked on through the use of two related aircraft management methods, these are: IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) which combines diagnosis and prognosis methods to help manage aircraft health and maintenance, and FOQA (Flight Operations Quality Assurance) systems which are mainly used to assist in pilot skill quality assurance.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2294
Faisal Khan, Ian Jennions, Tarapong Sreenuch
In today's aircraft the diagnostic and prognostic systems play a crucial part in aircraft safety while reducing the operating and maintenance costs. Aircraft are very complex in their design and require consistent monitoring of systems to establish the overall vehicle health status. Most diagnostic systems utilize advanced algorithms (e.g. Bayesian belief networks or neural networks) which usually operate at system or sub-system level. The sub-system reasoners collect the input from components and sensors to process the data and provide the diagnostic/detection results to the flight advisory unit. Several sources of information must be taken into account when assessing the vehicle health, to accurately identify the health state in real time. These sources of information are independent system-level diagnostics that do not exchange any information/data with the surrounding systems.
1999-06-05
Technical Paper
1999-01-2298
I-S Fan, M.J. Gregory, D.J. Hamblin, E. Philpott, R. Hadfield
Aerospace companies have formed integrated product teams to improve their new product introduction process. Where significant components are outsourced, the suppliers’ expertise should be harnessed for a “win-win” solution to benefit both customer and supplier. CE practices for remote team work have been developed and used in a component engineering contract between a customer-supplier pair in the United Kingdom. Details of the producibility interaction dialogue between design team and supplier production engineers were captured. The resulting model represents the deployment of engineering capability of aerospace suppliers. It supports the setting up of CE projects with subcontract engineering work and is a reference for suppliers to develop their design/engineering capability.
2000-09-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-3024
Graham Burley, Soe Naing, Randolph Odi, John Corbett
This paper considers rhe use of structurally integrated location and reference features to simplify and to reduce the lead time and costs of assembling large aerospace structures. The location features are selected to fulfil a specific function based on restraint requirements and the necessary degree of precision to ensure that the Product Key Characteristics are achieved. Analysis of how to use structurally integrated location and reference features, indicates that their introduction will not be successful unless there is an integrated design team with a thorough understanding of the manufacturing processes and capabilities, the assembly processes, and the enabling technologies. The assembly of a single nose rib to a section of front spar is used as a typical assembly problem. Three alternative assembly processes are briefly described and used to illustrate the need for the industry to adopt an holistic approach to the design of aerostructure.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2577
Alessandro Ceruti, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Vitaly Voloshin
Abstract The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept of unconventional airship based on morphing a lenticular shape while preserving the volumetric dimension. Lenticular shape is known to have relatively poor aerodynamic characteristics. It is also well known to have poor static and dynamic stability after the certain critical speed. The new shape presented in this paper is obtained by extending one and reducing the other direction of the original lenticular shape. The volume is kept constant through the morphing process. To improve the airship performance, four steps of morphing, starting from the lenticular shape, were obtained and compared in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, including drag, lift and pitching moment, and stability characteristics for two different operational scenarios. The comparison of the stability was carried out based on necessary deflection angle of the part of tail surface.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2590
Yufei Lin, Zakwan Skaf, Ian Jennions
Abstract In the past few decades the number of airplanes has increased dramatically and aircraft systems have become increasingly more complex. Under these conditions, the next generation of airplanes will undergo substantial changes and will make significant technical progress to improve operational safety. This vision is entirely consistent with the adoption of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology which uses merging of interdisciplinary trends to carry out safe and effective vehicle operation. Hitherto, IVHM has made much progress in the realm of maintenance and operation, but little on safety assessment. This paper discusses the issues around how IVHM could be used to aid the operational safety assessment in the aviation industry. Special attention is paid to existing safety assessment methods, and some challenges and promising research directions are highlighted.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3806
Georgios Doulgeris, Sunil Mistry, J. P. Fielding, P. Pilidis
This paper describes the impact of noise on the civil aircraft design process. The challenge to design ‘silent’ aircraft is the development of efficient airframe-engine technologies, for which integration is essential to produce an optimum aircraft, otherwise penalties such as higher fuel consumption, and, or noise are a concern. A description of work completed by Cranfield University will cover design methodologies used for a Broad delta airframe concept, with reference to future studies into alternate concepts. Engine cycle designs for ultra-high bypass ratio, constant volume combustor, and recuperated propulsion cycles are described, with a discussion of integration challenges within the airframe.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3333
Robin A. Stanfield, David W. Hammond
The Cranfield Icing Research Tunnel was used to carry out a preliminary study whose objective was to identify whether or not the introduction of flight-path variability could generate accretions notably different to the critical ice shape. A reference (critical) ice shape was generated under conditions obtained from Appendix C before variability was applied, firstly to LWC and secondly to temperature. The approach is presented and selected results are introduced in this paper. Results show that ice accretions produced under variable conditions can be notably different to the reference profile, and are potentially more detrimental aerodynamically.
2002-09-30
Technical Paper
2002-01-2634
Graham Burley, John Corbett, Randolph Odi, Soe Naing
This paper describes and demonstrates the use of an assembly centric design algorithm as an aid to achieving minimal hard tooling assembly concepts. The algorithm consists of a number of logically ordered design methodologies and also aids the identification of other enabling technologies. Included in the methodologies is an innovative systems analysis tool that enables the comparison of alternative assembly concepts, and the prediction and control of the total assembly error, at the outline stage of the design.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2655
Matthew Walton, Philip Webb, Mike Poad
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
1998-06-02
Technical Paper
981843
Graham J. Burley, John Corbett
Co-production of aircraft is resulting in demands for higher standards of manufacturing quality to ensure that parts and sub-assemblies from different companies and countries are compatible and interchangeable. As a result the existing method of building aerostructure using large numbers of dedicated manufacturing jigs and assembly tools, is now seen as being commercially undesirable, and technologically flawed. This paper considers an alternative, potentially more cost-effective, approach that embraces digital design, manufacturing, and inspection techniques, and in which reference and tooling features are incorporated into the geometry of the component parts. Within the aerospace industry this technology is known as ‘Flyaway Tooling’.
1998-06-02
Technical Paper
981839
Graham J. Burley, Andrew R. Mills
The manufacturing cost of composite aerostructures is considerably higher than that of equivalent light-alloy ones. There are several reasons for this, but the transfer of the existing technology from military to civil aviation is identified as a major problem. Neither the designs, nor the methods of manufacture, are considered cost-effective when applied to very large, commercially competitive, structures. This problem was among those addressed within a multi-disciplinary, concurrent engineering project sponsored by BAe Airbus and the UK DTI. During the four year programme, alternative manufacturing technology was developed, and Pilot-plant equipment built. The Pilot-plant was successfully used to demonstrate that wing-box components can be more cheaply, more reliably, and more easily manufactured by simple, innovative, easily automated processes.
2000-05-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-1765
Soe Naing, Graham Burley, Randolph Odi, Andrew Williamson, John Corbett
Jigless assembly is an approach towards reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility of tooling systems for aircraft manufacture through the minimisation of productspecific jigs, fixtures and tooling. A new, integrated methodology has been developed, which uses a number of building blocks and tools, to enable design for jigless assembly as a result of a logical, step-by-step process. This methodology, AIM-FOR-JAM, is currently being applied to redesign the Airbus A320 Fixed Leading Edge for jigless assembly, as part of the ‘Jigless Aerospace Manufacture’ (JAM) project.
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