Viewing 1 to 14 of 14
Technical Paper
Nagesh Belludi, Joshua Receveur, Jeremy Raymond
This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
Journal Article
Krishna Kamasamudram, Aleksey Yezerets, Xu chen, Neal Currier, Mario Castagnola, Hai-Ying Chen
Mitigation of ammonia slip from SCR system is critical to meeting the evolving NH₃ emission standards, while achieving maximum NOx conversion efficiency. Ammonia slip catalysts (ASC) are expected to balance high activity, required to oxidize ammonia across a broad range of operating conditions, with high selectivity of converting NH₃ to N₂, thus avoiding such undesirable byproducts as NOx or N₂O. In this work, new insights into the behavior of an advanced ammonia slip catalyst have been developed by using accelerated progressive catalyst aging as a tool for catalyst property interrogation. The overall behavior was deconstructed to several underlying functions, and referenced to an active but non-selective NH₃ oxidation function of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and to the highly selective but minimally active NH₃ oxidation function of an SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper
Teresa L. Alleman, Christopher J. Tennant, R. Robert Hayes, Matt Miyasato, Adewale Oshinuga, Greg Barton, Marc Rumminger, Vinod Duggal, Christopher Nelson, Mike May, Ralph A. Cherrillo
A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration. The emission control devices included a deNOx filter and a diesel particle filter. Over the transient test, the emissions met the 2007 standards. In July 2004, the modified engine was installed into a Class 8 tractor for use by a grocery fleet. Chassis emission testing of the modified vehicle was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) facility. Testing included hot and cold replicate Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and New York Composite (NYComp) cycles and several steady-state points. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate the vehicle's with the modified engine.
Technical Paper
Shankar Kumar, Donald W. Stanton, Howard Fang, Rick J. Gustafson, Tim R. Frazier, Bruce G. Bunting, Yi Xu, Leslie R. Wolf
The influence of various diesel fuel properties on the steady state emissions and performance of a Cummins light-duty (ISB) engine modified for single cylinder operation has been studied at the mid-load “cruise” operating condition. Designed experiments involving independent manipulation of both fuel properties and engine control parameters have been used to build statistical engine response models. The models were then applied to optimize for the minimum fuel consumption subject to specific constraints on emissions and mechanical limits and also to estimate the optimum engine control parameter settings and fuel properties. The study reveals that under the high EGR, diffusion-burn dominated conditions encountered during the experiments, NOx is impacted by cetane number and the distillation characteristics. Lower T50 (mid-distillation temperature) resulted in simultaneous reductions in both NOx and smoke, and higher cetane number provided an additional small NOx benefit.
Technical Paper
Manuch Nikanjam, Jim Rutherford, Douglas Byrne, Edward J. Lyford-Pike, Yolanda Bartoli
Conventional diesel fuel (1) has been on the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications.* In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new formulations, have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases, contradictory views have surfaced. “Renewable” and “clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine, such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another type, such as a modern light-duty engine.
Journal Article
Jon Dickson, Matthew Ellis, Tony Rousseau, Jeff Smith
Abstract Fuel efficiency for tractor/trailer combinations continues to be a key area of focus for manufacturers and suppliers in the commercial vehicle industry. Improved fuel economy of vehicles in transit can be achieved through reductions in aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and driveline losses. Fuel economy can also be increased by improving the efficiency of the thermal to mechanical energy conversion of the engine. One specific approach to improving the thermal efficiency of the engine is to implement a waste heat recovery (WHR) system that captures engine exhaust heat and converts this heat into useful mechanical power through use of a power fluid turbine expander. Several heat exchangers are required for this Rankine-based WHR system to collect and reject the waste heat before and after the turbine expander. The WHR condenser, which is the heat rejection component of this system, can be an additional part of the front-end cooling module.
Technical Paper
Tim Lutz, Rajani Modiyani
The majority of commercial diesel engines rely on EGR to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards, creating a potential issue for military applications that use JP-8 as a fuel. EGR components would be susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in JP-8, which can reach levels of 3000 ppm. Starting with a Cummins 2007 ISL 8.9L production engine, modifications to remove EGR and operate on JP-8 fuel are investigated with a key goal of demonstrating 48% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at an emissions level consistent with 1998 EPA standards. The effects of injector cup flow, improved turbo match, increased compression ratio with revised piston bowl geometry, increased cylinder pressure, and revised intake manifold for improved breathing, are all investigated. Testing focused on a single operating point, full load at 1600 RPM. This engine uses a variable geometry turbo and high pressure common rail fuel system, allowing control over air fuel ratio, rail pressure, and start of injection.
Journal Article
Yolanda Bartoli, Edward J. Lyford-Pike, John E. Lucke, Imad A. Khalek, Michael D. Feist, Robert L. McCormick
A prototype 2007 ISL Cummins diesel engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particle filter (DPF), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was tested at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) under a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hours with B20 soy-based biodiesel blends and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel to determine the impact of B20 on engine durability, performance, emissions, and fuel consumption. At the completion of the 1000-hour test, a thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. The engine operated successfully with no biodiesel-related failures. Results indicate that engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hours of accumulated durability operation.
Technical Paper
A. P. Walker, P. G. Blakeman, T. Ilkenhans, B. Magnusson, A. C. McDonald, P. Kleijwegt, F. Stunnenberg, M. Sanchez
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems will be widely used to meet the Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) Euro IV emissions legislation. Reports on a number of demonstrations of such systems have already been published, but the long-term durability of such systems is still to be proven. The potential catalyst deactivation induced by oil-derived species and thermal processes have, up to now, received very little attention, despite the fact that these HDD emission control systems will need to be durable for distances of the order of 500,000 km or more. This paper describes the development and performance of a new family of SCR catalyst with very high thermal durability and poison resistance. The thermal durability of the catalyst was initially demonstrated within long-term, high temperature engine bench ageing studies.
Technical Paper
Indranil Brahma, Mike C. Sharp, Tim R. Frazier
A first law based regression model for estimating mean value engine torque on-board a diesel engine is presented. The model uses first law terms across the engine control volume in a regression built from least squares to predict engine torque. Torque information is often required by the engine ECM for torque based control and torque broadcast purposes. In the absence of real-time torque measurement torque estimation is usually achieved through look-up tables or empirical models. Given the increase in engine operating parameters as well as engine operating regimes as a result of emission control and exhaust aftertreatment technologies, accurate torque estimation has become more challenging as well as necessary.
Technical Paper
Morgan Andreae, Howard Fang, Kirtan Bhandary
In this work fuel dilution of engine oil, and the impact of biodiesel fuel on dilution, were examined. New emissions requirements have driven the adoption of a range of aftertreatment systems for diesel engines. These aftertreatment devices in many cases have specific requirements for exhaust composition and temperature. Meeting these requirements can lead to fuel dilution of the engine oil. Measurement of fuel dilution of engine oil can be challenging, and in this study a new strategy for utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was examined. A synthetic component of aviation oil, pentaerythritol ester (PE), was found to be a very useful tracer for measuring dilution with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), but not useful for measuring dilution with B20. Fuel dilution and evaporation rates were measured for both ULSD and for a blend of biodiesel and ULSD (B20).
Journal Article
Ilya L. Piraner, Matthew P. Meek
Design of a light duty diesel for an automotive market presents contradictory challenges related to passenger car requirements for a compact, low weight design versus the diesel's base engine that must withstand cylinder pressures that are much greater than that seen on gasoline. This was a particular challenge for Cummins because of two reasons. First, design practices developed for Cummins' traditional heavy duty and industrial markets could lead to over-design, particularly for those items that have wear based life limits like bearings. Secondly, in the pursuit of new engine business it is necessary to be able to quickly yet accurately generate conceptual engine space claims for a variety of vehicle and engine specifications. When applying traditional guidelines for crank and bearing sizing, the resulting base engine size appeared an unsolvable problem relative to size and weight requirements.
Journal Article
Kent Clark, John Antonevich, Daniel Kemppainen, Glen Barna
To investigate free floating piston pin behavior in a heavy duty diesel engine, an unused piston-pin-rod joint was instrumented. Combining telemetry systems with inductively powered transducers, piston pin subsurface temperature and pin rotation with respect to the piston were measured over a 30 minute steady state engine test.
Technical Paper
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Steven Dowding
Abstract Fan and fan-shroud design is critical for underhood air flow management. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a method to optimize fan-shroud shape in order to maximize cooling air mass flow rates through the heat exchangers using the Adjoint Solver in STAR-CCM+®. Such techniques using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis enable the automotive/transport industry to reduce the number of costly experiments that they perform. This work presents the use of CFD as a simulation tool to investigate and assess the various factors that can affect the vehicle thermal performance. In heavy-duty trucks, the cooling package includes heat exchangers, fan-shroud, and fan. In this work, the STAR-CCM+® solver was selected and a java macro built to run the primal flow and the Adjoint solutions sequentially in an automated fashion.
Viewing 1 to 14 of 14


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