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Viewing 1 to 30 of 36
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2451
Mike Workings, Nandu Ambady, Paul Olsen
Pure tone whine noises produced by transmission gear meshing can be a particular annoyance to vehicle occupants. In this case the gear meshing was exciting a resonance within the transaxle, resulting in an especially obtrusive pure tone noise within a narrow speed range. This report presents the identification of the resonating component and the development of a novel approach to eliminate the noise problem. Specifically a laminated steel (MPM) disk was fastened to the face of the gear to provide damping. Knowledge of the gear's mode of vibration was used to optimize the effectiveness of the damping treatment. This approach is proven to be effective via experimentally verified prototypes
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1938
Mingde Su, Guy Nusholtz, Venkatesh Agaram
This paper presents a 2D model for frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes that can be used for fleet modeling. It presents the derivational details and a preliminary assessment of the model. The model is based on rigid-body collision principles, enhanced adequately to represent energy dissipation and lateral engagement that plays a significant role in oblique frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. The model employs the restitution and the apparent friction in order to represent dissipation and engagement respectively. It employs the impulse ellipse to identify the physical character of the crash, based on the principal directions of impulse. The enhancement of the rigid body collision model with restitution and apparent friction is based on collision simulations that use very simple finite element vehicle representations.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1908
K. S. Choi, J. Pan, S. Ho
In this paper, the effects of roller geometry on contact pressure and residual stress in crankshaft fillet rolling are investigated by a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first introduced to review some characteristics of the rolling tools. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is then employed to qualitatively investigate the influence of the roller geometry. Computations have been conducted for eight different contact geometries between the primary roller and the secondary roller to investigate the geometry effect on the contact pressure distribution on the edge of the primary roller. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are also estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory. Then, computations have been conducted for three different contact geometries between the primary roller and the crankshaft fillet to investigate the geometry effect on the residual stress distribution near the crankshaft fillet.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1905
Timothy C. Scott, Larry K. McDonald
Advanced design of modern engine cooling and vehicle HVAC components involves sophisticated simulation. In particular, front end air flow models must be able to cover the complete range of conditions from idle to high road speeds involving multiple fans of varying types both powered and unpowered. This paper presents a model for electric radiator cooling fans which covers the complete range of powered and unpowered (freewheel) operation. The model applies equally well to mechanical drive fans.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1133
Chaitra Nailadi, Venkatesh Agaram
Barrier impacts are routinely used to estimate the impact response of vehicles in vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. One area of investigation is the detection of the secondary energy absorbing structures provided for under-/over-ride mitigation as a result of increased structural engagement -- improved geometric compatibility. The flat rigid barrier and the Transportation Research Laboratory’s (TRL) full width honeycomb barrier are commonly considered. In the present study, a vehicle-to-vehicle impact that exhibited no under-/over-ride condition was compared to finite element analysis of vehicle impacts to the two different barriers in order to evaluate their ability to detect the secondary energy absorbing structure. This study demonstrates that the rigid barrier and the TRL barrier yield similar quantitative information with regard to vehicle-to-vehicle crashes.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0596
Timothy C. Scott, Shan Sundaram
Simple component models are advantageous when simulating vehicle AC systems so that overall model complexity and computation time can be minimized. These models must be robust enough to avoid instability in the iteration method used for determining the AC system operating or “balance” point. Simplicity and stability are especially important when the AC system model is coupled with a vehicle interior model for studies of transient performance because these are more computationally intensive. This paper presents a semi-empirical modeling method for compressors based on dimensionless parameters. Application to some sample compressor data is illustrated. The model equations are simple to employ and will not introduce significant stability problems when used as part of a system simulation.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0342
Matthew S. Walp
The automotive industry is pursuing significant cost competitive efforts to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining or improving durability and impact performance. One such effort for the body shell structure is the utilization of advanced and ultra high strength steels (AHSS and UHSS) using the existing automotive manufacturing infrastructure. Common AHSS and UHSS steels include Dual Phase (DP), Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP), Partial Martensitic (PM) and others. The use of these multiphase high strength steels for impact dependent components has resulted in the need for further material characterization in order to better predict impact performance and guide new material development. This paper addresses the material properties and microstructural influences on impact behavior of advanced and ultra high strength steels through the use of laboratory tests and component level testing.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1498
K. S. Choi, J. Pan, S. Ho
In this paper, the fatigue failure of the primary roller used in a crankshaft fillet rolling process is investigated by a failure analysis and a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first discussed to introduce the important parameters that influence the fatigue life of the primary roller. The cross sections of failed primary rollers are then examined by an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to understand the microscopic characteristics of the fatigue failure process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is employed to qualitatively investigate the influences of the contact geometry on the contact pressure distribution and the Mises stress distribution near the contact area. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are then estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1501
V. Yu, W. Y. Chien, K. S. Choi, J. Pan, D. Close
Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1436
Mahmoud Yassine, Rajinder Dhatt, Ron Berndt, Majed Marji, Dennis Blumke, Thomas Laymac
Vehicle exhaust flow is difficult to measure accurately and with high precision due to the highly transient nature of the cyclic events which are dependent on engine combustion parameters, varying exhaust gas compositions, pulsation effects, temperature and pressure. Bag mini-diluter (BMD) is becoming one of the few technologies chosen for SULEV and PZEV exhaust emission measurement and certification. A central part of the BMD system is an accurate and reliable exhaust flow measurement which is essential for proportional bag fill. A new device has been developed to accurately and reliably calibrate exhaust flow measurement equipments such as the E-Flow. The calibration device uses two different size laminar flow elements (LFE), a 40 CFM (1.13 m3/min) LFE for low end calibration and a 400 CFM (11.32 m3/min) LFE for higher flows. A blower is used to push flow through a main flow path, which then divides into two flow pathways, one for each of the two LFE's.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1449
Eysion A. Liu, Mick Winship, Simon Ho, Kuo-Ting Hsia, Mitchel Wehrly, William F. Resh
The cambore distortion is one of major concerns of an engine performance. A good design does not ensure a quality product. To meet product performance requirements, engineering community turns efforts to both design and manufacturing at an early stage of product development. This paper will discuss this process by providing an example of design and manufacturing of an overhead cambore. In this study a methodology to evaluate bore distortions is introduced. FEA cambore distortion analysis will use it to provide necessary data so that the product team can make a sound decision.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1352
Chaitra Nailadi, Venkatesh Agaram
A finite element model of the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) honeycomb barrier, which is being proposed for use in vehicle compatibility studies, has been developed for use in LSDYNA. The model employs penalty parameters to enforce continuity between adjacent finite elements of the honeycomb barrier. Results of impact tests with indentors of various shapes and sizes were used to verify the performance of the computational model. Numerical simulations show reasonably good agreement with the test results.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0637
Terry North, Keith Frazier, Dale L. Sanders, James P. Muccioli
As the volume and complexity of electronics increases in automobiles, so does the complexity of the electromagnetic relationship between systems. The reliability and functionality of electronic systems in automobiles can be affected by noise sources such as direct current (DC) motors. A typical automobile has 25 to 100+ DC motors performing different tasks. This paper investigates the noise environment due to DC motors found in automobiles and the requirements that automobile manufacturers impose to suppress RF electromagnetic noise and conducted transients.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0686
M. K. Yassine, C. C. Kirchoff, T. D. Laymac, R. W. Berndt, J. H. Coffell
Measuring vehicle exhaust volumetric flow rate accurately and precisely is critical in calculating the correct vehicle modal and bag mini-diluter exhaust emission constituent masses. It is also instrumental in engine calibration practices. Currently, DaimlerChrysler's Emission and Certification Lab in Auburn Hills, Michigan utilizes constant volume sampling bag systems to certify vehicles but the automotive technological trend is heading toward the bag mini-diluter for greater precision at low emission levels. The bag mini-diluters, as well as the modal sampling system, used extensively in vehicle development testing, rely on exhaust flow rate measurement by means of a direct vehicle exhaust flow meter named E-Flow. The E-Flow has few limitations such as flow profile instability at low idle flow rates and reaction to resonating pressure waves in the exhaust system.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1661
Xin Zhang, Mark E. Barkey, Yung-Li Lee, Ming-Wei Lu, Eric Pakalnins, Charles J. Orsette, William Trojanowski
More than 200 tensile-shear resistance spot welded specimens were produced and tested to analyze the effect of spot weld spacing, weld size, sheet thickness, and adhesive on the ultimate strength of joints made from a mild hot dip galvannealed steel and an unexposed quality hot dip galvannealed 590 MPa minimum tensile strength dual phase steel (DP590). The geometric layout parameters were analyzed by a design of experiment (DOE) approach. The analysis showed that weld size is a primary factor affecting the strength of the joints for a given material. It was also determined that structural adhesive created a large relative strengthening for joints made from the mild steel. Interactions of the geometrical factors are also presented.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1662
Ming-Wei Lu, Marlon D. Forrest, Cheng Julius Wang
Abstract The relationship between the response (output) and the input factors on a system or process is always needed. This relationship can be used to optimize the response. The Central Composite Design (CCD) is the most commonly used in response surface study. The Uniform Design (UD) can have a small number of experiments to explore relationship between the response and the factors. In this paper, the physics-based simulation model of a “Heater fan motor” will be used to investigate the accuracy of the response (angular velocity) by the prediction models from CCD and UD.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1229
Tim Lancefield, Ian Methley, Ulf Räse, Thomas Kuhn
DaimlerChrysler and Mechadyne have undertaken a piece of work to investigate the opportunities for improving the operation of light duty diesel engines using variable valve timing. The very high compression ratios used in this type of engine make it essential to be able to alter the valve open periods to affect exhaust valve opening and intake valve closing, whilst leaving the valve motions largely unchanged around overlap top dead centre to avoid valve to piston contact. This paper presents an overview of the design solution, a description of the simulation model used, performance and economy data predicted by the model and a discussion of other areas of opportunity where improvements may be possible.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0635
Yibing Shi, Jianping Wu, Guy S. Nusholtz
A simple spring-mass model of the impact response of the side impact dummy (SID) is established. The spring and mass constants of the model are established through system identification methodology based on data from impact tests. The tests are performed in laboratory with hydraulically driven impactors impacting the chest and pelvis of the SID. The input data to the model consist of measured contact force or impactor velocity time histories, and the output data are accelerations on the rib, spine, and pelvis of the SID. The established model appears to predict the test results with reasonable accuracy. The main purpose of this study, however, is to use this simple model to carry out parametric studies of the response of the dummy with changing impact parameters, the result of which would be useful in understanding vehicle crash tests using the SID.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3202
N Suresh, John G. Argeropoulos, Craig Patterson, Del Schroeder
The automobile industry is seeing an increased need for the application of plastics and their derivatives in various forms such as fiber reinforced plastics, in the design and manufacture of various automotive structural components, to reduce weight, cost and improve fuel efficiency. A lot of effort is being directed at the development of structural plastics, to meet specific automotive requirements such as stiffness, safety, strength, durability and environmental standards and recyclability. This paper presents the concept of reinforcing large injection molded fiber reinforced body panels with structural uni-directional fibers (carbon, graphite, kevlar or fiber glass) wound in tension around the body panels by filament winding technique. Structural uni-directional fibers in tension wound around the fiber reinforced plastic inner body panels would place these body panels under compression.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1002
Ming F. Shi, Li Zhang
With the increased application of high strength steels in automotive body-in-white parts for weight reduction purposes, more emphasis is focused on springback as a major problem in stamping operations, in addition to panel breakage and wrinkling. Computer simulations using the finite element analysis (FEA) have been used to predict springback during early stages of die development processes to minimize potential springback related problems in production. However, the reliability of the springback simulation results relies directly on the accuracy of stress distributions from the forming simulation. Its complexity has brought many challenges not only to engineers and researchers in areas of FEA development and material modeling but also to FEA code end users. It is shown from this study that the springback simulation results vary with the yield criterion used in the forming simulation.
2000-04-02
Technical Paper
2000-01-1597
Joseph Hassan, Guy Nusholtz, Marlon D Forrest
Stochastic simulation is used to account for the uncertainties inherent to the system and enables the study of crash phenomenon. For analytical purposes, random variables such as material crash properties, angle of impact, human response and the like can be characterized using statistical models. The methodology outlined in this approach is based on using the information about the probability of random variables along with structural behavior in order to quantify the scatter in the structural response. Thus the analysis gives a more complete picture of the actual simulation. Practical examples for the use of this technique are demonstrated and an overview of this approach is presented.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2933
Christian Barba, Christine Burkhardt, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michael Bargende
This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0363
George Box, Spencer Graves, Søren Bisgaard, John Van Gilder, Ken Marko, John James, Mark Seifer, Mark Poublon, Frank Fodale
Computer controls are increasingly being employed in systems ranging from simple to very complex. A new trend is to extend these computer systems to include monitoring schemes to detect malfunctions. An example is provided by new automobiles sold in the US, Canada, and Europe. By law they must include “on-board diagnostics” designed to detect certain malfunctions in the powertrain system that may cause excessive emissions. The present article outlines some of the fundamental concepts of system's monitoring and general principles for the design of such monitors.
2001-04-30
Technical Paper
2001-01-1576
Reza Kashani, Ali Mazdeh, Jeff Orzechowski
The performance of shunt piezo damping is demonstrated by adding damping to the first mode of a plate with the dimensions of 28 by 38 cm and thickness of 0.8 mm. A small 1 by 2 inch piezoelectric patch with the thickness of 10 mil is bonded to the plate at a location where strain due to the first mode of vibration is high. The peizo is shunted with a resistance-inductance (RL) circuit, tuned to the first resonance frequency of the plate at 38 Hz. The plate is excited at its first natural frequency and the power spectrums of the acceleration at the center of the plate with and without the damping treatment were measured. These measurements showed that the shunt piezo damping treatment tuned to the first mode added an appreciable amount of damping to that mode.
2001-04-30
Technical Paper
2001-01-1519
Ronaldo F. Nunes, Celso F. Nogueira, Marcos A. Argentino, Dieter Hackenbroich
This paper describes the use of Vibro-Acoustics numerical modeling for prediction of an Air Intake System noise level for a commercial vehicle. The use of numerical methods to predict vehicle interior noise levels as well as sound radiated from components is gaining acceptance in the automotive industry [1]. The products of most industries can benefit from improved acoustic design. On the other hand, sound emission regulation has become more and more rigorous and customers expect quieter products. The aim of this work it is to assess the Vibro-Acoustics behavior of Air Intake System and influence of it in the sound pressure level of the vehicle.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0764
Robert G. Dubensky
This paper show how the automotive product development process is presented in four distinct stages. The specific type of task, to be presented at each stage, is discussed. Specific CAE (Computer-Aided-Engineering) tasks, such as FEA (Finite Element Analysis), to be used at each stage are discussed. Detailed steps to follow are presented, as well as a check list of tasks are included. The changes and increased effectiveness (developed over 15 years of utilization) are discussed.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1109
Suresh C. Rama, J. M. Zhang, Changqing Du, Yang Hu, Hua-Chu Shih, S.-D. Liu
The use of commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software to perform stamping feasibility studies of automotive components has grown extensively over the last decade. Although product and process engineers have now come to rely heavily on results from FEA simulation for manufacturability of components, the prediction of springback has still not been perfected. Springback prediction for simple geometries is found to be quite accurate while springback prediction in complex components fails to compare with experimental results. Since most forming simulation FEA software uses a dynamic explicit solution method, the choice of various input parameters greatly affects the prediction of post formed stresses in the final component. Accurate stress prediction is critical for determination of springback, therefore this study focuses on the effects of some of the simulation parameters such as, element size, tool/loading speed and loading profile.
2002-10-06
Technical Paper
2002-01-2589
Mitchel J. Keil, Jorge Rodriguez, Marcus V. Hemmye
A modeling methodology is being developed to aid in routing and predicting movement of brake hoses with the objective of having an adequate representation in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system for virtual prototyping. Once mount points and orientations have been specified,material properties and length determine the path of the hose. Data, collected on a straight and deflected hose at several points along the length of the hose, were compared to an ADAMS simulation. Problems that were encountered in metrology and data transfer are discussed along with their potential impact on the modeling accuracy.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2816
W. F. Resh, W. Tao, S. Gu, C. Kleismit, T. Reddy, A. A. Amer, C. Wei, G. Raiford, M. Winship, M. A. Hanchak
For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation will launch a totally new 5.7L V-8 engine for applications of the Dodge Ram pick-up truck. The new engine was created largely within a digital environment using the latest computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques and tools. Utilizing a co-located team of design engineers, designers, and CAE engineers enabled the simulations to impact the design from program inception to the assembly line, saving program time and investment. This paper describes the successful merging of design and advanced analysis techniques by highlighting examples throughout the new HEMI® program. Case studies include issues in the areas of structural optimization, engine loading, lubrication circuit, cooling circuit, and manufacturing.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1223
Basil Joseph, Pradeep Attibele, Yung-Li Lee, Salman Haq
Once a vehicle powertrain is designed and the first prototype is built, extensive on-board instrumentation and testing needs to be carried out at the proving grounds (PG) to generate load histograms for various components. The load histograms can then be used to carry out durability tests in the laboratory. When a component in the vehicle powertrain is changed, the load histograms need to be generated again at the proving grounds. This adds much time and money to the vehicle's development. The objective is to develop a virtual powertrain model that can be simulated through a powertrain endurance driving cycle in order to predict torque histograms and total damage. The predictions are then correlated against measured data acquired on a test vehicle that was driven through the same driving cycle at the proving grounds.
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