Viewing 1 to 30 of 39
Technical Paper
Christian Y. Glandier, Ralf Lehmann, Takashi Yamamoto, Yoshinobu Kamada
This paper investigates the potential of using FEA poro-elastic Biot elements for the modeling carpet-like trim systems in a simplified setup. A comparison between FEA computations and experiments is presented for two layer (mass-spring) trim systems placed on a test-rig consisting in a 510×354×1.6 mm flat steel plate clamped in a stiff frame excited at its base. Results are presented for a given heavy layer with two different poro-elastic materials: one foam and one fibrous material. The investigations included accelerometer measurements on the steel plate, laser-doppler vibrometer scans of the heavy layer surface, sound pressure measurements in free field at a distance of 1 meter above the plate, as well as sound pressure in a closed rectangular concrete-walled cavity (0.5×0.6×0.7 m) put on top of the test-rig. Computations were carried out using a commercial FEA software implementing the Biot theory for poro-elastic media.
Technical Paper
Marco Braun, Roland Caesar, Dirk Limperich, Katrin Prölß, Gerhard Schmitz
Development times in the automotive industry are becoming increasingly shorter. For this reason, design decisions based on simulation results must be made at an early development stage. The dynamic simulation of an automotive refrigeration cycle with Dymola/Modelica as part of the design process will be described in the following paper. The component supplier's expertise as well as the automotive manufacturer's knowledge of vehicle parameters in one simulation platform will also be discussed.
Technical Paper
Wolfgang Hauer, Hans Peter Großmann, Günter Stöhr
Because of the rapidly increasing amount of electronic components and busses in a vehicle, the use of gateways in Electronic Control Units (ECUs) becomes more important. The upcoming question is how to design an optimal gateway. This paper describes a method for designing an optimal automotive gateway in an FPGA by using Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). The complete gateway functionality is diagrammed in a specification graph which consists of a function graph and an architecture graph. The function graph describes the complete functionality of the gateway. The architecture graph shows the variety of the different implementation options of the mapped function graph. Each gateway task in the function graph can be realized either in a parallel way (different kinds of hardware implementations) or in a sequential way (software on a microprocessor core).
Technical Paper
Junhong Dai, Yu Teng
Boundary mannequin is an important concept in digital human modeling and simulation, yet complicated to deal with and utilize. In theory, the number of boundary mannequins could be as much as (n!)2n for a single gender, where n is the number of critical anthropometric dimensions. It has been recommended [1] to break a complicated task into smaller tasks to reduce the scale of problem, and limit n=2 whenever possible. Even then, the number of boundary mannequins is still high for simulations. In this paper, the authors intend to further simplify the issue. An Excel worksheet is created for the purpose. The input can be as few as two points. An ellipse representing the boundary is automatically generated through regression analysis, and the extremes on the major and minor axes of the ellipse are then obtained, and taken as the optimal boundary mannequins.
Technical Paper
Rudolf R. Maly, Volker Schaefer, Heinz Hass, G. F. (Barry) Cahill, Pierre Rouveirolles, Anders Röj, Rainer Wegener, Xavier Montagne, Alessandra Di Pancrazio, Julian Kashdan
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper
Oliver Moos, Franz R. Klimetzek, Rainer Rossmann
Topology optimization in structural analysis is known for many years. In the presented procedure, “topology optimization” is used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the first time. It offers the possibility of a very fast optimization process under utilization of the physical information in the flow field instead of using optimization algorithms like for example evolution strategies or gradient based methods. This enables the design engineer to generate in a first layout air guiding systems with low pressure drop in a fast and easy manner, which can than be improved further due to constraints of styling or production requirements. This procedure has been tested with many examples and shows promising results with a reduction in pressure loss up to 60% compared to a duct designed in CAD in the traditional way.
Technical Paper
Klaus Lamberg, Michael Beine, Mario Eschmann, Rainer Otterbach, Mirko Conrad, Ines Fey
Permanently increasing software complexity of today's electronic control units (ECUs) makes testing a central and significant task within embedded software development. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions already undergo certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. Testing must be done as early as possible within the automotive development process. Typically ECU software developers test new function modules by stimulating the code with test data and capturing the modules' output behavior to compare it with reference data. This paper presents a new and systematic way of testing embedded software for automotive electronics, called MTest. MTest combines the classical module test with model-based development. The central element of MTest is the classification-tree method, which has originally been developed by the DaimlerChrysler research department.
Technical Paper
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Nickolas Vlachos, Ioannis Stavropoulos, Sofia Skopa, Uwe Schumacher, Dirk Woiki, Marcus Frey
This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.
Technical Paper
R. Steiner, C. Bauer, C. Krüger, F. Otto, U. Maas
A progress variable approach for the 3D-CFD simulation of DI-Diesel combustion is introduced. Considering the Diesel-typical combustion phases of auto-ignition, premixed and diffusion combustion, for each phase, a limited number of characteristic progress variables is defined. By spatial-temporal balancing of these progress variables, the combustion process is described. Embarking on this concept, it is possible to simulate the reaction processes with detailed chemistry schemes. The combustion model is coupled with a mesh-independent Eulerian-spray model in combination with orifice resolving meshes. The comparison between experiment and simulation for various Diesel engines shows good agreement for pressure traces, heat releases and flame structures.
Technical Paper
Gerhard Wickern, Berthold Schwartekopp
In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper
P. Wenzel, R. Steiner, C. Krüger, R. Schießl, C. Hofrath, U. Maas
A chemical sub-model for realistic CFD simulations of Diesel engines is developed and demonstrated by application to some test cases. The model uses a newly developed progress variable approach to incorporate a realistic treatment of chemical reactions into the description of the reactive flow. The progress variable model is based on defining variables that represent the onset and temporal development of chemical reactions before and during self ignition, as well as the stage of the actual combustion. Fundamental aspects of the model, especially its physical motivation and finding a proper progress variable, are discussed, as well as issues of practical implementation. Sample calculations of Diesel-typical combustion scenarios are presented which are based on the progress-variable model, showing the capability of the model to realistically describe the ignition-and combustion phase.
Technical Paper
D. Suzzi, C. Krüger, M. Blessing, P. Wenzel, B. Weigand
The main objective of engine 3D CFD simulation is nowadays the support for combustion design development. New combustion concepts (e.g. Low Temperature Combustion, HCCI, multiple injection strategies …) could be analyzed and predicted through detailed thermodynamical computation. To achieve this aim many simulation tools are needed: each of them has to be capable to reproduce the sensitivities of combustion design parameters through physically based models. The adopted approach consists of the coupling of different models for 3D-nozzle flow, orifice-resolved spray formation in Eulerian coordinates and combustion. The advantages of the method will be proofed on an operative DI-diesel truck engine case, run with different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper
Alexander Wäschle, Stephane Cyr, Timo Kuthada, Jochen Wiedemann
This paper presents velocity and pressure measurements obtained around an isolated wheel in a rotating and stationary configuration. The flow field was investigated using LDA and a total pressure probe in the model scale wind tunnel at IVK/FKFS. Drag and lift were determined for both configurations as well as for the wheel support only. These results were used as a reference for comparing numerical results obtained from two different CFD codes used in the automotive industry, namely STAR-CD™ and PowerFLOW™. The comparison gives a good overall agreement between the experimental and the simulated data. Both CFD codes show good correlation of the integral forces. The influence of the wheel rotation on drag and lift coefficients is predicted well. All mean flow structures which can be found in the planes measured with LDA can be recognized in the numerical results of both codes. Only small local differences remain, which can be attributed to the different CFD codes.
Technical Paper
S. Eckhoff, W. Mueller, D. Lindner, J. Leyrer, T. Kreuzer, G. Vent, C. Schoen, J. Schmidt, J. Franz
To meet future emission levels the industry is trying to reduce tailpipe emissions by both, engine measures and the development of novel aftertreatment concepts. The present study focuses on a joint development of aftertreatment concepts for gasoline engines that are optimized in terms of the exhaust system design, the catalyst technology and the system costs. The best performing system contains a close-coupled catalyst double brick arrangement using a new high thermal stable catalyst technology with low precious metal loading. This system also shows an increased tolerance against catalyst poisoning by engine oil.
Technical Paper
Frank W. Baumann, Lutz Eckstein
Accident statistics show that rollover accidents contribute to a large proportion of fatal traffic accidents in the U.S.. In the past it has been documented that some light passenger cars showed tendencies to roll over in evasive lane change maneuvers. In 1997, a newly developed mini van rolled over in a severe double lane change test called “moose-test”. Recently (2001), a new SUV showed similar tendencies in the Consumers Union Short Course test. It is not immediately clear why these evasive test maneuvers are so strongly related to untripped rollover of light passenger vehicles. Therefore, the goal of current research is to understand the circumstances and effects causing modern passenger vehicles to roll over in evasive maneuvers on the road. This paper discusses research activities concerning the following questions: How do critical steering strategies lead to untripped rollover? Are resonant frequencies excited during maneuvers leading to rollover?
Technical Paper
Ernst Peter Weidmann, Jochen Wiedemann, Thomas Binner, Heinrich Reister
This paper describes a method to simulate underhood temperature distributions in passenger cars. A simplified engine compartment simulation test rig is used to perform measurements with well known boundary conditions to validate the simulation strategy. The measurement setup corresponds to idle without working fan. The aim of this setup is to validate cases with strong natural convection, e.g. thermal soaking. A coupled steady-state CFD run and thermal analysis is undertaken to simulate the temperature distribution in the test rig. Convective heat transfer coefficients and air temperatures are calculated in StarCD™. The radiative and conductive heat transfer is considered in a RadTherm™ analysis. The strong coupling of flow field and wall temperature in buoyancy driven flows requires an iterative process. Calculated temperatures are compared to measured results in order to validate the simulation method as far as possible. Some of the results are reported in this paper.
Technical Paper
Thomas Harr, Karl-Gustav Rolker, Horst Bergmann, Celso Argachoy
Technical Paper
Jun Sui, John Hirshey
This paper evaluates several durability tire models using Virtual Tire Testing (VTT) strategy. VTT conducts tire testing (simulation) using LS–DYNA based on a Virtual Tire which is built by 3–D finite element mesh. VTT is repeatable and could do special tire tests which can't be done using normal tire testing bench. A brief review is given on durability tire models and several typical tire models are selected for this study. All the necessary parameters for establishing the analytical tire models are extracted from the Virtual Tire. Quarter vehicle model is used to simulate the vehicle vertical vibration. The comments of those analytical tire models are given based on their performance vs. VTT.
Technical Paper
Roland Kemmler, Anton Waltner, Christof Schön, Simon Godwin
The background for the development activities of the motor vehicle industry is strongly influenced by lawmakers, with engine development, in particular, coming under increasing pressure from the requirements of emissions legislation. Demands for CO2 reduction and thus corresponding savings in consumption contrast with regulations which call for compliance with extremely low emission levels, featuring the extreme of zero tailpipe emissions, and alternative low emission levels which make accurate measurement a problem even with current analysis technology. An example of such requirements are the SULEV limits of California law. These standards have given rise to a wide variety of emission control concepts, each of which, however, has certain limitations in its application. In the context of this general setting, the paper shows that the phase directly subsequent to cold start should be focused upon if these ambitious targets are to be reached.
Technical Paper
Matthias Finkbeiner, Klaus Ruhland, Halil Cetiner, Marc Binder, Bruno Stark
Mercedes-Benz at DaimlerChrysler has been developing and applying Life-Cycle-Engineering (LCE) and Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) since almost 10 years. Extensive experience and know-how has been gained by two complete car LCAs and more than 100 LCAs for parts. According to our experience LCA/LCE is most effectively and efficiently used to support the development of new products. One of DaimlerChrysler's Environmental Guidelines includes a statement, that our approach to environmentally acceptable design covers the entire product spectrum of the DaimlerChrysler Group, taking into account the product life cycle from design through disposal or recycling. The organisation of environmental management at DaimlerChrysler has a distinct structure of tasks: the central Environmental Protection Division coordinates all organisation/ plant related aspects, while all product related aspects are the responsibility of the divisonal business units.
Technical Paper
C.–O. Schmalzing, P. Stapf, R. R. Maly, G. Renner, H. Stetter, H. A. Dwyer
For studying the effects of injection system properties and combustion chamber conditions on the penetration lengths of both the liquid and the vapor phase of fuel injectors in Diesel engines, a holistic injection model was developed, combining hydraulic and spray modeling into one integrated simulation tool. The hydraulic system is modeled by using ISIS (Interactive Simulation of Interdisciplinary Systems), a one dimensional in–house code simulating the fuel flow through hydraulic systems. The computed outflow conditions at the nozzle exit, e.g. the dynamic flow rate and the corresponding fuel pressure, are used to link the hydraulic model to a quasi–dimensional spray model. The quasi–dimensional spray model uses semi–empirical 1D correlation functions to calculate spray angle, droplet history and droplet motion as well as penetration lengths of the liquid and the vapor phases. For incorporating droplet vaporization, a single droplet approach has been used.
Technical Paper
Joachim Currle, Oliver Moos
In the present study, the exterior air flow over convertibles together with the interior flow in the passenger compartment has been calculated using the commercial CFD program STAR-CD. The investigations have been performed for a SLK-class Mercedes with two occupants. The computational mesh consists of about 3 million hexahedra cells. The detailed informations of the calculated flow field have been used to elaborate the characteristic flow phenomena and increase the physical understanding of the flow. The influence of different geometrical modifications (variations of roof spoiler, variations of the draft stop behind the seats etc.) on the flow field and the air draft experienced by the occupants has been analyzed. To proof the accuracy of the numerical results, wind tunnel experiments in a full scale and 1:5 scale wind tunnel have been carried out for the basic car model as well as for several geometrical variations.
Technical Paper
W. Zücker, R. R. Maly, S. Wagner
Today, a number of simulation codes are available for pre-designing gas exchange systems of IC engines with good accuracy (e.g. PROMO, WAVE, GT-Power). However, optimizing such systems still requires numerous time consuming and inefficient trial and error runs. Also, accounting for constraints as size, volume, peak combustion pressure etc. multiplies the necessary efforts additionally. Hence there is a strong need for efficient procedures for finding optimum designs automatically and reliably. To automatically find the global optimum design parameters under a given set of real constraints of a practical case, a multi-membered evolution-strategy based optimization code was developed. The code which efficiently finds the true optimum dimensions of gas exchange systems (duct lengths, duct diameters, volumes) of an IC engine. The code can be readily generalized, and adapted to arbitrary optimization problems.
Technical Paper
Klaus Allmendinger, Lino Guzzella, Adrian Seiler, Otmar Loffeld
Coming along with the present movement towards the ultimately variable engine, the need for clear and simple models for complex engine systems is rapidly increasing. In this context Common-Rail-Systems cause a special kind of problem due to of the high amount of parameters which cannot be taken into consideration with simple map-based models. For this reason models with a higher amount of complexity are necessary to realize a representative behavior of the simulation. The high computational time of the simulation, which is caused by the increased complexity, makes it nearly impossible to implement this type of model in software in closed loop applications or simulations for control purposes. In this paper a method for decreasing the complexity and accelerating the computing time of automotive engine models is being evaluated which uses an optimized method for each stage of the diesel engine process.
Technical Paper
Juergen Bortolazzi, Martin Ulrich, Thomas Raith
The complexity of electrical/electronic vehicle systems mandates a systematic approach to the development of vehicle control, infotainment or comfort functions as well as the integration of these functions in an in-vehicle network consisting of several dedicated bus systems and according gateways. Due to reduced time-to-market, the integration has to be performed in a virtual environment. The classical Digital Mockup (DMU) addresses the physical integration of EE systems as mechanical components. However, functional aspects play a dominant role in EE vehicle systems. For this reason, functional integration defines a multi-view, mixed-level approach to the description, transformation, verification and integration of vehicle functions under consideration of the physical vehicle integration.
Technical Paper
Alejandro Regueiro
This paper introduces the new 1.6L engine family, designed and developed by the Chrysler group of DaimlerChrysler Corporation in cooperation with BMW. An overview of the engine's design features is provided, with a detailed review of the performance development process with emphasis on airflow, combustion, thermal management and friction. This information is presented, to provide an understanding of how the engine simultaneously achieves outstanding levels of torque, power, fuel consumption, emissions and idle stability. The use of analytical tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the optimization of the engine is shown.
Technical Paper
Xiangyang Xu, Ulrich Weiss, Guoan Gao
The integration of CAD/CAM/CAE in product development is the key to realize concurrent engineering. Generally, different systems are employed in product development department. These different systems create a lot of troubles such as difficult communication, misunderstanding and so on. A new approach to integrate CAD/CAM/CAE in one system based on CATIA for the end-to-end process in cylinder head development is presented. Multi-Model Technology (MMT) is used to create consistent and associated CAD models for the end-to-end process in cylinder head development. The concept and method to create and organize multi- models are discussed. A typically four-layer structure of MMT for mechanical products is defined. The multi-level structure of the cylinder head models based on MMT is provided. The CAD models of cylinder head created based on MMT can be used as the consistent model.
Technical Paper
Amer Ahmad Amer, Thirumala N. Reddy
The current is an investigation of the effects of charge motion, namely tumble, on the burn characteristics of the new Chrysler Hemi SI engine. In order to reduce prototyping, several combustion system designs were evaluated; some of which were eliminated prior to design inception solely based on CFD simulations. The effects of piston top and number of spark plugs were studied throughout the conceptual stage with the AVL-FIRE CFD code. It has been concluded that large-scale, persistent and coherent tumbling flow structures are essential to charge motion augmentation at ignition only if such structures are decimated right before ignition. Piston top had a detrimental effect on tumbling charge motion as the piston approaches the TDC. When compared to single spark plug operation, dual spark plug reflected considerable improvement on burn characteristics and engine performance as a consequence. The CFD simulations demonstrated good correlation with early dynamometer data.
Technical Paper
Jürgen Greiner, Johann Wachter, Rainer Wüst, Bernd Wunsch
Abstract One of the world's most noble and high quality automobile brands is being revived: Maybach Aestetics, poise, perfection and technical brilliance founded the reputation of the magnificient Maybach sedans and convertibles, whose “Zeppelin” flagship, with a length of around 5.50 metres, was once the most prestigious German passenger car on the road - “an automobile which fulfills every last desire with refined elegance and power”, as the luxury automobile brand's brochure stated in 1934. DaimlerChrysler now feels obliged to live up to these high standards. As cornerstones of this vehicle concept, focus was placed on the topics of design, comfort, spatial availability, safety, exclusiveness and extra-ordinary performance. A major role was given to the powertrain in order to meet outstanding driving comfort and agility.
Technical Paper
M. Ammann, N. P. Fekete, L. Guzzella, A. H. Glattfelder
In this article model-based controller design techniques are investigated for the transient operation of a common-rail diesel engine in order to optimize driveability and to reduce soot emissions. The computer-aided design has benefits in reducing controller calibration time. This paper presents a nonlinear control concept for the coordinated control of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) in a common-rail diesel engine. The overall controller structure is set up to regulate the total cylinder air-charge with a desired fresh air-charge amount by means of controlling the intake manifold pressure and estimating the fresh air-charge inducted into the cylinders. During varying engine operating conditions the two control loops are coordinated by a compensation of the EGR valve action through the VGT controller.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 39


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