Viewing 1 to 30 of 36
Technical Paper
G. Lepperhoff, Th. Körfer, Stefan Pischinger, H. Busch, S. Keppeler, P. Schaberg, M. Schnell
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper
Sanjeev Mandpe, Suhas Kadlaskar, Winfried Degen, Stefan Keppeler
This paper addresses the use of neat, indigenous biodiesel in advanced Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. Modern, unmodified EU3 Common-Rail diesel engines with second generation common rail technology were used to determine the effects of neat biodiesel on performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was made from the seeds of the Jatropha Curcas plant and sourced from the Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, India. The production of biodiesel and the vehicle tests are part of a PPP project, funded jointly by the DaimlerChrysler AG and the German DEG. The project aims at providing additional jobs and income in rural Indian areas along with reclaiming unused wasteland. The test vehicles were operated for a cumulative 8000 kilometers with an intention to expose the vehicle and fuel to diverse climatic conditions.
Technical Paper
Paul Schaberg, Johan Botha, Mark Schnell, Hans-Otto Herrmann, Stefan Keppeler, Walter Friess
A Mercedes E320 CDI vehicle has been modified for more optimal operation on Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) diesel fuel, in order to demonstrate the extent of exhaust emission reductions which are enabled by the properties of this fuel. The engine hardware changes employed comprised the fitment of re-specified fuel injectors and the reduction of the compression ratio from 18:1 to 15:1, as well as a re-optimisation of the software calibration. The demonstration vehicle has achieved a NOx emission of less that 0.08 g/km in the NEDC test cycle, while all other regulated emissions still meet the Euro 4 limits, as well as those currently proposed for Euro 5. CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, were not degraded with the optimised engine. This was achieved whilst employing only cost-neutral engine modifications, and with the standard vehicle exhaust system (oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter) fitted.
Technical Paper
Rudolf R. Maly, Volker Schaefer, Heinz Hass, G. F. (Barry) Cahill, Pierre Rouveirolles, Anders Röj, Rainer Wegener, Xavier Montagne, Alessandra Di Pancrazio, Julian Kashdan
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper
Oliver Moos, Franz R. Klimetzek, Rainer Rossmann
Topology optimization in structural analysis is known for many years. In the presented procedure, “topology optimization” is used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the first time. It offers the possibility of a very fast optimization process under utilization of the physical information in the flow field instead of using optimization algorithms like for example evolution strategies or gradient based methods. This enables the design engineer to generate in a first layout air guiding systems with low pressure drop in a fast and easy manner, which can than be improved further due to constraints of styling or production requirements. This procedure has been tested with many examples and shows promising results with a reduction in pressure loss up to 60% compared to a duct designed in CAD in the traditional way.
Technical Paper
W. A. Givens, W. H. Buck, A. Jackson, A. Kaldor, A. Hertzberg, W. Moehrmann, S. Mueller-Lunz, N. Pelz, G. Wenninger
After-treatment systems (ATS) consisting of new catalyst technologies and particulate filters will be necessary to meet increasingly stringent global regulations limiting particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions from heavy duty and light duty diesel vehicles. Fuels and lubes contain elements such as sulfur, phosphorus and ash-forming metals that can adversely impact the efficiency and durability of these systems. Investigations of the impact of lubricant formulation on the transfer of ash-forming elements to diesel particulate filters (DPF) and transfer of sulfur to NOx storage catalysts were conducted using passenger car diesel engine technology. It was observed that for ATS configurations with catalyst(s) upstream of the DPF, transfer of ash-forming elements to the DPF was significantly lower than expected on the basis of oil consumption and lube composition. Sulfur transfer strongly correlated with oil consumption and lubricant sulfur content.
Technical Paper
Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos, Nickolas Vlachos, Ioannis Stavropoulos, Sofia Skopa, Uwe Schumacher, Dirk Woiki, Marcus Frey
This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.
Technical Paper
R. Steiner, C. Bauer, C. Krüger, F. Otto, U. Maas
A progress variable approach for the 3D-CFD simulation of DI-Diesel combustion is introduced. Considering the Diesel-typical combustion phases of auto-ignition, premixed and diffusion combustion, for each phase, a limited number of characteristic progress variables is defined. By spatial-temporal balancing of these progress variables, the combustion process is described. Embarking on this concept, it is possible to simulate the reaction processes with detailed chemistry schemes. The combustion model is coupled with a mesh-independent Eulerian-spray model in combination with orifice resolving meshes. The comparison between experiment and simulation for various Diesel engines shows good agreement for pressure traces, heat releases and flame structures.
Technical Paper
P. Wenzel, R. Steiner, C. Krüger, R. Schießl, C. Hofrath, U. Maas
A chemical sub-model for realistic CFD simulations of Diesel engines is developed and demonstrated by application to some test cases. The model uses a newly developed progress variable approach to incorporate a realistic treatment of chemical reactions into the description of the reactive flow. The progress variable model is based on defining variables that represent the onset and temporal development of chemical reactions before and during self ignition, as well as the stage of the actual combustion. Fundamental aspects of the model, especially its physical motivation and finding a proper progress variable, are discussed, as well as issues of practical implementation. Sample calculations of Diesel-typical combustion scenarios are presented which are based on the progress-variable model, showing the capability of the model to realistically describe the ignition-and combustion phase.
Technical Paper
D. Suzzi, C. Krüger, M. Blessing, P. Wenzel, B. Weigand
The main objective of engine 3D CFD simulation is nowadays the support for combustion design development. New combustion concepts (e.g. Low Temperature Combustion, HCCI, multiple injection strategies …) could be analyzed and predicted through detailed thermodynamical computation. To achieve this aim many simulation tools are needed: each of them has to be capable to reproduce the sensitivities of combustion design parameters through physically based models. The adopted approach consists of the coupling of different models for 3D-nozzle flow, orifice-resolved spray formation in Eulerian coordinates and combustion. The advantages of the method will be proofed on an operative DI-diesel truck engine case, run with different nozzle geometries.
Technical Paper
Ernst Peter Weidmann, Jochen Wiedemann, Thomas Binner, Heinrich Reister
This paper describes a method to simulate underhood temperature distributions in passenger cars. A simplified engine compartment simulation test rig is used to perform measurements with well known boundary conditions to validate the simulation strategy. The measurement setup corresponds to idle without working fan. The aim of this setup is to validate cases with strong natural convection, e.g. thermal soaking. A coupled steady-state CFD run and thermal analysis is undertaken to simulate the temperature distribution in the test rig. Convective heat transfer coefficients and air temperatures are calculated in StarCD™. The radiative and conductive heat transfer is considered in a RadTherm™ analysis. The strong coupling of flow field and wall temperature in buoyancy driven flows requires an iterative process. Calculated temperatures are compared to measured results in order to validate the simulation method as far as possible. Some of the results are reported in this paper.
Technical Paper
K. Koyanagi, H. Öing, G. Renner, R. Maly
The paper describes results from investigating Common Rail (CR) injection in a dedicated optical engine with optimum access to the whole cross section of the engine cylinder through piston. This engine maintains all production-type details of the combustion chamber geometry being crucial to the flow fields required for optimum engine performance. This optical engine is used along with 2D optical diagnostics for temperature, soot and OH as well as spray shadowgraphy to analyze all phases of injection and combustion under virtually real engine conditions. By using special prototype CR injectors, the effects of engine design and operation strategies on ignition, combustion and pollutant formation are studied and controlling parameters are isolated. Special emphasis is devoted to the effects of injector stability, spray symmetry, nozzle geometry, injection rate, pilot injection and swirl effects.
Technical Paper
Thomas Harr, Karl-Gustav Rolker, Horst Bergmann, Celso Argachoy
Technical Paper
M. Krämer, J. Abthoff, F. Duvinage, N. Ruzicka, B. Krutzsch, T. Liebscher
In order to fulfill future emissions standards, there is a need for new exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts, with NOx-emissions reduction in passenger car diesel engines being of particular importance. The NOx storage catalyst is one of the technologies currently under discussion with high NOx conversion potential, and which is under development at DaimlerChrysler for EURO IV standards. With this system, the nitrogen oxides contained in the diesel exhaust gas are stored under lean exhaust-gas conditions and are reduced in the catalyst through an enriched air-fuel ratio of the exhaust-gas and favorable thermal conditions. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and hydrogen are used as reducing agents. DaimlerChrysler has analyzed the effect of sulphur contained in the fuel on the operation of various catalysts during laboratory and engine testing. The sulphur dioxide in the exhaust gas generates sulfates, which remain on the catalyst when nitrate compounds are regenerated briefly.
Technical Paper
Joachim Schommers, Frank Duvinage, Marco Stotz, Arndt Peters, Stefan Ellwanger, Katsuyoshi Koyanagi, Helmut Gildein
The improvement of DI diesel engines for passenger cars to fulfil pollutant emission limits and lower fuel consumption and noise is closely linked to continued development of the injection system. Today's injection systems demonstrate varying potential in terms of the flexibility of injection parameters for improving mixture formation and combustion. DaimlerChrysler evaluated the potential of different injection systems, looking particularly at the distributor pump, unit injection system and Common Rail system. Based on the results of these investigations, the Common Rail system was selected. The tests presented in this paper were performed on a single-cylinder engine with Common Rail system. They focused on increased rail pressure in combination with different nozzle geometries. The results show significant benefits in NOx/smoke trade off at part load conditions with high EGR rate.
Technical Paper
C.–O. Schmalzing, P. Stapf, R. R. Maly, G. Renner, H. Stetter, H. A. Dwyer
For studying the effects of injection system properties and combustion chamber conditions on the penetration lengths of both the liquid and the vapor phase of fuel injectors in Diesel engines, a holistic injection model was developed, combining hydraulic and spray modeling into one integrated simulation tool. The hydraulic system is modeled by using ISIS (Interactive Simulation of Interdisciplinary Systems), a one dimensional in–house code simulating the fuel flow through hydraulic systems. The computed outflow conditions at the nozzle exit, e.g. the dynamic flow rate and the corresponding fuel pressure, are used to link the hydraulic model to a quasi–dimensional spray model. The quasi–dimensional spray model uses semi–empirical 1D correlation functions to calculate spray angle, droplet history and droplet motion as well as penetration lengths of the liquid and the vapor phases. For incorporating droplet vaporization, a single droplet approach has been used.
Technical Paper
Joachim Currle, Oliver Moos
In the present study, the exterior air flow over convertibles together with the interior flow in the passenger compartment has been calculated using the commercial CFD program STAR-CD. The investigations have been performed for a SLK-class Mercedes with two occupants. The computational mesh consists of about 3 million hexahedra cells. The detailed informations of the calculated flow field have been used to elaborate the characteristic flow phenomena and increase the physical understanding of the flow. The influence of different geometrical modifications (variations of roof spoiler, variations of the draft stop behind the seats etc.) on the flow field and the air draft experienced by the occupants has been analyzed. To proof the accuracy of the numerical results, wind tunnel experiments in a full scale and 1:5 scale wind tunnel have been carried out for the basic car model as well as for several geometrical variations.
Technical Paper
Reinhard Ludes, Peter Ebel
High demands in fuel consumption, efficiency, and low emissions lead to complex control functions for current and future diesel engine management systems. Great effort is necessary for their optimal calibration. At the same time, and particularly for cost reasons, many variants exist on one individual type of diesel engine management system. Not only is it used for several base engines, but these engines are also used in different environments and for different tasks. For optimal deployment, their calibration status must also be optimized individually. Furthermore, the demand for shorter development cycles and enhanced quality lead to a catalogue of new requirements for the calibration process and the affiliated tool. A new calibration system was developed, which optimally reflects the new demands.
Technical Paper
W. Zücker, R. R. Maly, S. Wagner
Today, a number of simulation codes are available for pre-designing gas exchange systems of IC engines with good accuracy (e.g. PROMO, WAVE, GT-Power). However, optimizing such systems still requires numerous time consuming and inefficient trial and error runs. Also, accounting for constraints as size, volume, peak combustion pressure etc. multiplies the necessary efforts additionally. Hence there is a strong need for efficient procedures for finding optimum designs automatically and reliably. To automatically find the global optimum design parameters under a given set of real constraints of a practical case, a multi-membered evolution-strategy based optimization code was developed. The code which efficiently finds the true optimum dimensions of gas exchange systems (duct lengths, duct diameters, volumes) of an IC engine. The code can be readily generalized, and adapted to arbitrary optimization problems.
Technical Paper
Klaus Allmendinger, Lino Guzzella, Adrian Seiler, Otmar Loffeld
Coming along with the present movement towards the ultimately variable engine, the need for clear and simple models for complex engine systems is rapidly increasing. In this context Common-Rail-Systems cause a special kind of problem due to of the high amount of parameters which cannot be taken into consideration with simple map-based models. For this reason models with a higher amount of complexity are necessary to realize a representative behavior of the simulation. The high computational time of the simulation, which is caused by the increased complexity, makes it nearly impossible to implement this type of model in software in closed loop applications or simulations for control purposes. In this paper a method for decreasing the complexity and accelerating the computing time of automotive engine models is being evaluated which uses an optimized method for each stage of the diesel engine process.
Technical Paper
Nic Mann, Peter Joppig, Helmut Sommer, Wolfgang Sulzbacher
Cold performance is a very important issue for diesel engines. Customers expect their engines to start reliably under all ambient conditions, and to quickly deliver useful power without unacceptable noise or exhaust emissions. In this programme the low ambient temperature cold start performance of two generations of Mercedes-Benz Heavy-Duty diesel engines has been explored. Both are typical of the smaller European Heavy-Duty engine design. The OM364 LA meets Euro 2 emissions legislation using mechanical controls; the OM904 LA is the first evolution of an all-new design to replace the OM364 LA, and features a three-valve cylinder head and high pressure unit-pump injection, with fully electronic controls. Engines were tested in a temperature controlled chamber, using a procedure that studied the first few minutes of operation from cold.
Technical Paper
Alejandro Regueiro
This paper introduces the new 1.6L engine family, designed and developed by the Chrysler group of DaimlerChrysler Corporation in cooperation with BMW. An overview of the engine's design features is provided, with a detailed review of the performance development process with emphasis on airflow, combustion, thermal management and friction. This information is presented, to provide an understanding of how the engine simultaneously achieves outstanding levels of torque, power, fuel consumption, emissions and idle stability. The use of analytical tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the optimization of the engine is shown.
Technical Paper
Xiangyang Xu, Ulrich Weiss, Guoan Gao
The integration of CAD/CAM/CAE in product development is the key to realize concurrent engineering. Generally, different systems are employed in product development department. These different systems create a lot of troubles such as difficult communication, misunderstanding and so on. A new approach to integrate CAD/CAM/CAE in one system based on CATIA for the end-to-end process in cylinder head development is presented. Multi-Model Technology (MMT) is used to create consistent and associated CAD models for the end-to-end process in cylinder head development. The concept and method to create and organize multi- models are discussed. A typically four-layer structure of MMT for mechanical products is defined. The multi-level structure of the cylinder head models based on MMT is provided. The CAD models of cylinder head created based on MMT can be used as the consistent model.
Technical Paper
Michael Schittler, Albert Flotho, Harry Schlawitz, Michael v. Mayenburg, James Tipka
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper
Amer Ahmad Amer, Thirumala N. Reddy
The current is an investigation of the effects of charge motion, namely tumble, on the burn characteristics of the new Chrysler Hemi SI engine. In order to reduce prototyping, several combustion system designs were evaluated; some of which were eliminated prior to design inception solely based on CFD simulations. The effects of piston top and number of spark plugs were studied throughout the conceptual stage with the AVL-FIRE CFD code. It has been concluded that large-scale, persistent and coherent tumbling flow structures are essential to charge motion augmentation at ignition only if such structures are decimated right before ignition. Piston top had a detrimental effect on tumbling charge motion as the piston approaches the TDC. When compared to single spark plug operation, dual spark plug reflected considerable improvement on burn characteristics and engine performance as a consequence. The CFD simulations demonstrated good correlation with early dynamometer data.
Technical Paper
Rudolf R. Maly, Winfried Degen
The likely transition from today's conventional to future alternative fuels will be discussed. It will be shown that in the very long term renewable fuels might be the most promising road fuels with respect to low CO2 emissions. In the short and medium term, however, liquid alternative fuels will prevail being produced initially from natural gas and later increasingly from biomass. Methanol, Ethanol, GTL Hydrocarbons and other fuels are still under study since lowest WTW CO2 emissions and overall system costs are not yet clarified. The availability of alternative fuels in large quantities will depend on the costs for production and infra-structure, and not least of all, on the market benefits of the resulting fuel / power train systems in a holistic assessment. Cost trends for conventional and alternative fuels will be discussed.
Technical Paper
Wolfgang Samenfink, Hartmut Albrodt, Michael Frank, Markus Gesk, Anja Melsheimer, Jens Thurso, Martin Matt
In view of tight emission standards, injection strategies to reduce raw HC-emissions during the cold starting of port fuel injected engines are evaluated in this study. The relevance of spray targeting and atomization is outlined in the first part of this paper. The foundation and performance of different injector concepts with respect to spray characteristics are discussed. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that concepts relying on auxiliary energy, such as air-assistance, fuel heating and injection at elevated system pressures, are capable of producing spray droplet sizes in the SMD-range of 25μm. For future injection strategies aimed at the compliance of SULEV emission levels, this target value is considered to be essential. In the second part of this paper, emission tests of selected injector concepts are carried out using a V6-3.2I ULEV engine operated both in a vehicle and on a test bench.
Technical Paper
M. Ammann, N. P. Fekete, L. Guzzella, A. H. Glattfelder
In this article model-based controller design techniques are investigated for the transient operation of a common-rail diesel engine in order to optimize driveability and to reduce soot emissions. The computer-aided design has benefits in reducing controller calibration time. This paper presents a nonlinear control concept for the coordinated control of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) in a common-rail diesel engine. The overall controller structure is set up to regulate the total cylinder air-charge with a desired fresh air-charge amount by means of controlling the intake manifold pressure and estimating the fresh air-charge inducted into the cylinders. During varying engine operating conditions the two control loops are coordinated by a compensation of the EGR valve action through the VGT controller.
Technical Paper
M. Blessing, G. König, C. Krüger, U. Michels, V. Schwarz
In modern DI Diesel engines the raw emissions of NOx and soot are affected, apart from the fuel injection rate, by atomization of the liquid jet and mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. Thereby details of the fuel flow inside the injection nozzle play an essential role. In order to determine the general mechanisms and the effect of individual nozzle configuration parameters on the fuel atomization and the fuel spray propagation, methods for optical diagnostics and CFD have been developed at the DaimlerChrysler Research. These methods are combined with an analysis of the injection system hydraulics and linked to a detailed analysis of mixture formation and combustion inside an optically accessible engine. The first part of the paper methods for the experimental investigation with transparent 1- and 6- hole nozzles in real size geometries under high pressure conditions are described. Special emphasis is put on CFD methods for modeling the cavitating two phase nozzle flow.
Technical Paper
Christian Enderle, Christof Schön, Thomas Ried, Wilfried Mueller, Lutz Ruwisch, Markus Koegel, Stefan Franoschek, Thomas Kreuzer, Egbert Lox
The launching of direct injection gasoline engines is currently one of the major challenges for the automotive industry in the European Union. Besides its potential for a notable reduction of fuel consumption, the engine with direct gasoline injection also offers increased power during stoichiometric and stratified operation. These advantages will most probably lead to a significant market potential of the direct injection concept in the near future. In order to meet the increasingly more stringent European emission levels (EURO IV), new strategies for the exhaust gas aftertreatment are required. The most promising technique developed in recent years, especially for NOx conversion in lean exhaust gases, is the so-called NOx storage catalyst.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 36


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