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Viewing 1 to 30 of 174
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0170
Mark Müller, Markus Reif, Madhukar Pandit, Wolfgang Staiger, Bert Martin
A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1581
Mike Guo, Ram Bhandarkar, Barry Lin
Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0649
Juergen Greiner, Christoph Doerr, Harald Nauerz, Michael Graeve
In September 2003, the Mercedes Car Group set another milestone by introducing the fifth generation of automatic transmissions developed and manufactured in-house since 1960. The world's first 7-speed automatic transmission 7G-TRONIC is featured in the Mercedes-Benz S, SL, CL and E-Classes with V8 gasoline engines. Deduced from the demands of the requirement specifications, the 5-speed automatic transmission was decisively improved; the result is a clear increase in spontaneity, agility, fuel economy, and driving comfort for the customer. And because of the harmony between the vehicle and its powertrain, excellent results in the areas of performance, reduced emissions, comfort, and acoustics are obtained.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0769
Marv Frinkle, Robert Weir, John B. Ferris
Load data representing severe customer usage is required during the chassis development process. One area of current research is the use of road profiles for predicting chassis loads. The most direct method of predicting these loads is to run dynamic simulations of the vehicle using numerous road profiles as the excitation. This onerous task may be avoided, and a greatly reduced number of simulations would be required, if roads having similar characteristics can be grouped. Currently, road profiles are characterized by their spectral content. It has been noted by several researches, however, that road profiles are generally nonstationary signals that contain significant transient events and are not well described in the spectral domain. The objective of this work, then, is to develop a method by which the characteristics of the road can be captured by describing these constitutive transient events.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3054
Bin Wu, Zoran Filipi, Dennis N. Assanis, Denise M. Kramer, Gregory L. Ohl, Michael J. Prucka, Eugene DiValentin
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1625
Joyce Zhuo Cao, Madhu R. Koka, S. Edward Law
This paper presents a new approach to improve occupant response in a front impact event. Instead of designing a vehicle structure for maximum structural efficiency and safety and then engineer a restraint system for the vehicle, this paper proposes to use a systems approach. In this approach, the vehicle structural response during impact (i.e., pulse) and the restraint system are considered together in the optimization process. In this paper, the 35 mph front impact into a rigid barrier with belted occupants, which is the NHTSA NCAP test, will be used to demonstrate the proposed new approach.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0793
Donald B. Nagy, Jeffrey Loo, Jim Tulpa, Pat Schroeder, Rick Middleton, Craig Morgan
With the adoption of the California Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations and the associated lower emission standards such as LEV (Low-Emission Vehicle in 1990), ULEV (Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle), and LEV II (1998 with SULEV-Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle), concerns were raised by emissions researchers over the accuracy and reliability of collecting and analyzing emissions measurements at such low levels. The primary concerns were water condensation, optimizing dilution ratios, and elimination of background contamination. These concerns prompted a multi-year research program looking at several new sampling techniques. This paper will describe the cooperative research conducted into one of these new technologies, namely the Bag Mini-Diluter (BMD) and Direct Vehicle Exhaust (DVE) Volume system.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3678
A. A. Adamczyk, C. P. Hubbard, F. Ament, S. H. Oh, M. J. Brady, M. C. Yee
Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3223
Gregory W. Hopton, Philip E. Weber, Leslie J. Osenkowski, Gerald J. Renaud
Cavity reinforcement materials are used in the automotive industry to stiffen hollow cavities in vehicle body constructions. Typical areas of use include the engine rails, rocker panels, roof support or any other cavity in need of structural reinforcement. Use of these materials can allow for significant reductions in vehicle weight and increase structural stiffness with minimal impact to production tooling. Additional benefits can be gained by using the material as a physical barrier to the propagation of noise, water and dust. The objective of this paper is to describe a case study which implemented a new type of cavity reinforcing material to improve low frequency vehicle noise and vibration characteristics.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1405
Peiyong Qin, Suneel F D'Souza
The durability of fuel tank straps is essential for vehicle safety. Extensive physical tests are conducted to verify designs for durability. Due to the complexity of the loads and the fuel-to-tank interaction, computer-aided-engineering (CAE) simulation has had limited application in this area. This paper presents a CAE method for fuel tank strap durability prediction. It discusses the analytical loads, modeling of fuel-to-tank interaction, dynamic analysis methods, and fatigue analysis methods. Analysis results are compared to physical test results. This method can be used in either a fuel-tank-system model or a full vehicle model. It can give directional design guidance for fuel tank strap durability in the early stages of product development to reduce vehicle development costs.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1404
Cheng Cao, Saikat Ghosh, Rajesh Rao, Sudhakar Medepalli
This paper introduces a reliable method to calculate body mount loads from wheel-force-transducer (WFT) measurements on framed vehicles. The method would significantly reduce time and cost in vehicle development process. The prediction method includes two parts: Hybrid Load Analysis (HLA) that has been used by DaimlerChrysler Corporation and Body Mount Load Analysis (BMLA) that is introduced by this paper for the first time. The method is validated on a body-on-frame SUV and a pickup truck through one proving ground events. The example shown in this paper is for a SUV and one of the most severe events. In HLA, the loads at suspension-to-frame attachments are calculated from spindle loads measured by WFT. In BMLA, body mount loads were calculated using outputs of HLA with detailed finite-element-modeled frame and body. The loads are compared with measured body mount loads. The comparisons are conducted in range, standard deviation (S.D.), and fatigue pseudo-damage.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0687
M. K. Yassine, R. S. Dhatt, T. D. Laymac, S. B. Ta
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain good repeatability from running lab vehicle correlation testing, since vehicle variability is so significant at the Low ULEV and SULEV emissions levels. These new emission standards are becoming so stringent that it makes it very difficult to distinguish whether a problem is a result of vehicle variability, test cell sampling or the analytical system. A vehicle exhaust emission simulator (VEES) developed by Horiba, can simulate emissions from low emitting gasoline vehicles by producing tailpipe flow rates containing emissions constituents ( HC, CH4, CO, NOx, CO2 ) injected at the tailpipe flow stream via mass flow controllers.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0603
Chang-Fa An, Mitchell Puskarz, Kanwerdip Singh, Mark E. Gleason
This paper summarizes the major activities of CFD study on rear window buffeting of production vehicles during the past two years at DaimlerChrysler. The focus of the paper is the attempt to find suitable solutions for buffeting suppression using a developed procedure of CFD simulation with commercial software plus FFT acoustic post-processing. The analysis procedure has been validated using three representative production vehicles and good correlation with wind tunnel tests has been attained which has gained the confidence in solving the buffeting problem. Several attempts have been proposed and tried to find solution for buffeting reduction. Some of them are promising, but feasibility and manufacturability still need discussion. In order to find suitable solution for buffeting reduction, more basic research is necessary, more ideas should be collected, and more joint efforts of CFD and testing are imperative.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0002
Jesse M. Schneider, Steven Mathison, Justin Ward, Eloi Taha, John Tillman, Mark Richards, David Zuckerman, Kenneth Kriha, Michael Short, William Collins, Glen Scheffler, Andrés Fernández Durán, Frank Niezabytowski, Todd Suckow, William Chernicoff, Spencer Quong, Joseph Cohen
The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1003
Mahesh Tampi, Xiaobo Yang, Gu Zhengqi, Li Weiping
In this paper, cradle design functional objectives are briefly reviewed and a durability development process is proposed focusing on the cradle loads, stress, strain, and fatigue life analysis. Based upon the proposed design process, sample isolated and non-isolated cradle finite element (FE) models for a uni-body sport utility vehicle (SUV) under different design phases are solved and correlated with laboratory bench and proving ground tests. The correlation results show that the applied cradle models can be used to accurately predict the critical stress spots and fatigue life under various loading conditions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0825
Saikat Ghosh, Sudhakar Medepalli
Tire stiffness can have a significant effect on the spindle and component loads. While its’ effect on the component loads may show a different trend. This paper deals with data acquisition loads using Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) with 17 inch, 18 inch and 20 inch tires and shows how the spindle loads changed for different tire. These loads are applied on the analytical suspension model to generate both component and the body attachment loads. Some of the measured channels are correlated for all the wheel sizes for multiple events to ensure the confidence in the model. It is found that even if spindle loads are increased with tire stiffness, the component loads do not necessarily show a similar trend. This paper studies why higher spindle forces do not always give higher component loads and what are the possible alternatives one may look into to shortlist or select one set of loads over the other.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0828
Robert J. Withrow
Faced with an ever increasing supply of road load data and no reasonable means to keep track of it, Managing Road Load Data and The Process is about one engineer's charge to deliver a solution. This paper summarizes the approach taken by this engineer and his team to produce a system that not only provides a place to store their data, but facilitates the entire data collection, validation and dissemination process. By following the steps outlined in this document, virtually every opportunity for improvement will be identified. That is, the process is thoroughly explored; the wants and needs of the users are identified, and then, as warranted, turned into functional elements of the system. The result is a central repository that is accessible to all and with the capability of significantly reducing cost and timing. The development process presented here is not a difficult one to accomplish, but does require keeping track of a lot of detail. It can therefore be quite time consuming.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0751
Lynn C. Byers, Christopher M. Slon
In stereo photogrammetry, the accuracy of calculating the location of a point in space, decreases as the angle between the two cameras decreases. For vehicle crash testing, the need for accurate 3D data conflicts with the need for flexible positioning of the cameras, to enable unobstructed views of the targets inside the vehicle throughout the impact event. This paper discusses a method for increasing the quantity and quality of film analysis data when small subtended angles are used. The method uses the 3D information developed through triangulation of two cameras as input to a single camera analysis.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0770
Michael B. Riley, David W. Fiddes
A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1904
Kumar Srinivasan, George Woronowycz, Michael Zabat, John Tripp
Vehicle thermal protection is an important aspect of the overall vehicle development process. It involves optimizing the exhaust system routing and designing heat shields to protect various components that are in near proximity to the exhaust system. Reduced time to market necessitates an efficient process for thermal protection development. A robust procedure that utilizes state of the art CFD simulation techniques proactively during the design phase is described. Simulation allows for early detection of thermal issues and development of countermeasures several months before prototype vehicles are built. Physical testing is only used to verify the thermal protection package rather than to develop heat shields. The new procedure reduces the number of physical tests and results in a robust, efficient methodology.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0069
Michael J. Prucka
A project was undertaken to demonstrate an engine stop/start at idle system utilizing a 12 volt Belt driven Starter Generator (BSG). The system was developed on a production four cylinder vehicle to determine emissions, driveability, and fuel economy impact.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0308
Timothy P. Hsu, Guy S. Nusholtz
Developing an effective side impact ATD for assessing vehicle impact responses requires a method for evaluating that ATD's bio-fidelity. ISO/TR9790 has been in existence for some years to serve that purpose. Recently, NHTSA sponsored a research project on the post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) responses subjected to side impact conditions. Based on those newly available PMHS data, Maltese generated a new approach for creating bio-fidelity corridors for human surrogates. The approach incorporates the time factor into the evaluation equation and automates the process (Maltese et al. 2002). This paper serves as the first attempt to look closely at the new bio-fidelity corridor generation process (hereafter referred as the Maltese approach) with respect to its validity, effectiveness, as well as its practicality. The effect of mass scaling was first examined in order to ensure the integrity of the data. The time alignment scheme and the formation of the corridors were then tested.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1643
Temo Bardzimashvili, James F. Kelly, Helen Romelashvili, William T. Sledd, Bruce Geist
This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1168
Guy S. Nusholtz, Lan Xu, Yibing Shi, Laura Di Domenico
The effects of vehicle “stiffness” and mass on the occupant response during a crash may be determined by evaluation of accident data. However, “stiffness” and mass may be correlated, making it difficult to separate their effects. In addition, a single-valued “stiffness”, although well defined for linear case, is not well defined for non-linear systems, such as in vehicle crash, making the separation task even more difficult. One approach to addressing the lack of a clear definition of stiffness is to use multiple definitions. Each stiffness definition can then be correlated with mass to look for trends. In this study, such an approach was taken, and the different stiffness definitions were given and their values were obtained from rigid barrier crash test data. No clear relationship between mass and stiffness appears to exist. All the stiffness measures reviewed show, at best, only a weak correlation with mass. A stiffness analysis among different vehicle types was also carried out.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3750
Dennis A. Soltis
This investigation evaluated different pressure transducers in one cylinder to examine the combustion measurement differences between them simultaneously. There were a total of eleven transducers ranging in both diameter and type of transducer (piezo-electric, piezoresistive, and optical). Furthermore, the sensors differed in the methodology for minimizing signal distortion due to temperature. This methodology could take the form of various size mounting passages, heat shields, watercooling or heat transfer paths. To evaluate the sensors, different engine operating conditions were conducted, focusing at full load and low speeds. Other hardware configurations of the same engine family were used to exaggerate the combustion environment, specifically a tumble-motion plate and turbocharging.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3757
Bin Wu, Robert G. Prucka, Zoran Filipi, Denise M. Kramer, Gregory L. Ohl
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0100
Bradley D. Duncan, Sivapalan Senthooran, Dena Hendriana, Pradeep Sivakumar, David Freed, Mark Gleason, Deborah C. Hall
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0241
Tomasz Kietlinski, Michael Fingerman
The need for efficient space utilization has provided a framework for the design of a 248mm family of torque converters that supports a wide choice of engine and transmission combinations. The axial length of the part and its weight have been substantially reduced while the performance range has been broadened without degradation of efficiency. The new converter operates in an expanded slipping clutch mode. It significantly contributes to the performance and fuel economy improvements of related vehicles. To meet the cost target, the comprehensive lineup and the resulting complexity have required a high level of component interchangeability. During the design phase, the manufacturing core competencies were scrutinized and process redundancies eliminated, both resulting in optimization of material selection and applicable technology.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0590
Amandeep Singh, Gene Lukianov
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0594
Sadek Rahman, Malik Kayupov, Jing Li, Zissimos P. Mourelatos
This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
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