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Viewing 1 to 30 of 40
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2454
C. Q. Liu, Jeff Orzechowski
Crankshafts must be balanced statically and dynamically before being put into service. However, without pistons and connecting-rod assemblies, a non-symmetric crankshaft is not in dynamic balance. Therefore, it is necessary to apply equivalent ring-weights on each of the crankpins of the crankshaft when balancing it on a dynamic balancing machine. The value of the ring weight must be accurately determined, otherwise all advantages that are derived from balancing would be of no avail. This paper analytically examines the theoretical background of this problem. Formulas for calculating the ring weights are derived and presented. These formulas are applicable to a generic class of crankshafts of V-type engines with piston pin offset. Also, practical consideration, such as the design and manufacturing of these ring weights, the method of testing, and correction is addressed.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3757
Bin Wu, Robert G. Prucka, Zoran Filipi, Denise M. Kramer, Gregory L. Ohl
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3750
Dennis A. Soltis
This investigation evaluated different pressure transducers in one cylinder to examine the combustion measurement differences between them simultaneously. There were a total of eleven transducers ranging in both diameter and type of transducer (piezo-electric, piezoresistive, and optical). Furthermore, the sensors differed in the methodology for minimizing signal distortion due to temperature. This methodology could take the form of various size mounting passages, heat shields, watercooling or heat transfer paths. To evaluate the sensors, different engine operating conditions were conducted, focusing at full load and low speeds. Other hardware configurations of the same engine family were used to exaggerate the combustion environment, specifically a tumble-motion plate and turbocharging.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1906
Paul V. Spiteri, Yung-Li Lee, Ray Segar
This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1572
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy
This paper addresses the critical parameters required for development of automotive thermal protection plans. The test conditions should consider the ambient air temperature, exhaust gas temperature, vehicle speed and engine speed. The choice of test conditions is critical in determining potential thermal issues during the development phase. Appropriate design alternatives can then be implemented.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1620
Rajesh K. Patel, Paul V. Spiteri
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1576
Sadek Rahman, Richard Sun, Malik Kayupov, Michael Sheh
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1578
Alaa E. El-Sharkawy
In this paper, the effects of heat exchanger design parameters are investigated. The ease study being investigated here is the parametric analysis of automotive radiator where the hot fluid is the engine coolant and the cold fluid is the ambient air. Key parameters that are considered are the air density, fin thickness, fins height and air temperature. Effect of air density may be a concern since heat exchangers are usually designed, for automotive applications, under atmospheric pressure conditions. Changes in altitude will cause a change in air density. Therefore, the performance of cooling system may be affected by elevation. In this analysis, however, it is shown that the change in air density has very limited or no effect on the cooling system. The fin dimensions play a key role in the overall effectiveness of a heat exchanger. Some cost saving ideas may include reducing fin dimensions such as fin thickness or fin height.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2528
Anab Akanda, Chandu Adulla
Abstract Engine mount tuning is a multi-disciplinary exercise since it affects Idle-shake, Road-shake and powertrain noise response. Engine inertia is often used as a tuned absorber for controlling suspension resonance related road-shake issues. Last but not least, vehicle ride and handling may also be affected by mount tuning. In this work, Torque-Roll-Axis (TRA) decoupling of the rigid powertrain was used as a starting point for mount tuning. Nodal point of flexible powertrain bending was used to define the envelop for transmission mount locations. The frequency corresponding to the decoupled roll mode of the rigid powertrain was then adjusted for idle-shake and road-shake response management. The TRA decoupling procedure, cast as a multi-objective optimization problem, was applied to a body-on-frame sport-utility vehicle powertrain system. The process outlined in this work was verified by exercising a fullvehicle finite element model.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3236
Amer A. Amer, Lurun Zhong
Accurate accounting for fresh charge (fuel and air) along with trapped RGF is essential for the subsequent thermodynamic analysis of combustion in gasoline engines as well as for on-line and real-time quantification as relevant to engine calibration and control. Cost and complexity of such techniques renders direct measurement of RGF impractical for running engines. In this paper, an empirically-based approach is proposed for on-line RGF, based on an existing semi-empirical model [1]. The model developed expands the range over which the semi-empirical model is valid and further improves its accuracy. The model was rigorously validated against a well correlated GT-POWER model as well as results from 1D gas exchange model [2]. Overall, using this model, RGF estimation error was within ∼1.5% for a wide range of engine operating conditions. The model will be implemented in Dyno development and calibration at Chrysler Group.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0594
Sadek Rahman, Malik Kayupov, Jing Li, Zissimos P. Mourelatos
This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0653
Dennis A. Soltis
This study attempts to develop a correlation between an airflow motion number, combustion burn rates, and initial flame kernel development. To accomplish this task, several motion plates were evaluated on a flowbench in order to calculate a motion number that would represent the dynamic motion in the combustion chamber. Afterwards, the plates were tested on a spark ignited engine at several part throttle conditions while gathering cylinder pressure measurements. These cylinder pressure measurements would then yield the combustion burn rates for each plate. In addition to the combustion measurements, the flame kernel growth, velocity and direction of the flame kernel were measured using an AVL Visio-flame. Finally, the data was evaluated and an attempt to correlate the motion number of the plates to the different measurements for describing combustion was made.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3054
Bin Wu, Zoran Filipi, Dennis N. Assanis, Denise M. Kramer, Gregory L. Ohl, Michael J. Prucka, Eugene DiValentin
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0770
Michael B. Riley, David W. Fiddes
A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0069
Michael J. Prucka
A project was undertaken to demonstrate an engine stop/start at idle system utilizing a 12 volt Belt driven Starter Generator (BSG). The system was developed on a production four cylinder vehicle to determine emissions, driveability, and fuel economy impact.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0066
Bin Wu, Zoran Filipi, Denise M. Kramer, Gregory L. Ohl, Michael J. Prucka, Eugenio DiValetin
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0002
Jesse M. Schneider, Steven Mathison, Justin Ward, Eloi Taha, John Tillman, Mark Richards, David Zuckerman, Kenneth Kriha, Michael Short, William Collins, Glen Scheffler, Andrés Fernández Durán, Frank Niezabytowski, Todd Suckow, William Chernicoff, Spencer Quong, Joseph Cohen
The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0687
M. K. Yassine, R. S. Dhatt, T. D. Laymac, S. B. Ta
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain good repeatability from running lab vehicle correlation testing, since vehicle variability is so significant at the Low ULEV and SULEV emissions levels. These new emission standards are becoming so stringent that it makes it very difficult to distinguish whether a problem is a result of vehicle variability, test cell sampling or the analytical system. A vehicle exhaust emission simulator (VEES) developed by Horiba, can simulate emissions from low emitting gasoline vehicles by producing tailpipe flow rates containing emissions constituents ( HC, CH4, CO, NOx, CO2 ) injected at the tailpipe flow stream via mass flow controllers.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2973
A. Selamet, S. Rupal, Y. He, P. S. Keller
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
2003-05-05
Technical Paper
2003-01-1461
C. Q. Liu
This paper presents a method for optimization design of an engine mounting system subjected to some constraints. The engine center of gravity, the mount stiffness rates, the mount locations and/or their orientations with respect to the vehicle can be chosen as design variables, but some of them are given in advance or have limitations because of the packaging constraints on the mount locations, as well as the individual mount rate ratio limitations imposed by manufacturability. A computer program, called DynaMount, has been developed that identifies the optimum design variables for the engine mounting system, including decoupling mode, natural frequency placement, etc.. The degree of decoupling achieved is quantified by kinetic energy distributions calculated for each of the modes. Several application examples are presented to illustrate the validity of this method and the computer program.
2003-05-05
Technical Paper
2003-01-1476
J. Shane Sui, Clarence Hoppe, John Hirshey
The way a powertrain is mounted plays an important role in improving vehicle noise and vibration caused by the engine firing forces and can be an effective role in improving vehicle ride comfort. This paper describes the basic concepts in powertrain mounting and derives a new concept of evaluating powertrain mounting. It is well known in publications that a decoupled powertrain mounting system has better NVH characteristics[3][4][6]. But how to relate percentage of decouple to powertrain mounts transmitted forces, what “decoupled” really means, and how to evaluate how much it is decoupled are still ambiguous to many engineers. The traditional “one coordinate system” kinetic energy fraction (KEF) index can't give a clear picture of how much the engine mounting is decoupled and is often misleading. The new concept focuses on the excitations acting on the powertrain system.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0656
Jing Ping Liu, Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Joseph A. Ciaravino, Amer A. Amer
In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1512
Bin Wu, Robert G. Prucka, Zoran Filipi, Denise M. Kramer, Gregory L. Ohl
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1203
Cheng Cao, Sudhakar Medepalli
Engine mount loads are mostly measured from load cells or calculated from measured engine accelerations. This paper introduces an innovative new method to calculate engine mount loads from measured spindle loads. The method starts from calculating suspension attachment loads to body or chassis frame, then calculating engine center of gravity accelerations, and finally calculating engine mount loads from engine inertia forces. This spindle-based engine mount load analysis method is validated by a vehicle with measurements by wheel force transducers and engine load cells. The correlation includes load time history, peak-to-peak load range, and pseudo-damage values. The correlations show good comparisons between measured and predicted in all the categories, especially for the high load components. It is recommended to implement this method in early vehicle design phases.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2291
C. Q. Liu, Jeff Orzechowski
Determination of an engine's inertial properties is critical during vehicle dynamic analysis and the early stages of engine mounting system design. Traditionally, the inertia tensor can be determined by torsional pendulum method with a reasonable precision, while the center of gravity can be determined by placing it in a stable position on three scales with less accuracy. Other common experimental approaches include the use of frequency response functions. The difficulty of this method is to align the directions of the transducers mounted on various positions on the engine. In this paper, an experimental method to estimate an engine's inertia tensor and center of gravity is presented. The method utilizes the traditional torsional pendulum method, but with additional measurement data. With this method, the inertia tensor and center of gravity are estimated in a least squares sense.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1568
Wei Tao, Yiqing Yuan, Eysion A Liu, James Hill, Qian Zou, Gary Barber
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2378
Marcus Pollack, Kiran Govindswamy, Thomas Wellmann, Georg Eisele, Fabienne Pichot, Phil Thomas
NVH refinement of passenger vehicles is crucial to customer acceptance of contemporary vehicles. This paper describes the vehicle NVH development process, with specific examples from a Diesel sedan application that was derived from gasoline engine-based vehicle architecture. Using an early prototype Diesel vehicle as a starting point, this paper examines the application of a Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) technique in the development process. Accordingly, structureborne and airborne noise shares are analyzed in the time-domain under both steady-state and transient test conditions. The results are used to drive countermeasure development to address structureborne and airborne noise refinement. Examples are provided to highlight the refinement process for “Diesel knocking” under idle as well as transient test conditions. Specifically, the application of VINS to understanding the influence of high frequency dynamic stiffness of hydro-mounts on Diesel clatter noise is examined.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-21-0058
Andreas Schell
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
2001-05-07
Technical Paper
2001-01-1899
Michael Batko, Dennis Florkowski, Victoria Ebeling, Rolf Geibach, Lewis Williams
Modern high power density gasoline fueled engines place an ever-increasing demand on the engine lubricant. In this study, it is shown that advances in engine design to increase performance, improve fuel economy and lower emissions have outpaced the development of typical commercial engine lubricants. Advanced designed engines began to experience oil starvation as a result of a combination of driving cycles, oil quality and poor maintenance practices. The cause was traced to excessive increases in borderline pumping viscosity as measured by MRV TP-1 (ASTM D4684). Used oil analysis for MRV TP-1 showed viscosity greatly increased in excess of stay-in-grade requirements and in many cases the crankcase lubricant was solid at the temperature appropriate for its viscosity grade. However, at the same time CCS values were in grade or only slightly (1W grade) elevated.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0150
Salo J. Korn
This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
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