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Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3629
Hong Lin, Mick Deis, Thomas Woodard, Dana Combs, Robert R. Binoniemi
A nano-composite high strength (NCHS) steel was tested and evaluated in this work. Monotonic tension, strain controlled fatigue and fracture toughness tests were conducted at ambient temperature. Chemical composition, microstructure and fractography analysis were also performed. The NCHS steel showed excellent combination of high strength, high ductility and high fracture toughness with relatively low alloy content, compared with a S7 tool steel. Fatigue performance of the NCHS steel was also better than that of S7 tool steel. With the exceptional combination of high strength and high fracture toughness, the nano-composite high strength steel may have potential applications in gears, shafts, tools and dies where high fatigue performance, shock load resistance, wear and corrosion resistance is required.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0539
Hong Lin, Robert R. Binoniemi, Gregory A. Fett, Thomas Woodard, Edward F. Punch, Chester Van Tyne, Brian C. Taylor, David K. Matlock
Prediction of fatigue performance of large structures and components is generally done through the use of a fatigue analysis software, FEA stress/strain analysis, load spectra, and materials properties generated from laboratory tests with small specimens. Prior experience and test data has shown that a specimen size effect exists, i.e. the fatigue strength or endurance limit of large members is lower than that of small specimens made of same material. Obviously, the size effect is an important issue in fatigue design of large components. However a precise experimental study of the size effect is very difficult for several reasons. It is difficult to prepare geometrically similar specimens with increased volume which have the same microstructures and residual stress distributions throughout the entire material volume to be tested. Fatigue testing of large samples can also be a problem due to the limitation of load capacity of the test systems available.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0788
Daniel Burz, Rahul Kulkarni
In this study, the finite element analysis of hydroform tooling system using three different surface-to-surface contact methodologies is evaluated, such as the traditional non-linear gap element methodology, the newer linear gap technology and the 3D non-linear surface contact algorithm. These methods are investigated with the help of case studies, from exercise model level to more complicated models of real parts. Key parameters like analysis results, computational time and ease of use for each method are discussed. Directions regarding adaptivity to local user’s software resources and implementation strategies are provided. The linear gap method is observed to be more effective as pre-processing and computing time with same accuracy results as the non-linear static method in the design stage of hydroform tools analysis with pure sliding.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0827
Dimitrius C. Pereira, Joachim Schnurrenberger, Y. Charles Lu, Pedro Bastías, Mike Anderson, Keith Nation
The Plastic Valve Cover System (PVCS) should provides a leak proof seal to the cylinder head under engine temperature, isolate the vibrations transmitted from the engine through the cover to the environment, control the crankcase pressure and house the device to separate oil from the blow-by gas. In order to increase the stiffness of PVCS, short glass fibers and minerals are added during the injection molding of the plastic valve cover. The presence of the fibers results in a component with highly anisotropic thermo-mechanical properties that was not accounted in the previously approach [1]. This paper describes the updated CAE approach with the incorporation of the short fiber anisotropy into the design of cylinder head valve covers.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3578
Hong Lin, Robert R. Binoniemi, Gregory A. Fett, Thomas Woodard, Mick Deis
To improve fuel economy and possibly reduce product cost, light weight and high power density has been a development goal for commercial vehicle axle components. Light weight materials, such as aluminum alloys and polymer materials, as well as polymer matrix composite materials have been applied in various automotive components. However it is still a huge challenge to apply light weight materials in components which are subject to heavy load and thus have high stresses, such as gears for commercial vehicle axles or transmissions. To understand and illustrate this challenge, in this paper we will report and review the current state of art of carburized gear steels properties and performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1236
Mary E. Cortese, Robert F. O'Neill
The effect of multiple braze furnace exposures has been questioned by many because the rework of brazed parts is a common practice in manufacturing. However, there are process controls that limit the number of exposures for an assembly due to known issues with multiple exposures. A common concern deals with the effect of multiple braze furnace exposures on the structural integrity of the base material of the components. Another concern regards the effect of multiple exposures on the structural integrity of the braze joint itself. This paper details experimental results of a physical study to investigate these questions. The material forms used are seam-welded tube and a thin-wall stamped component, both made from 304L stainless steel. The copper paste used in the study has an industry designation of ANSI/AWS A5.8 - BCu-1a.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2700
Hong Lin, Robert R. Binoniemi, Gregory A. Fett
Current trends in vehicle development, including both automotive and commercial vehicles, are characterized by short model life cycles, reduced development time, concurrent design and manufacturing development, reduced design changes, and reduced total cost. All of these are driven by customer demand of higher load capacity, reduced weight, extended durability and warranty requirement, better NVH performance and reduced cost. These trends have resulted in increased usage of computational simulation tools in design, manufacturing, and testing, i.e. virtual testing or virtual prototyping. This paper summarizes our work in virtual testing, i.e. fatigue life simulations using computational fracture mechanics for commercial vehicle axle gearing development. First, fatigue life simulation results by using computational fracture mechanics CRACKS software were verified by comparing with gear teeth bending fatigue test data and three point bending fatigue test data.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0795
Hong Lin, Robert R. Binoniemi, Gregory A. Fett, Mick Deis
The main objective of this paper is to investigate contact fatigue life models and to evaluate the effect of surface finish on contact fatigue life. The effect of surface finish on contact fatigue life was investigated experimentally using two roller contact fatigue tests. The test samples, i.e. rollers, were carburized, quenched and then tempered. Two different roller surface finishes were evaluated: machined and as heat-treated surface (baseline rough surface) vs. super finished surface (smooth). Because many factors are involved in sliding/rolling contact fatigue, contact fatigue modeling is still in the early development stage. In this work, we will analyze our contact fatigue test results and correlate contact fatigue life with several empirical contact fatigue models, such as the lambda ratio, a new surface texture parameter, and a normalized pitting model which includes Hertzian Stress, sliding, surface roughness and oil film thickness.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0989
S. Kumar, D. Kumar, K. Cherian, M. Dougherty, D. Tasch, D. Brosky, D. Combs, G. Fett, B. Binoniemi, H. Lin
Microwave plasmas at atmospheric pressures can be utilized for carburization of steel alloys. Due to their high frequencies, microwaves ionize and dissociate molecules with great efficiency and provide carbon for carburization by dissociating hydrocarbons that are introduced in the plasma. Also, conventional carburization techniques are not very energy efficient, as much of the heat generated is not utilized for the heating of the parts. Microwave plasmas are highly energy efficient due to very high coupling of microwaves to the plasma and then transferring of heat to the parts. Since plasma surrounds the part uniformly, heating rates over the part surface are also uniform. Preliminary results are presented for carburization of steel alloy 8620H by atmospheric microwave plasma process using acetylene as the source gas. Possible effects of application of pulsed DC bias to the parts are also discussed.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2417
Y. Charles Lu, Michael E. Anderson, David A. Nash
Finite element modeling has been used extensively nowadays for predicting the noise and vibration performance of whole engines or subsystems. However, the elastomeric components on the engines or subsystems are often omitted in the FE models due to some known difficulties. One of these is the lack of the material properties at higher frequencies. The elastomer is known to have frequency-dependent viscoelasticity, i.e., the dynamic modulus increases monotonically with frequency and the damping exhibits a peak. These properties can be easily measured using conventional dynamic mechanical experiments but only in the lower range of frequencies. The present paper describes a method for characterizing the viscoelastic properties at higher frequencies using fractional calculus. The viscoelastic constitutive equations based on fractional derivatives are discussed. The method is then used to predict the high frequency properties of an elastomer.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0981
Meagan Gonzalez Noble, Miinshiou Huang, Tau Tyan, Leonard Shaner, Omar Ghouati, Horst Lanzerath, Binghua Wu, Barry Dombek
Hydroformed components are replacing stamped parts in automotive frames and front end and roof structures to improve the crash performance of vehicles. Due to the increasing application of hydroformed components, a better understanding of the crash behavior of these parts is necessary to improve the correlation between full-vehicle crash tests and FEM analysis. Accurately predicting the performance of hydroformed components will reduce the amount of physical crash testing necessary to develop the new components and new vehicles as well as reduce cycle time. Virgin material properties are commonly used in FEM analysis of hydroformed components, which leads to erroneous prediction of the full-vehicle crash response. Changes in gauge and material properties during the hydroforming process are intuitive and can be reasonably predicted by using forming simulations. The effects of the forming process have been investigated in the FEA models that are created for crash analyses.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1006
Hong Lin, Gregory A. Fett, Robert R. Binoniemi, James A. Sanders, David K. Matlock, George Krauss
A series of bending fatigue tests were conducted and S-N data were obtained for two groups of 4320 steel samples: (1) carburized, quenched and tempered, (2) carburized, quenched, tempered and shot peened. Shot peening improved the fatigue life and endurance limit. The S-N data exhibited large scatter, especially for carburized samples and at the high cycle life regime. Sample characterization work was performed and scatter bands were established for residual stress distributions, in addition to fracture and fatigue properties for 4320 steel. Moreover, a fatigue life analysis was performed using fracture mechanics and strain life fatigue theories. Scatter in S-N curves was established computationally by using the lower bound and upper bound in materials properties, residual stress and IGO depth in the input data. The results for fatigue life analysis, using either computational fracture mechanics or strain life theory, agreed reasonably well with the test data.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0036
M. Shuster, G. Maughan, R. Arnold
Vehicular suspension ball joints can be categorized in the family of tribological systems which can reduce useful service or working capacity through malfunction or breakdown. Detailed metallurgical analysis of the friction and wear mechanisms on typical ball joint bearing surfaces point to a Teflon-based woven fabric, self-lubricating liner as the best bearing material for the joint. Laboratory functional testing was conducted on modern, 4-axis test equipment simulating the applicable loading and motion conditions typically encountered in use. The self-lubricated bearing liner woven with Teflon thread demonstrated higher sustained load capacity, less rotating friction, excellent torque retention qualities and extended life in comparison to existing components utilizing greased metal-on-metal and/or “plastic” bearing materials.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0832
Blake Garretson, Hong Lin, Andy McComb, Mick Deis, Doug Burke
The objective of this work is to test and develop monotonic tensile properties and strain controlled fatigue properties of a cast ductile iron. The test data and the related material constants will be used in conjunction with vehicle loading data to perform finite element stress-strain analysis and fatigue life prediction analysis to aid in the design of automotive components made from ductile iron. Currently, such material property data does not exist in the literature for this particular grade of ductile iron. Monotonic tension and fully reversed strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted by following ASTM E-8, ASTM E-606, and SAE J-1099 on samples machined from the cast ductile iron. Monotonic tensile properties were obtained, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, reduction in area, strength coefficient K, and strain hardening exponent n.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0919
Ouqi Zhang, Jason A. Poirier, James E. Barr
Locati method is suitable in preliminary fatigue tests and production quality control. It is efficient since it uses just one test sample. The method requires that the slope of the S-N curve be known a priori, however. In this paper, a modified Locati method is presented that virtually eliminated this requirement. The method produces a point on the S-N plane that is independent of the slope of the S-N curve. The test design strategy to control the fatigue life of such a point is provided. The presented method has been successfully applied to preliminary fatigue tests of several welded components of ground vehicles.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1307
Hong Lin, Gregory A. Fett, Robert R. Binoniemi
Axle primary gearing is normally carburized for high and balanced resistance to contact fatigue, wear, bending fatigue, and impact loading. The focus of this work is on bending fatigue which is a key design consideration of automotive and commercial vehicle axle gearing. Since a carburized component is basically a composite material with steep gradients in carbon content, hardness, tensile strength and microstructure from surface to the middle of the cross section combined with non-linear residual stress, its bending fatigue life prediction is a complex and challenging task. Many factors affect the bending fatigue performance of axle gearing, such as gear design, gear manufacturing, loading history during service, residual stress distribution, steel grade, and heat treatment. In this paper, the general methodology for bending fatigue life prediction of a carburized component is investigated. Carburized steel composites are treated as two homogeneous materials: case and core.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1150
Rahul Kulkarni, Perry Landis
In this study an effort has been made to establish a response surface model to predict material thinning in a stamped chassis cross member. Numerical simulations using finite element method were performed to populate the data needed for response surface analysis. The results predicted by the response surface model were compared with the results of numerical simulations and were found to be in good agreement. The effect of corner radius, flange radius and flange height on material thinning was investigated using the response surface model.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0634
Michael Crouse
The scope of this paper is to determine the affects that non-petroleum based fuels such as: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and soy methyl ester (SME) have on thermoset elastomers. The thermoset elastomers that have been evaluated are NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber), NBR/PVC (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber & Polyvinyl Chloride), Epichlorohydrin homo- (Homopolymer of Epichlorohydrin), co- (Copolymer of Epichlorohydrin), ter- (Terpolymer of Ecpichlorohydrin), and Di-, and ter FKM (Fluorinated Rubber). The different elastomers have been subjected to aging in neat fatty acid methyl esters, RME and SME, at a variety of durations and temperatures. The effects of this exposure on the properties of thermoset elastomers are described in this paper.
Viewing 1 to 18 of 18

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