Criteria

Text:
Sector:
Affiliation:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 91
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0598
Walter F. Piock, Peter Weyand, Edgard Wolf, Volker Heise
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0669
Sheetal Patil, Laxman Kapaleshwari
Embedded software is a software system that permanently resides in a device whose operations it controls. Typically, embedded systems are housed on flash memory or ROM chip and may be found in systems like cellular phones, household and office appliances having digital interfaces, medical equipment, automotive components, avionics etc. The fundamental problem facing the design of embedded systems is heterogeneity. Multiple styles of algorithms (e.g. signal processing, communications, and controls) are implemented using a variety of technologies (e.g., digital signal processors, microcontrollers, field-programmable gate arrays, application-specific integrated circuits, and real-time operating systems).Other challenges in automotive development are increasing requirements and therefore increasing size and complexity of the code, development and management of offshore / muti-site software development to reduce costs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0918
Mahmoud Ghodbane, James A. Baker, Prasad S. Kadle
Worldwide scrutiny of the global warming impact of R-134a has presented the automotive industry with a pressing challenge to search for suitable alternative refrigerant(s). HFC-152a, referred to as R-152a in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, is touted as an alternative [1, 2] to R-134a because of its lower global warming potential (GWP). R-152a is more environmentally benign than R-134a with GWP of 120 versus 1300. This paper is a follow up to the work on the potential applications of R-152a presented at the 2003 Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference (VTMS6) [3]. It documents continuing progress in applying R-152a to vehicle climate control systems. The paper compares R-152a cooling performance and energy performance to comparable R-134a system designs, including direct and indirect expansion systems. Also discussed are efforts to provide safe system operation with R-152a refrigerant.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1757
Aleksander Hac, Todd Brown, John Martens
The development and preliminary testing of an algorithm that detects impending rollover is described. The algorithm is intended for use in conjunction with active chassis systems to prevent some types of rollovers. Several methods of estimating roll angle and roll rate from physical principles using available sensors are presented. Advantages and drawbacks of each method and their ranges of reliable operations are discussed. An approach using a closed-loop adaptive observer for estimating roll angle and roll rate of vehicle body with respect to the road is proposed. Performance and robustness of the estimator are evaluated through numerical simulations and vehicle testing, using various scenarios, including maneuver induced and road induced body roll. The estimates are shown to be consistently superior to those obtained from other methods. A roll index is proposed, which uses the estimated roll angle and other signals to indicate rollover danger.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1111
Douglas Ball, John Nunan, Patrick Blosser, Jennifer Wilson, George Mitchell, Stuart Davis, Mike Zammit
A new family of automotive three-way conversion (TWC) catalyst technologies has been developed using a Precision Metal Addition (PMA) process. Precious metal (PGM) fixation onto the support occurs during the PMA step when the PGM is added to the slurry immediately prior to application to the monolith substrate. PMA slurries can be prepared with high precision and the slurry manufacturing process is greatly simplified. Further, it has been found that with the use of new generation washcoat (WC) materials, the same WC composition can be used for all three PGMs - Pt, Pd & Rh. Negative interactions between Pd and Rh in the same WC layer do not occur, providing advantages over older technologies. Thus, new WC compositions coupled with the PMA process offers precious metal flexibility. This FlexMetal family of catalyst technologies includes single layer Pd-only, Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh and dual layer bi-metal Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh and tri-metal Pt/Pd/Rh.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0289
Nirmal Narayanasamy, Mohamed Hamid, Deren Ma, Victor Suarez
The Curtain Airbag (CAB) is used currently to provide head and neck protection for the front-seat and rear-seat vehicle occupants during side-impact collisions and vehicle rollovers. The coated fabric materials are used in CABs for occupant protection in side impact and rollover events. In this paper the design and development study of CABs is described by using simulation and physical tests. The mechanical properties for the airbag material are determined by uniaxial test in the fill and warp directions. Shear strength is also evaluated by using the uniaxial test, but the specimen is cut along 45° angle. These test values are used in the finite element (FE) simulations. In this paper, a methodology of the design study is discussed. A Free Motion Headform (FMH) impacting a pole with a pillow shaped airbag is used in the design study. The influences of CAB design parameters such as pressure, chamber width, impact speed and hit location are evaluated.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0705
Mohamed Sahul Hamid, Nirmal Narayanasamy, Minoo J. Shah, Richard K. Riefe
In this paper, the design and development of an adaptive Energy Absorbing (EA) steering column using systems and virtual engineering approach is presented. An adaptive EA column adapts to the load characteristics based on crash severity, the occupant mass, the seat position and seat belt usage. The EA device provides the intended load profile during column loading. The design of this device used in steering column is achieved by virtual prototyping using LS-DYNA3D finite element (FE) code in analysis and synthesis based on component and subsystem models. The load-carrying member in the EA device is a metallic strap and the load carrying capacity of this strap is determined for various design parameters such as the strap geometry, thickness, material and the friction between the strap and the housing. Correlation of the analysis with limited dynamic pull test of the strap is shown. Further, the results of a subsystem FE mini-sled model using a Blak tuffy are presented.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0477
B.Terry Compton
Goldilocks is a proposed serial communication protocol designed to find the “sweet spot” in trading off overhead, complexity, throughput, cost, and real time performance. Simple off line analysis of schedulability is a feature.. While backward compatible with CAN at the applications level, Goldilocks promises to be performance and feature competitive with FlexRay with less complexity and cost.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0158
Gerard W. Malaczynski, Martin Mueller, Jeffrey Pfeiffer, David Cabush, Kevin Hoyer
Signal processing incorporating Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been shown to be well suited for modeling engine-related performance indicators [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] that require multi-dimensional parametric calibration space. However, to obtain acceptable accuracy, traditional ANN implementation may require processing resources beyond the capability of current engine controllers. This paper explores the practicality of implementing an ANN-based algorithm performing real-time calculations of the volumetric efficiency (VE) for an engine with variable valve actuation (phasing and lift variation). This alternative approach was considered attractive since the additional degree of freedom introduced by variable lift would be cumbersome to add to the traditional multi-dimensional table-based representation of VE.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0235
Marek Tatur, Martin Laermann, Erik Koehler, Dean Tomazic, Taylor Holland, David Robinson, Jeffrey Dowell, Kenneth Price
In order to allow continued production of the AM General Optimizer 6500 during MY 2007 through 2010 this IDI engine (Indirect Injection - swirl chamber) requires sophisticated aftertreatment controls while maintaining its fuel economy and durability. The main purpose of the development program was to retain the relatively inexpensive and simple base engine with distributor pump and waste-gated turbocharger, while adding hardware and software components that allow achievement of the phase-in emission standards for 2007 through 2010. The aftertreatment system consists of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), NOx Adsorber Catalyst (or DeNOx Trap - DNT) and Diesel Particle Filter (DPF). In addition to the base hardware, an intake air throttle valve and an in-exhaust fuel injector were installed. The presented work will document the development process for a 2004 certified 6.5 l IDI heavy-duty diesel engine to comply with the 2007 heavy-duty emission standards.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3375
Yong Yi, Christopher M. DeMinco
The purpose of the present paper is to develop an engine simulation tool in a commercial CFD code to study the spray and mixing process that can be used to access the performance of a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. The ignition, combustion and pollutant formation are strongly dependent on the quality of the fuel-air mixture. The fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber by high-pressure fuel injector. The fuel atomization and evaporation process takes place due to the interaction of the small fuel particles generated by the injector and the in-cylinder air motion. Experimental study on the spray and mixing process is difficult and expensive, which has been recognized as a major obstacle towards the optimization of the combustion chamber geometry, engine components and the injection strategies.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1265
Douglas Ball, Michael G. Zammit, George C. Mitchell
An experiment was performed with a 1.3L catalytic converter design containing a front and rear catalyst each having a volume of 0.65 liters. This investigation varied the front catalyst parameters to study the effects of 1) substrate diameter, 2) substrate cell density, 3) Pd loading and 4) Rh loading on the FTP emissions on three different vehicles. Engine displacement varied from 2.4L to 4.7L. Eight different converters were built defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Cold flow converter restriction results show the tradeoff in converter restriction between substrate cell density and substrate diameter. Vehicle FTP emissions show how the three vehicles are sensitive to the four parameters investigated. Platinum Group Metals (PGM) prices and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were used to define the emission value between the substrate properties of diameter and cell density to palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3849
George Mitchell, Mike Zammit, Douglas Ball
A Robust Engineering experiment was performed to determine the effects PGM loading and placement on the FTP emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.4L and two 8 cylinder 4.7L vehicles. 1.3L catalytic converters were used containing a front and rear catalyst of equal volume. The experiment is defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Eight different combinations of catalyst PGM loadings were aged and evaluated. Results show that nmHC and NOx emissions are predominately affected by the PGM loading of the front catalyst. The rear catalyst is insensitive to either Pt or Pd which can be used at low concentrations. Results also compare the benefits of Pd and Rh to reduce emissions. Confirmation runs suggest that significant reductions in PGM cost can be achieved over baseline designs.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1401
V. Nagaraju, N. Henein, A. Quader, M. Wu, Walter Bryzik
The focus of this study is to determine the effect of using B-20 (a blend of 20% soybean methyl ester biodiesel and 80% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) on the combustion process, performance and exhaust emissions in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated under simulated turbocharged conditions with 3-bar indicated mean effective pressure and 1500 rpm engine speed. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures and EGR rates. The rate of heat release trace has been analyzed in details to determine the effect of the properties of biodiesel on auto ignition and combustion processes and their impact on engine out emissions. The results and the conclusions are supported by a statistical analysis of data that provides a quantitative significance of the effects of the two fuels on engine out emissions.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1093
In Kwang Yoo, Devesh Upadhyay, Yong Wha Kim, Giorgio Rizzoni
Due to the stringent emission regulations, On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) and the requirement of enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, an aggressive canister purge control strategy is required for automotive vehicles. The enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure has forced car manufacturer to purge the carbon canister in the vehicle idle condition so that production vehicles meet the SHED and hot soak test requirements. This not only worsens the idle speed quality but also tends to increase exhaust emission levels. Using analytical models of evaporative air and fuel, feed-forward control strategy for both idle by-pass air and air to fuel ratio can be improved. This paper demonstrates an application of evaporative system modeling to the idle air and air to fuel ratio control.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0731
James A. Baker, Mahmoud Ghodbane, Lawrence P. Scherer, Prasad S. Kadle, William R. Hill, Stephen O. Andersen
In recent years, climate protection has become as important as ozone layer protection was in the late 1980's and early 1990s. Concerns about global warming and climate change have culminated in the Kyoto Protocol, a treaty requiring its signatories to limit their total emission of greenhouse gases to pre-1990 levels by 2008. The inclusion of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as one of the controlled substances in the Kyoto Protocol has increased global scrutiny of the global warming impact of HFC-134a (called R-134a when used as a refrigerant), the current mobile air conditioning refrigerant. Industry's first response was to begin improving current R-134a systems to reduce leakage, reduce charge, and increase system energy efficiency, which in turn reduces tailpipe CO2 emissions. An additional option would be to replace the current R-134a with a refrigerant of lower global warming impact. This paper documents the use of another HFC, R-152a, in a mobile A/C system.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0733
Lawrence P. Scherer, Mahmoud Ghodbane, James A. Baker, Prasad S. Kadle
As automotive power-train systems become more efficient, less waste heat is available for vehicle passenger cabin warming. As a result, alternative heating technologies are being investigated to alleviate this shortcoming. One alternative is to operate the existing A/C system in reverse (heat pump mode), thus providing supplemental heat. Recently, the environmental impact of refrigerant emissions has come under global scrutiny. The concern is their potential for global warming. Thus, the environmental characteristic of merit that makes for a more benign refrigerant in terms of emissions is lower Global Warming Potential (GWP). R-152a is a more environmentally benign refrigerant compared to R-134a with a GWP of 120 vs. 1,300 [1] and [2]. Both refrigerants are hydro-fluorocarbons - HFCs - (contain no chlorine) and hence, have zero ozone depletion potential. An environmentally benign refrigerant touted as a potential replacement for R-134a, is CO2.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2680
Milton D. Johnson, Robert W. McCabe, Carolyn P. Hubbard, Michael J. Riley, Charles W. Kirby, Douglas J. Ball, Glenn Tripp, Thomas F. McDonnell, William Y. Lam
The relationship between engine oil formulations and catalyst performance was investigated by comparatively testing five engine oils. In addition to one baseline production oil with a calcium plus magnesium detergent system, the remaining four oils were specifically formulated with different additive combinations including: one worst case with no detergent and production level zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDTP), one with calcium-only detergent and two best cases with zero phosphorus. Emissions performance, phosphorus loss from the engine oil, phosphorus-capture on the catalyst and engine wear were evaluated after accumulating 100,000 miles of taxi service in twenty vehicles. The intent of this comparative study was to identify relative trends.
2008-04-25
Article
Featuring halogen-free requirements, high performance, durability, smaller size, and recyclability, Delphi’s halogen-free cable can reduce both cable mass and harness diameter by more than 20% in automotive applications.
2008-09-04
Article
Production of Delphi’s Direct Acting Diesel Common Rail (DADCR) system has started, following a five-year development program in France, Luxembourg, and the UK. The system incorporates direct-acting piezo injectors—claimed by the company as a "world first" that can operate at pressures up to 2000 bar (29 ksi) and will help meet Euro 6 emissions standards.
2011-11-17
Article
The trend to independent shops reflects the aging of car fleets, independents' improved access to OE service information and real-world “fix” data, plus a lower operating cost structure. Dealers counter with “quick service” lanes and older-car service discounts, but some prefer finding profit in selling parts and discounted reflashing of modules to independents.
2011-10-10
Article
Delphi is developing an SCR dosing system scheduled for production in 2014 and will also introduce an ammonia sensor in 2012 to control the level of ammonia present in the exhaust as a consequence of using urea dosing in the SCR systems.
2011-11-01
Article
RACam combines radar with a camera system and processing capability, with its fusion of data enabling a suite of active safety systems including adaptive cruise control with stop-start and autonomous braking, headlamp control, traffic-sign recognition, and pedestrian detection also with autonomous braking.
2012-03-16
Article
As smart phones become a mainstay in the strategies throughout the infotainment industry, suppliers are racing to create techniques that let drivers use apps safely. This effort works on two levels: minimizing distraction and ensuring that apps don’t carry viruses that impact the vehicle.
2012-02-20
Article
The number of communication channels coming into vehicles is growing as digital radio expands and automakers show more interest in vehicle-to-vehicle communications. That’s sparking more interest in software defined radio (SDR), which uses a single chipset to handle all these inputs.
2012-04-24
Article
With continuing pressure to increase fuel economy with ever lower emissions, industry specialists and researchers presented key findings in new, combustion schemes and research.
2012-06-18
Article
With the goal of reducing the amount of energy consumed in manufacturing and creating high-quality jobs on American soil, the U.S. Department of Energy has awarded more than $54 million in grants to companies in automotive and other industries for special energy-saving projects.
2012-05-31
Article
Among the technologies company engineers are working on are wireless charging of electronic devices and electric vehicle batteries.
2012-04-30
Article
U. S. roads could become a web of vehicles communicating with each other automatically by 2025, bringing about improvements in safety and congestion.
2012-06-25
Article
EuroNCAP says that from 2014, new cars in Europe will almost certainly need to be equipped with autonomous emergency braking (AEB) to gain a 5-star safety rating. From November 2013, the European Type Approval of new commercial vehicles will require AEB to be fitted.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 91

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: