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Viewing 1 to 30 of 113
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1386
Mark Sellnau, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Harry Husted
A single-cylinder engine was used to study the potential of a high-efficiency combustion concept called gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). Low temperature combustion was achieved using multiple injections, intake boost, and moderate EGR to reduce engine-out NOx and PM emissions engine for stringent emissions standards. This combustion strategy benefits from the relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of regular unleaded gasoline fuel. Tests were conducted at 6 bar IMEP - 1500 rpm using various injection strategies with low-to-moderate injection pressure. Results showed that triple injection GDCI achieved about 8 percent greater indicated thermal efficiency and about 14 percent lower specific CO2 emissions relative to diesel baseline tests on the same engine. Heat release rates and combustion noise could be controlled with a multiple-late injection strategy for controlled fuel-air stratification. Estimated heat losses were significantly reduced.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0809
Cleve Bare, Brian Everest, Donald Floyd, Douglas Nunan
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0391
Quan Zheng, Bruce Church, Ken Defore
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0296
H. Klode, A. M. Omekanda, B. Lequesne, S. Gopalakrishnan, A. Khalil, S. Underwood, I. Husain
Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are emerging as a new approach to enhance brake system features as well as braking performance. This paper takes a fresh look at the switched reluctance (SR) drive as a possible prime mover technology for EMB applications. The switched reluctance motor has attractive potential, in view of its robustness, dynamic bandwidth and fault tolerance. An overall assessment of the approach is made based on bench performance of a prototype EMB caliper with an SR drive executing typical braking patterns. It is shown that the SR motor can provide the required overall brake actuator performance. Various implementation options are examined to lower cost, with particular focus on electronic design, control algorithms and motor position sensing.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0040
M. Sellnau, T. Kunz, J. Sinnamon, J. Burkhard
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1578
Aleksander Hac
In this paper the effects of rear brake imprecision on vehicle braking performance and yaw dynamics are investigated for a vehicle with individually controlled brake actuators. The effects of side to side brake force imbalance on vehicle yaw rate and path deviation during straight line braking and in braking in turn maneuvers are examined through analysis, simulations and vehicle testing. These effects are compared to the influences of disturbances encountered during normal driving such as side winds and bank angles of the road. The loss of brake efficiency due to imprecision in generating actuating force is evaluated for different types of vehicles and different levels of vehicle deceleration. Requirements regarding path deviation during straight line braking and braking efficiency on low friction surfaces were found to lead to the most stringent specifications for actuator accuracy in realizing the desired braking forces.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2818
Galen B. Fisher, Craig L. DiMaggio, Dan Trytko, Ken M. Rahmoeller, Mark Sellnau
Global demand for alternative fuels to combat rising energy costs has sparked a renewed interest in catalysts that can effectively remediate NOx emissions resulting from combustion of a range of HC based fuels. Because many of these new engine technologies rely on lean operating environments to produce efficient power, the resulting emissions are also present in a lean atmosphere. While HCs are easily controlled in such environments, achieving high NOx conversion to N2 has continued to elude fully satisfactory solution. Until recently, most approaches have relied on catalysts with precious metals to either store NOx and subsequently release it as N2 under rich conditions, or use NH3 SCR catalysts with urea injection to reduce NOx under lean conditions. However, new improvements in Ag based technologies also look very promising for NOx reduction in lean environments.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0896
Feilong Liu, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, Nick Collings, Ahmed Soliman
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1058
Siddharth D'Silva, Padma Sundaram, Joseph G. D'Ambrosio
This paper discusses the development and application of a closed-loop co-simulation platform for a controlled chassis system. The platform is comprised of several software packages, including CarSim®(MSC Corporation), AmeSim®(ImaGine Software Corporation), MATLAB®/SIMULINK®(Mathworks Corporation). The platform provides the ability to quickly evaluate enhancements to existing algorithms and to evaluate new control or diagnostic concepts, making it a rapid medium for development, testing and validation. The co-simulation platform was configured with real vehicle calibration data and used to test the validity/limitations of a simple model-based sensor diagnostics strategy. Using this approach, it was possible to quickly check for performance issues and consider needed corrections or enhancements without incurring the time and cost burden associated with in-vehicle testing.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0923
Aleksander Hac
In this paper a method of mitigating the consequences of potential brake actuator failure in vehicles with brake-by-wire (BBW) and possibly with steer-by-wire (SBW) systems is described. The proposed control algorithm is based on rules derived from general principles of vehicle dynamics. When a failure of one actuator is detected, the algorithm redistributes the braking forces among the remaining actuators in such a way that the desired deceleration of vehicle is followed as closely as possible, while the magnitude and the rate of change of the yaw moment caused by asymmetric braking are properly managed. When vehicle is equipped with BBW system only, or when the desired deceleration can be obtained by redistributing of braking forces, without generating an undesired yaw moment, no steering correction is used. Otherwise, a combination of brake force redistribution and steering correction (to counter the yaw moment generated by non-symmetric braking) is applied.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0924
Aleksander Hac, David Doman, Michael Oppenheimer
A new optimal control strategy for dealing with braking actuator failures in a vehicle equipped with a brake-by-wire and steer-by- wire system is described. The main objective of the control algorithm during the failure mode is to redistribute the control tasks to the functioning actuators, so that the vehicle performance remains as close as possible to the desired performance in spite of a failure. The desired motion of the vehicle in the yaw plane is determined using driver steering and braking inputs along with vehicle speed. For the purpose of synthesizing the control algorithm, a non-linear vehicle model is developed, which describes the vehicle dynamics in the yaw plane in both linear and non-linear ranges of handling. A control allocation algorithm determines the control inputs that minimize the difference between the desired and actual vehicle motions, while satisfying all actuator constraints.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1188
Timothy G. Basner, Charles M. Woods
This study examines the effectiveness of gaseous oxygen at preventing embrittlement in steel associated with exposure to gaseous hydrogen under static loading conditions. Notched C-ring samples machined from 4340 steel and heat treated to HRC 51-53 were used to test the neutrality of an oxygen-hydrogen gas mixture similar to that which may be used as a generant in an air bag inflator. The 29 percent oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of the gas mixture was found to be sufficient to protect the steel from hydrogen embrittlement under static loading conditions. This would indicate that any steel with a hardness of HRC 51 or lower would be safe to use in gas-based air bag inflators containing a oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of 29 percent or higher.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1435
Lijian (Lee) Zhang, Duane Fortune, Joel Werbelow, Liang Chen
In occupant sensing system development, the Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) and the Occupant Classification ATD (OCATD) are frequently used to simulate live human subjects in the testing and validation of weight based occupant sensing systems. A study was conducted to investigate the range of loading differences between these ATDs and live human subjects over various seating postures and conditions. The results of the study revealed that differences in seat load patterns could be significant, even though both the ATD and live humans are in the same weight and body size categories. Seat loading was measured using Hybrid III (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 3 year old) ATDs, OCATDs (OCATD5 - 5th percentile female, and OCATD6 - 6 yr old child), and a CRABI (12-month old) dummy. Human subjects in the same weight and height categories as the above listed ATDs were also measured.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1600
Eldon G. Leaphart, Steve E. Muldoon, Jill N. Irlbeck
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2547
Prasad Gade
Active/semi-active suspension control of a passenger vehicle is a classic problem involving multiple-objectives, all of which cannot be simultaneously achieved without compromises between ride and handling performance. Traditionally, suspension control tuning has been a subjective process that involves tuning of hundreds of parameters. This paper attempts to add some level of objectivity to the tuning philosophy by posing the ride/handling trade-off as a multi-constrained, multi-objective optimization problem and solving it using a mixed-H2/H∞ control synthesis technique to obtain a pareto-optimal solution. The multi-variable constrained optimization problem involves minimization of body control metrics subject to constraints defined by wheel-control metrics (a measure of road-holding capability). Simulation as well as road-test results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and impact the proposed control strategy has on improving ride and handling performance.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2539
Lijian (Lee) Zhang, Gary Sobek, Liang Chen, Edward L. Peterson
The laboratory test method commonly known as “random vibration” is almost always used for Squeak & Rattle testing in today's automotive applications due to its obvious advantages: the convenience in simulating the real road input, the relatively low cost, and efficiency in obtaining the desired test results. Typically, Loudness N10 is used to evaluate the Squeak & Rattle (S&R) performance. However, due to the nature of random distribution of the excitation input, the repeatability of the loudness N10 measurements may vary significantly. This variation imposes a significant challenge when one is searching for a fine design improvement solution in minimizing S&R noise, such as a six-sigma study. This study intends to investigate (1) the range of the variations of random vibration control method as an excitation input with a given PSD, (2) the possibility of using an alternate control method (“time-history replication”) to produce the vibration of a given PSD for a S&R evaluation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0763
Robert D. Garrick
The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the advantages of a non-contact electronic throttle control (ETC) air control valve position sensor over the potentiometer technology of contacting position sensors. The non-contact position sensing offers the industry an opportunity to take advantage of an improved ability to assess reliability of the product and utilize accelerated testing techniques with improved robustness to control system perturbations. Specifically; eliminating the contact wear failure mechanism reduces the complexity, and duration of ETC air control valve life testing and increases the robustness of the ETC system to noise factors from the control system variation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0840
Padma Sundaram, Joseph G. D'Ambrosio
Embedded controllers and digital signal processors are increasingly being used in automotive safety critical control systems. Controller integrity is a significant concern in these systems. Over the past decade, several techniques have been published about controller safety and integrity verification. These techniques include: single processor with watchdog, dual processors, dual core processor, and asymmetric processor (intelligent watchdog). Each of these techniques have benefits, however, many new non-distributed safety-critical systems are applying the asymmetric processor technique to help verify controller integrity. This paper discusses an overview of five controller integrity techniques, and then provides a detailed discussion of an asymmetric processor approach. This paper presents two different options within the asymmetric processor approach.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0502
Quan Zheng, Woowon Chung, Ken Defore, Andrew Herman
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3903
Daniel G. Gauthier, Thomas H. Lichti, John H. Waller
This paper describes a robust engineering DOE (design of experiment) completed by hydraulic simulation of a Variable Cam Phaser System based on an L4 IC engine. The robust engineering study focused on the high temperature and low speed portions of overall engine operating conditions where the cam phase rates are slow and oscillation is high. The analysis included a preliminary DOE with multiple noise variables used as the control factors in order to quantify and compound the factors into just two noise levels; best and worst conditions. Following the noise DOE, a larger DOE study was completed with 16 control variables including phaser, oil control valve and various engine parameters. It was run at 3 engine rpm (signal levels), 2 noise levels, and was analyzed for 3 responses (advancing rate, retarding rate, and oscillation amplitude while holding an intermediate position). These DOE experiments determined potential gains for each design proposal.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3841
Paul S. Von Bacho, Julie Galante-Fox, David W. Sant
A comprehensive investigation into why gasoline fuel injectors fail in the field due to deposit formation has led to the development of a robust fuel injector design. Analysis of field failures provided critical clues as to why fuel injectors form deposits. The development of a repeatable test and a repeatable deposit forming fuel allowed the confirmation of these clues and the testing of design improvements. This combination of test cycle and fuel allowed for a reduced test time while providing sufficient sensitivity to differentiate between injector design improvements. Confirmation of design improvements was completed on a stationary vehicle using both commercially available gasoline and a formulated deposit forming fuel.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3848
Danan Dou, Burton Williamson, Russell Richmond
Close-coupled or manifold catalysts have been extensively employed to reduce emissions during cold start by achieving quick catalyst light-off. These catalysts must have good thermal durability, high intrinsic light-off activity and high HC/CO/NOx conversions at high temperature and flow conditions. A number of studies have been dedicated to engine control, manifold design and converter optimization to reduce cold start emissions. The current paper focuses on the effect of catalyst design parameters and their performance response to different engine operating conditions. Key design parameters such as catalyst formulation (CeO2 vs. non CeO2), precious metal loading and composition (Pd vs. Pd/Rh), washcoat loading, catalyst thermal mass, substrate properties and key application (in use) parameters such as catalyst aging, exhaust A/F ratio, A/F ratio modulation, exhaust temperature, temperature rise rate and exhaust flow rate were studied on engine dynamometers in a systematic manner.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1481
John Z. Lin, Stephen M. Pitrof
This paper reviews the state of the art on analytical design of cockpit modules in two most crucial performance categories: safety and comfort. On safety, applications of finite element analysis (FEA) for achieving robust designs that meet FMVSS 201, 208 and 214 requirements and score top frontal and side NCAP star-ratings are presented. On comfort, focus is placed on Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. Cutting-edge analytical tools for Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) avoidance and passenger compartment noise reduction are demonstrated. Most of the analytical results shown in this paper are based on the development work of a real-life application program. Correlations between the analytical results and physical test results are included. Examples of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis for climate control are also included. At the end, the road map toward 100 percent virtual prototyping and validation is presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1421
C. Scott Nelson, David Chen, Joseph Ralph, Eric D'Herde
A RTD (resistive temperature device) high temperature sensor was developed for exhaust gas temperature measurement. Extensive modeling and optimization was used to supplement testing in development. The sensor was developed to be capable of withstanding harsh environments (-40° to 1000°C), typical of engine applications, including poisons, while maintaining high accuracy (< 0.5% drift after 500 hrs of aging at 950°C). The following sensor characteristics are presented: resistance-temperature curve, accuracy, response time, and long-term durability. In addition, a system error analysis program was developed with representative results.
2003-10-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-3343
Shih-Wei Kung, Greg Stelzer, Vladimir Belsky, Andrzej Bajer
A squeal analysis on a front disc brake is presented here utilizing the new complex eigenvalue capability in ABAQUS/Standard. As opposed to the direct matrix input approach that requires users to tailor the friction coupling matrix, this method uses nonlinear static analyses to calculate the friction coupling prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction. As a result, the effect of non-uniform contact pressure and other nonlinear effects are incorporated. Friction damping is used to reduce over-predictions and the velocity dependent friction coefficient is defined to contribute negative damping. Complex eigenvalue predictions of the example cases show very good correlation with test data for a wide range of frequencies. Finally, the participation of rotor tangential modes is also discussed.
2003-10-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-3309
Andrew C. Smith, Simon M. Hudson
This paper presents an alternative brake that uses two floating discs, with four rubbing surfaces, to provide a step change improvement in performance over existing products. The paper details the development of this product highlighting the test data, which demonstrates the significant improvements in specific torque, fluid consumption and cooling rates. The design retains conventional materials, existing processes and fits within current package constraints. The sliding discs, which compensate for wear, allow opportunities to simplify the caliper to a fixed design and allow integration with the steering knuckle. Performance, refinement and durability test results indicate the current status of the design as implemented on a small passenger car and an SUV, and show its compatibility with existing vehicle brake control systems. Design options to implement this technology within current and future vehicle systems are also described.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1373
Mingyu Wang, Thomas M. Urbank, Karma V. Sangwan
The present paper describes the system design for the Clear Vision auto defog system and the improvements made to the Integrated Dew Point and Glass Temperature (IDGT) sensor. The Clear Vision auto defog system has been implemented on a 2000 Cadillac DeVille. Preliminary validation tests demonstrate satisfactory performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1586
Joseph Conover, Harry Husted, John MacBain, Heather McKee
Modern military ground vehicles are dependent not only on armor and munitions, but also on their electronic equipment. Advances in battlefield sensing, targeting, and communications devices have resulted in military vehicles with a wide array of electrical and electronic loads requiring power. These vehicles are typically designed to supply this power via a main internal combustion engine outfitted with a generator. Batteries are also incorporated to allow power to be supplied for a limited time when the engine is off. It is desirable to use a subset of the battlefield electronics in the vehicle while the engine is off, in a mode called “silent watch.” Operating time in this mode is limited, however, by battery capacity unless an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used or the main engines are restarted.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1627
Honglu Zhang, Srini Raman, Madana Gopal, Taeyoung Han
The interaction between the deploying airbag and the Out-Of-Position (OOP) occupants remains a challenge in occupant protection system simulations. The integration of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis into Finite Element (FE) airbag model is a helpful and important tool to address this challenge. Three major commercial crash simulation software packages widely used in the automotive safety industry, LS-DYNA, MADYMO and PAM-CRASH are in the process of implementing different approaches for airbag CFD simulation. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate and compare the CFD integrated airbag models in these software packages. Specially designed tests were conducted to study and capture the pressure distribution inside a flat airbag and the test results were used for the evaluation. Strengths and limitations of each software package are discussed in this paper.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1631
Deren Ma, Jennifer Matlack, Honglu Zhang, John Sparkman
Computer modeling and simulation have become one of the primary methods for development and design of automobile occupant protection systems (OPS). To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a math-based OPS design, the correlation quality assessment of mathematical models is essential for program success. In a typical industrial approach, correlation quality is assessed by comparing chart characteristics and scored based on an engineer's modeling experience and judgment. However, due to the complexity of the OPS models and their responses, a systematic approach is needed for accuracy and consistency. In this paper, a correlation grading methodology for the OPS models is presented. The grading system evaluates a wide spectrum of a computer model's performances, including kinematics, dynamic responses, and dummy injury measurements. Statistical analysis is utilized to compare the time histories of the tested and simulated dynamic responses.
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