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Viewing 1 to 30 of 44
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0896
Feilong Liu, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, Nick Collings, Ahmed Soliman
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1058
Siddharth D'Silva, Padma Sundaram, Joseph G. D'Ambrosio
This paper discusses the development and application of a closed-loop co-simulation platform for a controlled chassis system. The platform is comprised of several software packages, including CarSim®(MSC Corporation), AmeSim®(ImaGine Software Corporation), MATLAB®/SIMULINK®(Mathworks Corporation). The platform provides the ability to quickly evaluate enhancements to existing algorithms and to evaluate new control or diagnostic concepts, making it a rapid medium for development, testing and validation. The co-simulation platform was configured with real vehicle calibration data and used to test the validity/limitations of a simple model-based sensor diagnostics strategy. Using this approach, it was possible to quickly check for performance issues and consider needed corrections or enhancements without incurring the time and cost burden associated with in-vehicle testing.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0923
Aleksander Hac
In this paper a method of mitigating the consequences of potential brake actuator failure in vehicles with brake-by-wire (BBW) and possibly with steer-by-wire (SBW) systems is described. The proposed control algorithm is based on rules derived from general principles of vehicle dynamics. When a failure of one actuator is detected, the algorithm redistributes the braking forces among the remaining actuators in such a way that the desired deceleration of vehicle is followed as closely as possible, while the magnitude and the rate of change of the yaw moment caused by asymmetric braking are properly managed. When vehicle is equipped with BBW system only, or when the desired deceleration can be obtained by redistributing of braking forces, without generating an undesired yaw moment, no steering correction is used. Otherwise, a combination of brake force redistribution and steering correction (to counter the yaw moment generated by non-symmetric braking) is applied.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0924
Aleksander Hac, David Doman, Michael Oppenheimer
A new optimal control strategy for dealing with braking actuator failures in a vehicle equipped with a brake-by-wire and steer-by- wire system is described. The main objective of the control algorithm during the failure mode is to redistribute the control tasks to the functioning actuators, so that the vehicle performance remains as close as possible to the desired performance in spite of a failure. The desired motion of the vehicle in the yaw plane is determined using driver steering and braking inputs along with vehicle speed. For the purpose of synthesizing the control algorithm, a non-linear vehicle model is developed, which describes the vehicle dynamics in the yaw plane in both linear and non-linear ranges of handling. A control allocation algorithm determines the control inputs that minimize the difference between the desired and actual vehicle motions, while satisfying all actuator constraints.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1600
Eldon G. Leaphart, Steve E. Muldoon, Jill N. Irlbeck
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2547
Prasad Gade
Active/semi-active suspension control of a passenger vehicle is a classic problem involving multiple-objectives, all of which cannot be simultaneously achieved without compromises between ride and handling performance. Traditionally, suspension control tuning has been a subjective process that involves tuning of hundreds of parameters. This paper attempts to add some level of objectivity to the tuning philosophy by posing the ride/handling trade-off as a multi-constrained, multi-objective optimization problem and solving it using a mixed-H2/H∞ control synthesis technique to obtain a pareto-optimal solution. The multi-variable constrained optimization problem involves minimization of body control metrics subject to constraints defined by wheel-control metrics (a measure of road-holding capability). Simulation as well as road-test results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and impact the proposed control strategy has on improving ride and handling performance.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0763
Robert D. Garrick
The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the advantages of a non-contact electronic throttle control (ETC) air control valve position sensor over the potentiometer technology of contacting position sensors. The non-contact position sensing offers the industry an opportunity to take advantage of an improved ability to assess reliability of the product and utilize accelerated testing techniques with improved robustness to control system perturbations. Specifically; eliminating the contact wear failure mechanism reduces the complexity, and duration of ETC air control valve life testing and increases the robustness of the ETC system to noise factors from the control system variation.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0502
Quan Zheng, Woowon Chung, Ken Defore, Andrew Herman
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3903
Daniel G. Gauthier, Thomas H. Lichti, John H. Waller
This paper describes a robust engineering DOE (design of experiment) completed by hydraulic simulation of a Variable Cam Phaser System based on an L4 IC engine. The robust engineering study focused on the high temperature and low speed portions of overall engine operating conditions where the cam phase rates are slow and oscillation is high. The analysis included a preliminary DOE with multiple noise variables used as the control factors in order to quantify and compound the factors into just two noise levels; best and worst conditions. Following the noise DOE, a larger DOE study was completed with 16 control variables including phaser, oil control valve and various engine parameters. It was run at 3 engine rpm (signal levels), 2 noise levels, and was analyzed for 3 responses (advancing rate, retarding rate, and oscillation amplitude while holding an intermediate position). These DOE experiments determined potential gains for each design proposal.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1481
John Z. Lin, Stephen M. Pitrof
This paper reviews the state of the art on analytical design of cockpit modules in two most crucial performance categories: safety and comfort. On safety, applications of finite element analysis (FEA) for achieving robust designs that meet FMVSS 201, 208 and 214 requirements and score top frontal and side NCAP star-ratings are presented. On comfort, focus is placed on Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. Cutting-edge analytical tools for Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) avoidance and passenger compartment noise reduction are demonstrated. Most of the analytical results shown in this paper are based on the development work of a real-life application program. Correlations between the analytical results and physical test results are included. Examples of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis for climate control are also included. At the end, the road map toward 100 percent virtual prototyping and validation is presented.
2003-10-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-3343
Shih-Wei Kung, Greg Stelzer, Vladimir Belsky, Andrzej Bajer
A squeal analysis on a front disc brake is presented here utilizing the new complex eigenvalue capability in ABAQUS/Standard. As opposed to the direct matrix input approach that requires users to tailor the friction coupling matrix, this method uses nonlinear static analyses to calculate the friction coupling prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction. As a result, the effect of non-uniform contact pressure and other nonlinear effects are incorporated. Friction damping is used to reduce over-predictions and the velocity dependent friction coefficient is defined to contribute negative damping. Complex eigenvalue predictions of the example cases show very good correlation with test data for a wide range of frequencies. Finally, the participation of rotor tangential modes is also discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1627
Honglu Zhang, Srini Raman, Madana Gopal, Taeyoung Han
The interaction between the deploying airbag and the Out-Of-Position (OOP) occupants remains a challenge in occupant protection system simulations. The integration of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis into Finite Element (FE) airbag model is a helpful and important tool to address this challenge. Three major commercial crash simulation software packages widely used in the automotive safety industry, LS-DYNA, MADYMO and PAM-CRASH are in the process of implementing different approaches for airbag CFD simulation. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate and compare the CFD integrated airbag models in these software packages. Specially designed tests were conducted to study and capture the pressure distribution inside a flat airbag and the test results were used for the evaluation. Strengths and limitations of each software package are discussed in this paper.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1631
Deren Ma, Jennifer Matlack, Honglu Zhang, John Sparkman
Computer modeling and simulation have become one of the primary methods for development and design of automobile occupant protection systems (OPS). To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a math-based OPS design, the correlation quality assessment of mathematical models is essential for program success. In a typical industrial approach, correlation quality is assessed by comparing chart characteristics and scored based on an engineer's modeling experience and judgment. However, due to the complexity of the OPS models and their responses, a systematic approach is needed for accuracy and consistency. In this paper, a correlation grading methodology for the OPS models is presented. The grading system evaluates a wide spectrum of a computer model's performances, including kinematics, dynamic responses, and dummy injury measurements. Statistical analysis is utilized to compare the time histories of the tested and simulated dynamic responses.
2004-10-10
Technical Paper
2004-01-2787
Shih-Wei Kung, Greg Stelzer, Kelly A. Smith
Low frequency drum brake squeal is often very intense and can cause high levels of customer complaints. During a noise event, vehicle framework and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during a brake application. This paper illustrates the experimental and analytical studies on a low frequency drum brake squeal problem that caused high warranty cost. First the environmental condition was identified and noise was reproduced. Vehicle tests were performed and operating deflection shapes were acquired. The sensitivity of the lining material to different environmental conditions was investigated. With the use of complex eigenvalue method, models were constructed to obtain further understanding of the phenomena. Finally, the squeal mechanism of a drum brake system is discussed and various solution techniques for low frequency drum brake noise are evaluated.
2003-10-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-3300
Jason J. Tao, H. T. Chang
Among the performance concerns in brake design, drag and fluid displacement are getting more attention in the requirement definition. High drag not only affects fuel efficiency and lining life, it is also a contributing factor to rotor thickness variation and brake pulsation. In this paper, a system approach to drag performance of a disc brake caliper is presented. A one-dimensional simulation model, which considers all the significant factors, including lining stiffness and hysteresis, housing stiffness, seal/groove characteristic, and stick-slide behavior between the seal and piston, is developed to capture the interactive impact of each parameter to caliper drag performance. The system model is validated with experimental measurements for caliper fluid displacement and piston retraction. A parameter study is then conducted to investigate the component interactive impact to the drag performance.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1072
Zane Z. Yang, Srini V. Raman, Deren Ma
A steering wheel is an indispensable component in an automobile. Although the steering wheel was invented about one hundred years ago and its structure has since become more and more complex with numerous innovations, documented analysis on steering wheel performance is very limited. Today, a steering wheel is not only a wheel that controls where your car goes; it also plays an important role in a vehicle occupant protection system. Therefore, many requirements have to be met before a steering wheel goes into production. With the development of computational mechanics and increasing computer capability, it has become much easier to evaluate the steering wheel performance in a totally different way. Instead of running prototype tests, steering wheel designs can be modeled virtually in various scenarios using finite element analysis, thus facilitating the development cycle.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1061
Kevin O'Dea
Anti-Lock Brake Systems use hydraulic valves to control brake pressure and ultimately, wheel slip. The difference in pressure across these hydraulic valves affects their performance. The control of these valves can be improved if the pressure difference is known and the valve control altered accordingly. In practice, the delta- pressure is estimated. Estimating the wheel brake pressure introduces an error into the control structure of the system, i.e. the difference between the actual wheel brake pressure and the estimated wheel brake pressure. The effect of this error was investigated at the vehicle level via simulation, using stopping distance and vehicle yaw rate as evaluation criteria. Even with large errors in the brake pressure estimate, it was found that the vehicle performance was largely unaffected.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0779
Eldon G. Leaphart, Barbara J. Czerny, Joseph G. D'Ambrosio, Christopher L. Denlinger, Deron Littlejohn
A requirement of many modern safety-critical automotive applications is to provide failsafe operation. Several analysis methods are available to help confirm that automotive safety-critical systems are designed properly and operate as intended to prevent potential hazards from occurring in the event of system failures. One element of safety-critical system design is to help verify that the software and microcontroller are operating correctly. The task of incorporating failsafe capability within an embedded microcontroller design may be achieved via hardware or software techniques. This paper surveys software failsafe techniques that are available for application within a microcontroller design suitable for use with safety-critical automotive systems. Safety analysis techniques are discussed in terms of how to identify adequate failsafe coverage.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0971
Mansour Masoudi
Segmented, Silicon-Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters appear to be automotive industry's popular choice for reducing particulate emissions of Diesel Engines, particularly for light duty platforms. Since flow resistance represents an important performance feature of a filter, it is important that reasonable prediction tools for such filters are developed for use in their development, design, applications and regeneration control. A model for predicting pressure drop of segmented filters is presented here: an existing, well-accepted pressure drop model for monolithic (non-segmented) filters is customized to one for a segmented filter using a ‘weighted number of inlet channels’ based on equivalent filtration wall area of a monolithic filter. Flow resistance data collected experimentally on segmented filters are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the new model.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0398
Aleksander Hac
In dynamic rollover tests many vehicles experience sustained body roll oscillations during a portion of road edge recovery maneuver, in which constant steering angle is maintained. In this paper, qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given and it is analyzed using simplified models. It is found that the primary root cause of these oscillations is coupling occurring between the vehicle roll, heave and subsequently yaw modes resulting from suspension jacking forces. These forces cause vertical (heave) motions of vehicle body, which in turn affect tire normal and subsequently lateral forces, influencing yaw response of vehicle. As a result, sustained roll, heave and yaw oscillations occur during essentially a steady-state portion of maneuver. Analysis and simulations are used to assess the influence of several chassis characteristics on the self-excited oscillations. The results provide important insights, which may influence suspension design.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0726
John Z. Lin, Suresh Lanka, Thomas Ruden
This paper reviews the current strategies for physical prototyping of Magnesium instrument panel (I/P) structures. Bottlenecks in the traditional physical prototype based product development process are discussed. As demand for fast-to-market and cost-reduction mounts, virtual prototyping becomes increasingly important in meeting the timing and performance goals. A virtual prototyping methodology is presented in this paper to enable high performance Magnesium I/P structures in Safety, NVH, and initial part quality aspects. Examples of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results and correlations are included.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0085
Frank J. Winters, Carsten Mielenz, Graham Hellestrand
This paper will address the electronic development in the wireless industry and compare it to the electronic development in the automotive industry. The wireless industry is characterized by rapid, dramatic high tech changes with a less than two-year cycle time and an equivalent life cycle. The automotive electronics industry is working toward reducing the typical 2 to 3 year development cycle down 1 to 2 years but with a life cycle of 10 years or more. In addition to realizing the electronic development benefits seen in the wireless industry, the automotive industry places significantly more emphasis on the quality and reliability aspects of their designs as many of them are targeted toward, or interface with, safety critical applications. One of the lessons learned from the wireless industry is the development process; where the hardware selection process can be accomplished in a virtual environment in conjunction with concurrent software development.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0841
Honglu Zhang, Deren Ma, Srini V. Raman
Since its invention in early 1990s, the side curtain airbag has become an important part of the occupant restraint system for side impact and rollover protection. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is often used to help side curtain airbag design. Because of the unique characteristics of side curtain airbag systems, the simulation of side curtain airbag systems faces different challenges in comparison to the simulation of driver and passenger airbag systems. The typical side curtain airbag CAE analysis includes, but is not limited to, cushion volume evaluation, cushion coverage review, cushion shrinkage and tension force review, deployment timing review and seam shape and location review. The commonly used uniform pressure airbag models serve the purpose in most cases.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0255
Deron Littlejohn, Tom Fornari, George Kuo, Bryan Fulmer, Andrew Mooradian, Kevin Shipp, Joseph Elliott, Kwangjin Lee, Margaret Richards
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) technology is presently emerging in the automotive market as a convenience function intended to reduce driver workload. It allows the host vehicle to maintain a set speed and distance from preceding vehicles by a forward object detection sensor. The forward object detection sensor is the focal point of the ACC control system, which determines and regulates vehicle acceleration and deceleration through a powertrain torque control system and an automatic brake control system. This paper presents a design of an automatic braking system that utilizes a microprocessor-controlled brake hydraulic modulator. The alternatively qualified automatic braking means is reviewed first. The product level requirements of the performance, robustness, and durability for an automatic brake system are addressed. A brief overview of the presented system architecture is described.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0129
Siddharth H. D'Silva
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0131
Sudhakar Das
An analytical study of spray from an outwardly opening pressure swirl injector has been presented in this paper. A number of model injectors with varying design configurations have been used in this study. The outwardly opening injection process has been modeled using a modified spray breakup model presented in an earlier study. It has been observed that simulation results from the study clearly capture the mechanism by which an outwardly opening conical spray interacts with the downstream flow field. Velocity field near the tip of the injector shows that the conical streams emanating from an outwardly opening injector have the tendency to entrap air into the flow stream which is responsible for finer spray. A deviation from the optimum set of physical parameters showed a high propensity to produce large spray droplets. This study also emphasizes the importance of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool to understand the complex physical processes.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0439
Julie M. Galante-Fox, Donald E. Jarvis, Robert D. Garrick, Alfred J. Chen
Some Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) Air Control Valves (ACV) on automotive internal combustion engines are susceptible to icing of the throttle valve. Ice formation can result in an increase in torque required to open or close the valve. Laboratory studies were conducted to improve the understanding of throttle valve icing on electronic throttle control valves with both aluminum and composite (plastic) bodies over various bore sizes (4 cylinder to 8 cylinder engines). Study results indicated that ice compression at the bore and valve gap, not ice adhesion, is the major contributor to the ETC-ACV icing phenomenon. In addition, testing of parts with various bore sizes, orientations and surface cleanliness resulted in further understanding of the icing issue.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1004
Peter M. Olin
A key quantity for use in engine control is the exhaust manifold pressure. For production applications it is an important component in the calculation of the engine volumetric efficiency, as well as EGR flow and residual fraction. For cost reasons, however, it is preferable to not have to measure the exhaust manifold pressure for production applications. For that reason, it is advantageous to develop a model for estimating the exhaust manifold pressure in production application software that is small, accurate, and simple to calibrate. In this paper, a mean-value model for calculating the exhaust manifold pressure is derived from the compressible flow equation, treating the exhaust system as a fixed-geometry restriction between the exhaust manifold and the outlet of the tailpipe. Validation data from production applications is presented.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1254
Mark Krage, Laci Jalics, Siddharth H. D'Silva, Francis Szczublewski
Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0630
Quan Zheng, Asif Habeebullah, Woowon Chung, Andrew Herman
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
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