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Viewing 1 to 30 of 35
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2107
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Masami Matsubara, Kinya Moriguchi, Ichiro Shima
Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2410
Tatsuya Yoshida, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, ZhongMou Jiang, Yozo Nakamoto
Researches for automation of hydraulic excavators have been conducted for laborsaving, improved efficiency of operations and increased worker's safety improvement. Authors' final goal is to develop automatic digging system which can realize the high efficiency. Therefore, it is thought that appropriate digging control algorithm is important for the automation. For this goal, this paper shows a dynamics model of the backhoe excavator and simulations using such models. Detailed dynamic models are needed from the point of view of the control engineering. Authors evaluate effectiveness of automatic digging algorithm by simulation models. In this research, the linkage mechanism which contains the closed loops is modeled based on the Newton-Euler formulation, where motion equation is derived. Moreover, we apply a soil model for simulation, based on the two dimensional distinct element method (DEM), in order to reproduce reaction force from grounds.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2197
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yukio Nakamura, Ichiro Kido, Masato Hashioka
This paper describes a proposal of techniques on Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to analyze transmission of vibration among the components in a complex structure. This proposal is evolved from the previous one [1] in the dimension which dominates the quality of the analysis in automotive body structure by TPA. The proper coordinate transformation was introduced to resolve the troublesome process on the application of the body structure in the previous proposal. The complications are caused by the treatment with a lot of transfer functions and transmitted forces at the conjunctions that are complexly assembled with many adjacent nodes. Dimension of the analytical region is expanded from two to three in this study. That is, from the cross section of interface of components to the structure itself where the vibration transmits between two components.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1025
Kimitoshi Tsuji, Takashi Abe, Toshiji Kato, Yasunari Kido
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
1991-11-01
Technical Paper
912460
Jiro Senda, Hajime Fukimoto, Koji Yamamoto
In a high-speed DI diesel engine, fuel sprays impinge surely on a wall of a piston cavity. Then the phenomenon of the heat transfer between the impinged spray and the wall appears and it has the strong effect on the combustion processes of the engine. The purpose of this study are to clarify basically the heat transfer characteristics. In the experiments, the fuel was injected into the quiescent inert atmosphere with a high temperature under high pressure field, and an evaporative single diesel spray was impinging upon a flat wall. And, the temperature distribution on the wall surface in a radial direction was detected by the Loex-Constantan thin film thermo-couples. Thus, the heat flux between the impinged spray and the wall surface was calculated from the temperature profile within the wall by Fourier's equation using the finite difference method, under the assumption of the one-dimensional heat conduction.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3591
Tetsuya Sakai, Mitsuo Iwahara, Akio Nagamatsu, Toshiyuki Shibayama
In this study, the air suspension is newly applied to the engine mounting layout for getting the significant vibration isolation effect. In this case, the genetic algorithm so called GA is also applied for the optimization of many parameters, calculations of stiffness matrix and inverse stiffness matrix to prevent the coupled vibration of lateral and rolling modes and to obtain the displacement of each mounting point. As a result, inexperienced engineers can easily obtain the optimum engine mounting layout in a minute. By the confirmation test of FEM, the engine lateral vibration level at 25Hz dropped below 1/10 and its effect was significant.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3464
Hiroaki Andou, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi
Operator comfort is an important design criteria for hydraulic excavators during working and idling conditions. An engine, a cooling fan motor and a pump are installed on a hydraulic excavator. It is hard to identify the vibration contribution to a response because three sources are synchronizingly working. This paper describes the use of partial coherence measurement techniques for source identification. And it is examined to reduce the vibration of the source component identified by the partial coherence results. Finally, it is verified that the response acceleration is effectively decreased by reducing the vibration of the identified component.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0026
Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Tsuyoshi Nakatsuji
This study discussed the mechanism of the low speed judder for wave type brake disc developed newly for recent motorcycles. Wavy disc was examined to investigate the effect of wave configurations on the BTV (Brake Torque Variation) behavior. Torque amplitude in braking was compared with respect to the revolution order which represented the multiple number of the number of revolutions. To explain the mechanism at the mode showing largest BTV, the elastic deformation of the pad was analyzed by finite element method concerning geometrical nonlinearity with commercial code. This study found that most crucial BTV appeared on low speed judder was observed at the 3 rd peaks on the revolution order. Test data showed that this crucial BTV was related with the number of waves at the disc periphery, and caused by the indentation of the pad into notched part at disc periphery.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3371
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, Y. Komemushi, T. Kuge
One of the effective ways to cope with the very severe future regulation of soot exhausted through a CI engine is the use of oxygenated fuel. This paper describes the experimental results of the soot generation of six kinds of oxygenated fuel and n-heptane whose cetane number is the almost the same as that of the gas oil by means of time resolved LII (TIRE-LII) and the classical two color method. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber. The main result is that the oxygen content of the fuel is the much significant factor to decrease in the soot.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1398
Takayuki Ito, Tomofumi Hosaka, Masato Ueda, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0534
Daisuke Kawano, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Jiro Senda
Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0531
T. Hiroyasu, M. Miki, M. Kim, S. Watanabe, H. Hiroyasu, H. Miao
In this study, a system to perform a parameter search of heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. Recently, it has become essential to use design methodologies including computer simulations for diesel engines that have small amounts of NOx and SOOT while maintaining reasonable fuel economy. For this purpose, multi-objective optimization techniques should be used. Multi-objective optimization problems have several types of objectives and they should be minimized or maximized at the same time. There is often a trade-off relationship between objects and derivation of the Pareto optimum solutions that express the relationship between the objects is one of the goals in this case. The proposed system consists of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and phenomenological model. MOGA has strong search capability for Pareto optimum solutions. However, MOGA requires a large number of iterations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0529
Kwangjae Myong, Motoyuki Arai, Hirotaka Suzuki, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
2003-05-05
Technical Paper
2003-01-1465
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Koji Yamazaki, Toshiyuki Shibayama
This paper describes a steady vibration of an engine supported by rubber and hydraulic mounts at a relatively low frequency range, assuming an engine is a rigid body. We identify dynamic characteristics of a hydraulic mount with respect to frequency and amplitude. The equation of motion is solved numerically by the Newton-Raphson method, treating the mount characteristics as functions of frequency and amplitude. The excitation test to simulate an engine shake and an idling vibration was performed using a mass block instead of an actual engine. During the engine shake, we observed that the amplitude dependency of hydraulic mounts strongly influences the vibration, while idling, we investigated rolling vibration especially for the case where the torque axis does not pass through the engine's center of gravity. The theoretical predictions agree closely with the experimental results in both engine shake and idling vibration tests.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0930
Tsukasa Hori, Takahiro Kuge, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
In this study, a numerical experiment using a 2D convective equation and LES of an evaporative diesel spray for different convective schemes has been performed to examine effects of convective schemes on a fuel-air mixture formation of the diesel spray simulation and to determine the convective scheme used in KIVALES. In addition to KIVALES original schemes, such as QSOU, PDC and IDC, CIP was incorporated into KIVALES in order to calculate the convective terms with low numerical diffusion. The numerical experiment using the 2D convective equation showed that the numerical diffusion of CIP scheme was lowest in the convective schemes used in present study. However CIP scheme used was not a monotone scheme completely due to the overshoot and the undershoot of the scalar provided near the boundary. Hence, CIP scheme was employed for only the convective term of the LES momentum equation, while the other convective schemes were calculated using QSOU, which is a monotone scheme.
2008-09-09
Technical Paper
2008-32-0055
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yuya Ezaki
It’ll be expected that tandem riders increase in the future. So, there is a need to improve the motorcycle stability of tandem riding from the perspectives of safety and comfort. In this research, we focus on tandem riding at low speed because the motorcycle especially becomes unstable. In order to improve the stability of a motorcycle after disturbance is input by the passenger’s posture change, we design a front wheel steer control system that assists the rider’s driving operation. And we simulate it. It is necessary to consider cooperation with the rider’s driving operation. In this study, as a means to consider the cooperative control of the man-machine system, the fuzzy logic was applied to this system.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2465
Hajime Fujimoto, T. Hori, J. Senda, H. Nakagawa, S. Kamata, K. Katsuta
It is very much necessary for researchers and engineers whose work is the field of combustion in a CI engine to find the information of droplets in a diesel spray. The information is strongly required to construct the model of spray built in the numerical code for its simulation and to be used for the verification of the accuracy of the calculation. This paper describes the photographing system with high spatial resolution, the distribution of droplet size and the vortex scale caused by the droplets motion by means of this system.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2254
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Hiroki Nakagawa, Kinya Moriguchi
The demand for quieter vehicle interiors increases year after year. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We investigated the dynamic force transmission of a rolling tire as it relates to reducing vehicle interior noise. A test with a tire rolling over a cleat was conducted in order to measure the road forces and the spindle forces. The transfer function of the rolling tire was identified from the experimental results by applying multi dimensional spectral analysis. In addition, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technology has advanced recently. This enables prediction of spindle forces early in the design stage. One of the most important issues in predicting spindle forces accurately is to clarify the distribution of road forces. This paper also describes the distribution of the dynamic road forces of the rolling tire.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2210
Hiroshi Uehara, Masahiro Saito, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi
This paper describes how use of multi-objective optimization of pulsating noise and backpressure improved an exhaust silencer for diesel drive equipment. Low frequency pulsating noise and backpressure were simultaneously predicted using one-dimensional fluid dynamics and acoustic analysis by BEM. In addition, an experiment was done to investigate the relation between high frequency noise including flow-induced noise and the dimensions of perforations in silencer pipes. Finally, a prototype of the exhaust silencer was built and examined in order to confirm the effects of these design methods mentioned. As predicted, exhaust noise was reduced without increasing backpressure.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8101
Yoshimune Mori, Akifumi Yoshimura, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito, Atsushi Fujimoto, Zenzo Yamaguchi, Koichi Honke
Abstract In a typical mechanical product such as an automobile or construction machinery, it is important to identify deformation modes, for which experiments and analyses can result in significant improvements. It is also important to consider how to improve the structure with high rigidity by using a technique such as the strain energy method in conventional design and development. However, the abovementioned method often generates conflicting results with regard to weight saving and cost reduction of development requirements. Transfer path analysis (TPA) using the finite element method (FEM) is an effective way to reduce noise and vibration in the automobile with respect to these issues. TPA can reveal the transfer path from the input to the response of the output point and the contribution of the path, and to efficiently consider improved responses.
2004-09-27
Technical Paper
2004-32-0022
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Keita Hamada, Masahiro Okamura, Hisashi Tsukijima
This paper presents an analytical model for the prediction of piston secondary motion and the vibration due to piston slap. For the modeling of piston slap phenomenon, cylinder liner is modeled as a several spring-mass system that are connected by modal characteristics, and lubricant film between the piston and the cylinder is modeled as reaction force vectors which excite resonant mode of them. By comparing experimental results and analytical ones, the validity of the proposed model has been confirmed. The optimization of the piston skirt profile is also carried out with the analytical model, and it is confirmed that the round shape of the lower part of piston skirt is effective for the reduction of piston slap excitation.
2011-09-11
Journal Article
2011-24-0001
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Kenta Fujimori, Hiroki Maekawa, Satoshi Kato, Daisuke Kawano, Jiro Senda
Auto-ignition and combustion processes of dual-component fuel spray were numerically studied. A source code of SUPERTRAPP (developed by NIST), which is capable of predicting thermodynamic and transportation properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components, was incorporated into KIVA3V to provide physical fuel properties and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations. Low temperature oxidation reaction, which is of importance in ignition process of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as negative temperature coefficient behavior was taken into account using the multistep kinetics ignition prediction based on Shell model, while a global single-step mechanism was employed to account for high temperature oxidation reaction. Computational results with the present multi-component fuel model were validated by comparing with experimental data of spray combustion obtained in a constant volume vessel.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1871
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Masahiro Akei, Akihito Ito, Daisuke Kubota, Koichi Osamura
Abstract This paper describes new method for selecting optimal field points in Inverse-Numerical Acoustic analysis (INA), and its application to construction of a sound source model for diesel engines. INA identifies the surface vibration of a sound source by using acoustic transfer functions and actual sound pressures measured at field points located near the sound source. When measuring sound pressures with INA, it is necessary to determine the field point arrangement. Increased field points leads to longer test and analysis time. Therefore, guidelines for selecting the field point arrangement are needed to conduct INA efficiently. The authors focused on the standard deviations of distance between sound source elements and field points and proposed a new guideline for optimal field point selection in our past study. In that study, we verified the effectiveness of this guideline using a simple plate model.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1903
Masami Matsubara, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Tomohiko Ise, Shozo Kawamura
Abstract The tire is one of the most important parts, which influence the noise, vibration, and harshness of the passenger cars. It is well known that effect of rotation influences tire vibration characteristics, and earlier studies presented formulas of tire vibration behavior. However, there are no studies of tire vibration including lateral vibration on effect of rotation. In this paper, we present new formulas of tire vibration on effect of rotation using a three-dimensional flexible ring model. The model consists of the cylindrical ring represents the tread and the springs represent the sidewall stiffness. The equation of motion of lateral, longitudinal, and radial vibration on the tread are derived based on the assumption of inextensional deformation. Many of the associated numerical parameters are identified from experimental tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0820
Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda, Keitaro Imori, Yudai Sakai
Abstract The flash boiling by fuel heating is a useful method to control the time spatial spray characteristics such as atomization of droplets, vaporization and air-fuel mixture concentration. It is one of the important phenomena for a direct injection gasoline engine (D.I.S.I) as a next generation powertrain. This report focuses on flash boiling spray using fuel heating. The purpose of this study is to understand its physical phenomena with scattered light method, schlieren photography, and Super High Spatial Resolution Photography (SHSRP). Fuel is iso-octane and injectors are a single hole nozzle and a multi hole nozzle. These are used for the basic phenomenon analysis. The influence on spray shape can be shown by schlieren photography. Spray droplet diameter and spray dispersion at the nozzle exit are observed by super high spatial resolution photography that is our original development technique.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1858
Tsukasa Hori, Minoru Hanasaki, Jun Komae, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
The compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) for the diesel spray with OpenFOAM is presented to reduce CPU time by massively parallel computing of the scalar type supercomputer (CRAY XE6) and simulate the development of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray. The maximum computational speeds are 14 times (128 cores) and 43 times (128 cores) for of the non-evaporative spray and the spray flame with one-step reaction, respectively, compared to the one core simulation. In the spray flame simulation with the reduced reaction mechanism (29 species, 52 reactions), the maximum computational speed is 149 times (512 cores). Then LES of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray (Spray A) are calculated. The results indicate that the spray tip penetration is well predicted, although the size of the computational domain must be set equal to that of the experiment.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2250
Masahiro Akei, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito, Takayuki Yamauchi, Daisuke Kubota
Abstract This paper describes the identification of a sound source model for diesel engines installed on agricultural machines by using Inverse-Numerical Acoustic (INA) analysis, and noise predictions using the sound source model identified by INA. INA is a method of identifying surface vibrations from surrounding sound pressures. This method can be applied to sound sources with complicated shapes like those in engines. Although many studies on INA have been conducted, these past studies have focused on improvements to the identified accuracy and prediction of noise in free sound field or hemi-free sound field. The authors accurately predicted the sound pressure levels of engine enclosures using a sound source model identified by INA and a boundary element method (BEM). However, we had not yet verified the effectiveness of this sound source model against enclosures that had sound absorbing materials and openings.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2371
Hiroki Kambe, Naoto Mizobuchi, Eriko Matsumura
Abstract Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is installed as after treatment device of exhaust gas in diesel engine, and collects the Particulate Matter (PM). However, as the operation time of engine increases, PM is accumulated in the DPF, resulting in deterioration of PM collection efficiency and increasing in pressure loss. Therefore, Post injection has been attracted attention as DPF regeneration method for burning and removing PM in DPF. However, Post injection causes oil dilution when fuel is injected at the middle to late stage of expansion stroke. Oil dilution are concerned to deteriorate the sliding property of piston and the thermal efficiency. For this reason, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism and the behavior that spray impinges lubricating oil film. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to construct model of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that predicts amount of oil dilution which is concern for post injection in diesel engine, with high accuracy.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2821
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Isamu Kubomoto, Eiichi Ishida
The purpose of this paper is to establish a method of predicting the noise and vibration of tractor cabins in the engine-idling state by using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). At first, an analytical model of a tractor cabin is constructed, and power flow equations are formulated for the tractor cabin. To solve these equations, SEA parameters are estimated experimentally and analytically. These parameters are the modal density, loss factor, coupling loss factor, and input power. With these parameters, the noise and vibration responses of the tractor cabin are calculated. Good agreements are found between the analytical and experimental data.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0798
Jiro Senda, Masanori Ohnishi, Tomohiro Takahashi, Hajime Fujimoto, Atsushi Utsunomiya, Michio Wakatabe
In SI engines with port injection system, the injected fuel spray adheres surely on the port wall and the inlet valve, consequently, the spray-wall interaction process leads to the generation of unburned hydrocarbons and uncontrollable mixture formation. This paper deals with the fuel mixture preparation process including basic research on characteristics of the wall-wetted fuel film on a flat wall inside a constant volume vessel. In the experiments, iso-octane mixed with biacetyl as a tracer dopant was injected through a pintle type injector against a flat glass wall under the ambient conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The thickness of the adhered fuel film on the wall was quantitatively measured by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, which provides 2-D distribution information with high special resolution as a function of the injection duration, the impingement distance from the injector to the wall, and the impingement angle against the wall.
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