Viewing 1 to 30 of 53
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, K. Higashi, T. Yamashita, J. Senda
This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
Journal Article
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Hiroki Maekawa, Satoshi Kato, Jiro Senda
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper
Shinya Kuwabara, Toru Fujii, Shigeru Kanehara
An advanced numerical model is proposed to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a CVT using a metal V-belt. By using the present model, forces acting on the belt are well estimated not only at steady states but also during transitional states where the speed ratio is changing. The numerical results show that blocks are in compression in both strands when the speed ratio is rapidly shifted. A complementary model is also developed to analyze the load distribution among bands which form the ring. The load distribution in the ring is governed by the difference in coefficients of friction among elements.
Technical Paper
Masayuki Adachi, Vincent G. McDonell, Daisuke Tanaka, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
For current passenger vehicles, multi-point injection (MPI) systems are extensively employed for gasoline engines due to ease of control and rapid response. In these systems, the pressure within the intake manifold to which the injectors are installed can fall below the saturated vapor pressure of some hydrocarbon components present in the fuel. Such a condition leads to an atomization process in which flash boiling occurs. In the present work, the atomization process under flash boiling conditions has been characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation has been carried out with a spray test facility consisting of a variable pressure chamber equipped with a pintle type fuel nozzle. Infrared Extinction/Scattering (IRES) is utilized to provide temporal and spatially resolved distribution of the fuel vapor concentration within the spray.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, Fumihisa Ishiguro, Jiro Senda, Norio Kimura
Abstract Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper
Jiro Senda, Hajime Fukimoto, Koji Yamamoto
In a high-speed DI diesel engine, fuel sprays impinge surely on a wall of a piston cavity. Then the phenomenon of the heat transfer between the impinged spray and the wall appears and it has the strong effect on the combustion processes of the engine. The purpose of this study are to clarify basically the heat transfer characteristics. In the experiments, the fuel was injected into the quiescent inert atmosphere with a high temperature under high pressure field, and an evaporative single diesel spray was impinging upon a flat wall. And, the temperature distribution on the wall surface in a radial direction was detected by the Loex-Constantan thin film thermo-couples. Thus, the heat flux between the impinged spray and the wall surface was calculated from the temperature profile within the wall by Fourier's equation using the finite difference method, under the assumption of the one-dimensional heat conduction.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, Jiro Senda, Ichiro Shibata, Koji Matsui
One of countermeasures for exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, especially, DI diesel engine, is the use of a super high pressure injection system with a small hole diameter. However, the system needs greater driving force than that with normal injection pressure, and its demerit is increase in NOx, although soot is decreasing. Then, authors propose the new concept on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot. The concept is that the utilization of flash boiling phenomenon in a diesel engine. The phenomenon can be realized by use of the injection of fuel oil with CO2 gas dissolved. Flash boiling facilitates the distinguished atomization of fuel oil and CO2 gas contributes to realizes the internal EGR during combustion. Fundamental information on the characteristics of a flash boiling spray of n-tridecane with CO2 gas dissolved is described in this paper, as a first step.
Technical Paper
Tetsuya Sakai, Mitsuo Iwahara, Akio Nagamatsu, Toshiyuki Shibayama
In this study, the air suspension is newly applied to the engine mounting layout for getting the significant vibration isolation effect. In this case, the genetic algorithm so called GA is also applied for the optimization of many parameters, calculations of stiffness matrix and inverse stiffness matrix to prevent the coupled vibration of lateral and rolling modes and to obtain the displacement of each mounting point. As a result, inexperienced engineers can easily obtain the optimum engine mounting layout in a minute. By the confirmation test of FEM, the engine lateral vibration level at 25Hz dropped below 1/10 and its effect was significant.
Technical Paper
Tsukasa Hori, Takahiro Kuge, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper
Hiroaki Andou, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi
Operator comfort is an important design criteria for hydraulic excavators during working and idling conditions. An engine, a cooling fan motor and a pump are installed on a hydraulic excavator. It is hard to identify the vibration contribution to a response because three sources are synchronizingly working. This paper describes the use of partial coherence measurement techniques for source identification. And it is examined to reduce the vibration of the source component identified by the partial coherence results. Finally, it is verified that the response acceleration is effectively decreased by reducing the vibration of the identified component.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, Y. Komemushi, T. Kuge
One of the effective ways to cope with the very severe future regulation of soot exhausted through a CI engine is the use of oxygenated fuel. This paper describes the experimental results of the soot generation of six kinds of oxygenated fuel and n-heptane whose cetane number is the almost the same as that of the gas oil by means of time resolved LII (TIRE-LII) and the classical two color method. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber. The main result is that the oxygen content of the fuel is the much significant factor to decrease in the soot.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, K.- J. Myong, H. Suzuki, K. Ueda, J. Senda
Almost all the researches relating to the characteristics of transient spray have carried out by using the fuel with only single component. However, the actual fuel oil supplying to a reciprocating engine has multiple components. Thus, this paper describes the experimental results on the characteristics of a transient spray formed by the mixed fuel with three kinds of pure fuel. The state of periphery of non evaporating spray near the nozzle outlet was arranged by the dimensionless number. And the technique of laser Induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to an evaporating spray to find the state of mixing.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Ito, Tomofumi Hosaka, Masato Ueda, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, D. Kawano, Y. Wada
The mixed fuel composed of two kinds of fuel oil whose boiling temperature is different each other forms the fine spray with minute droplets when its condition crosses over the two-phase region. It is expected that the fuel with low volatility dominates the ignition delay and that with high volatility does the generation of particulate matter. The experiments were carried out in a rapid compression and expansion machine and in an actual high-speed small sized diesel engine by use of this kind of fuel. The experimental results prove this expectation.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, T. Ito, S. Asao, K. Higashi
It is very significant to take the intermediate products in diesel combustion for understanding the generation of exhaust emissions like SOF, dry soot and so on. The products generated in a constant volume combustion chamber were sampled by pricking a sheet of polyester film installed in the chamber to freeze the chemical reaction. The gas was analyzed by a gas chromatography. The fuel used was n-heptane. It is able to explain the generation of exhaust emissions by the experimental results. The other objective is to simulate the intermediate products. It is capable of explaining the relation between the simulated and experimental results.
Technical Paper
Daisuke Kawano, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Jiro Senda
Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
Technical Paper
T. Hiroyasu, M. Miki, M. Kim, S. Watanabe, H. Hiroyasu, H. Miao
In this study, a system to perform a parameter search of heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. Recently, it has become essential to use design methodologies including computer simulations for diesel engines that have small amounts of NOx and SOOT while maintaining reasonable fuel economy. For this purpose, multi-objective optimization techniques should be used. Multi-objective optimization problems have several types of objectives and they should be minimized or maximized at the same time. There is often a trade-off relationship between objects and derivation of the Pareto optimum solutions that express the relationship between the objects is one of the goals in this case. The proposed system consists of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and phenomenological model. MOGA has strong search capability for Pareto optimum solutions. However, MOGA requires a large number of iterations.
Technical Paper
Kwangjae Myong, Motoyuki Arai, Hirotaka Suzuki, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
Technical Paper
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Koji Yamazaki, Toshiyuki Shibayama
This paper describes a steady vibration of an engine supported by rubber and hydraulic mounts at a relatively low frequency range, assuming an engine is a rigid body. We identify dynamic characteristics of a hydraulic mount with respect to frequency and amplitude. The equation of motion is solved numerically by the Newton-Raphson method, treating the mount characteristics as functions of frequency and amplitude. The excitation test to simulate an engine shake and an idling vibration was performed using a mass block instead of an actual engine. During the engine shake, we observed that the amplitude dependency of hydraulic mounts strongly influences the vibration, while idling, we investigated rolling vibration especially for the case where the torque axis does not pass through the engine's center of gravity. The theoretical predictions agree closely with the experimental results in both engine shake and idling vibration tests.
Technical Paper
Takaaki Kitamura, Takayuki Ito, Yasutaka Kitamura, Masato Ueda, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Technical Paper
Jiro Senda, Nobunori Okui, Tokihiro Tsukamoto, Hajime Fujimoto
This paper describes the results of on-board measurement of engine performance and emissions in diesel vehicle operated with bio-diesel fuels. Here, two waste-cooking oils were investigated. One fuel is a waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to a garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is a fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. Then, these 3 bio-diesel fuels were applied to the on-board experiments and the results were compared with gas oil operation case.
Technical Paper
Tsukasa Hori, Takahiro Kuge, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
In this study, a numerical experiment using a 2D convective equation and LES of an evaporative diesel spray for different convective schemes has been performed to examine effects of convective schemes on a fuel-air mixture formation of the diesel spray simulation and to determine the convective scheme used in KIVALES. In addition to KIVALES original schemes, such as QSOU, PDC and IDC, CIP was incorporated into KIVALES in order to calculate the convective terms with low numerical diffusion. The numerical experiment using the 2D convective equation showed that the numerical diffusion of CIP scheme was lowest in the convective schemes used in present study. However CIP scheme used was not a monotone scheme completely due to the overshoot and the undershoot of the scalar provided near the boundary. Hence, CIP scheme was employed for only the convective term of the LES momentum equation, while the other convective schemes were calculated using QSOU, which is a monotone scheme.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, T. Yamashita, T. Hori, M. Oshima, H. Tanaka
The particulate matters (PM) containing in the exhaust gas through a CI engine affects strongly the human health. Thus, it is very significant to measure the mechanism of PM itself generation for actualization of a clean CI engine. On the standpoint mentioned above, the authors carried out the experiments of the characteristics of PM generated from a small high speed DI CI engine with a single cylinder. The variables were the equivalence ratio, the injection timing, the EGR rate and the sort of fuel. As a result, the effect of experimental condition on the distribution of PM is clear through experiments.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yuya Ezaki
It’ll be expected that tandem riders increase in the future. So, there is a need to improve the motorcycle stability of tandem riding from the perspectives of safety and comfort. In this research, we focus on tandem riding at low speed because the motorcycle especially becomes unstable. In order to improve the stability of a motorcycle after disturbance is input by the passenger’s posture change, we design a front wheel steer control system that assists the rider’s driving operation. And we simulate it. It is necessary to consider cooperation with the rider’s driving operation. In this study, as a means to consider the cooperative control of the man-machine system, the fuzzy logic was applied to this system.
Technical Paper
Hiroshi Uehara, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Satoshi Morita, Tomoya Minamino
This paper describes the application of statistical energy analysis (SEA) to predicting sound power radiated from co-generation system enclosure. To predict vibration and noise accurately by using SEA, it is important to estimate parameter called loss factors. In this study, loss factors were estimated by power injection method. Next, the noise radiated from enclosure surface was predicted by the obtained vibration and radiation efficiency of enclosure panels. As a result, the calculated sound power was relatively corresponding to measured sound power. Finally, the sound power from modified enclosure was predicted. Coupling loss factors related to a modified subsystem were estimated by ratio of the number of structure modes. By using these steps, the noise from the system was reduced.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, T. Hori, J. Senda, H. Nakagawa, S. Kamata, K. Katsuta
It is very much necessary for researchers and engineers whose work is the field of combustion in a CI engine to find the information of droplets in a diesel spray. The information is strongly required to construct the model of spray built in the numerical code for its simulation and to be used for the verification of the accuracy of the calculation. This paper describes the photographing system with high spatial resolution, the distribution of droplet size and the vortex scale caused by the droplets motion by means of this system.
Technical Paper
Yoshimitsu Wada, Jiro Senda
The objective of this study is to explore the relation among mixture distribution condition, chemical character of fuel, combustion processes, and emissions characteristics with premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation. The present experiment employs two fuel injectors which are capable of port injection and direct one. The former was used to supply a highly-homogeneous mixture and the latter with late injection timing was employed to control the mixture heterogeneity. Thus, these sets of injection equipments are capable of setting a wide variety of mixture heterogeneity. Furthermore, two primary reference fuels were used in order to know the influences of chemical character. The experiments were conducted in order to clarify the combustion and emissions characteristics through engine tests. Optical diagnostic was also performed to gain additional insight into the combustion processes for a wide variety of mixture distribution.
Technical Paper
Kazunari Kuwahara, Tadashi Matsuo, Yasuyuki Sakai, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Tsukasa Hori, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
Abstract n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Keita Hamada, Masahiro Okamura, Hisashi Tsukijima
This paper presents an analytical model for the prediction of piston secondary motion and the vibration due to piston slap. For the modeling of piston slap phenomenon, cylinder liner is modeled as a several spring-mass system that are connected by modal characteristics, and lubricant film between the piston and the cylinder is modeled as reaction force vectors which excite resonant mode of them. By comparing experimental results and analytical ones, the validity of the proposed model has been confirmed. The optimization of the piston skirt profile is also carried out with the analytical model, and it is confirmed that the round shape of the lower part of piston skirt is effective for the reduction of piston slap excitation.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Ito, Masato Ueda, Takeo Matsumoto, Takaaki Kitamura, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
This work presents the ignition delay time characteristics of oxygenated fuel sprays under simulated diesel engine conditions. A constant volume combustion vessel is used for the experiments. The fuels used in the experiments were three oxygenated fuels: diethylene glycol dibutyl ether, diethylene glycol diethyl ether, and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether. JIS 2nd class gas oil was used as the reference fuel. The ambient gas temperature and oxygen concentration were ranging from 700 to 1100K and from 21 to 9%, respectively. The results show that the ignition delay of each oxygenated fuel tested in this experiments exhibits shorter than that of gas oil fuel for the wide range of ambient gas conditions. Also, NTC (negative temperature coefficient) behavior which appears under shock tube experiment for homogenous fuel-air mixture was observed on low ambient gas oxygen concentration for each fuel. And at the condition, the ignition behavior exhibits two-stage phase.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 53


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