Viewing 1 to 21 of 21
Technical Paper
Susan J. Wolf, Chann Cheng, Benda Yan, Jayanth Chintamani, Michael Golden, Jagdeesh Bandekar
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are becoming major enablers for vehicle light weighting in the automotive industry. Crash resistant and fracture-toughened structural adhesives have shown potential to improve vehicle stiffness, noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), and crashworthiness. They provide weight reduction opportunity while maintaining crash performance or weight increase avoidance while meeting the increasing crash requirement. Unfortunately, the adhesive bonding of galvanneal (GA)-coated steels has generally yielded adhesive failures with the GA coating peeling from the steel substrate resulting in poor bond strength. A limited study conducted by ArcelorMittal and Dow Automotive in 2008 showed that GA-coated AHSS exhibited cohesive failure, and good bond strength and crash performance. In order to confirm the reliable performance, a project focusing on the consistency of the adhesive bond performance of GA-coated steels of 590 MPa strength level was initiated.
Technical Paper
Fuhe Mao, Cheng G. Li
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) made from Dow's advanced ceramic material (ACM) have already demonstrated high filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, and high temperature performance capabilities. In addition to these advantages of the ACM-DPF, it has been found to be well suited for use in combination with various catalyst coatings while maintaining it's overall advanced performance over a broad range of catalyst loadings. Our recent studies on catalyzed ACM DPF demonstrate that the unique micro structure of ACM is able to maintain significant amount of catalyst and washcoats. The characteristics of the ACM DPF pressure drop versus catalyst washcoats loading have been fully investigated. With defined coating techniques, ACM DPF can be loaded with three times the amount of washcoat than can a Silicon Carbide DPF without significantly increasing the pressure drop.
Technical Paper
Frank Billotto, Ali El-Khatib, Huzeir Lekovic, Brad Pearson
The well-known hazards of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) have resulted in the development of foams with low MDI emissions for use in vehicle body cavities. While low MDI acoustic foams have been successfully launched in the automotive market, non-standard dispense equipment has been required. The latest low MDI acoustic foam development is dispensed via standard meter mix equipment, at the volumetric ratio of 1:1, enabling capital reduction for ventilation and application processing. This paper describes the benefits associated with using a 1:1 low MDI foam system. Industrial hygien testing and qualification of this system as low MDI are reviewed. Acoustical performance testing including insertion loss and sound absorption are discussed.
Technical Paper
Jagdeesh Bandekar, Michael R. Golden, Greg Meyers, Benda Yan, Jeffrey L. Fenton
Adhesive bonding technology is rapidly gaining acceptance as an alternative to spot welding. This technology is helping automobile manufacturers reduce vehicle weight by letting them use lighter but stronger advanced high strength steels (AHSS's). This can make cars safer and more fuel efficient at the same time. The other benefits of this technology include its flexibility, ability to join dissimilar materials, distribute stress uniformly, provide sealing characteristics and sound dampening, and provide a moisture barrier, thus minimizing the chance for corrosion. The lap shear work reported in the late 1980s and early 1990s has led to the prevalent perception that the galvannealed (GA) coating can delaminate from the steels, resulting in poor joint performance. However, the above work was carried out on steels used primarily in automobile outer body panels.
Technical Paper
Kathleen Elder, Douglas Peterson, Gorica Zerafa, Joe Mecozzi, Dean Smith, Barry Coke, John Vitkuske
The commercial validation of a optimized RRIM polyurethane substrate with a novel barrier coat for fascia applications is reviewed which creates cost competitiveness to thermoplastic olefins (TPO), without sacrificing performance. Meeting fascia performance requirements with thinner and lighter RRIM materials containing recyclate and the subsequent application of a barrier coat eliminating the traditional primecoat cycle was investigated.
Technical Paper
Dietrich Brockmann, Rainer Spitzner, Andreas Lutz
The application of crash durable structural adhesives in modern cars design, to improve the driving durability, the overall vehicle stiffness, the crash resistance and to make real light weight constructions feasible is significantly gaining in importance. 1-component systems are already introduced in the market and used in automotive industries. Usually the use of these bonds in automotive industries is limited by a relatively low wash off resistance in the pre-treatment tanks of the paint shop. If no additional actions are taken, there is a severe risk of wash off of the adhesives up to the partial loss in functionality. Respectively contamination of the pre-treatment tanks and aftereffects damage the surface of the coated cars. To avoid wash off a thermal process (oven) to pre-gel the adhesive in the flanges of the Body-In-White (BIW)- bodies before entering the pre-treatment utility is necessary. This is a save but cost intensive solution.
Technical Paper
Cheng G Li, Frank Mao, Steven B. Swartzmiller, Sten A. Wallin, Robin R. Ziebarth
A new advanced ceramic material (ACM) has been developed and examined for diesel emission control systems, especially for diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. Lab tests have shown that ACM possesses suitable mechanical and chemical properties for a durable DPF. Engine dynamometer tests have shown that a DPF made from ACM possesses high performance in the key application requirements of high filtration efficiency, low filtration back pressure, fast regeneration, and suitability for catalyst coating applications. The experimental results from this investigation demonstrate that a DPF made from ACM can be used for advanced diesel PM emission control systems, including potential four-way diesel catalytic converter systems.
Technical Paper
Dev Barpanda, Michelle L. Boven, Mark P. Allen, Frank V. Billotto
The application of two-component polyurethane (PU) foam materials for acoustical and structural performance enhancements in vehicle structures have increased significantly in the past ten years. The benefits include NVH management (through effective cavity sealing), body stiffness improvements and energy management in crash applications. These PU foams can either be pumped into body cavities in the OEM assembly plants (bulk applied) or can be pre-molded into Structural Foam Inserts (SFI) and installed in the body-shop prior to full frame assembly. The choice of application type depends on vehicle-specific requirements and assembly plant criteria. The chemistry, plant application and benefits associated with bulk PU foam has already been cited in previous work.1, 2, 3 This paper showcases BETAFOAM™ SFI technology developed by Dow Automotive that complements traditional bulk foam technology.
Technical Paper
Gerhard Slik, Gavin Vogel, Onkar Bijjargi
To meet automotive legal, consumer and insurance test requirements, the process for designing energy absorption countermeasures usually comprises Finite Element simulations of the specified test. Finite element simulations are used first to see if there is a need for an Energy Absorption countermeasure at all and if so, what type, material and shape. A widely used class of energy absorption countermeasures in automotive interior applications is honeycomb extruded polypropylene foams (HXPP). Under compression, these foams exhibit a constant plateau stress until late densification. This enables these foams to minimize packaging space for a given amount of energy to be absorbed or maximize energy absorption for a given packaging space. Robust and easy to use isotropic CAE material models have been developed for HXPP, however the true material properties are anisotropic and such a material model could be necessary in some cases.
Technical Paper
Brad A. Pearson
Low density polyurethane foam, applied in general assembly, is being used as a replacement for rubber-based heat reactive baffles in automobile cavities to inhibit noise transmittance. Most chemically reactive urethane foam systems used in barrier applications are MDI-based (diphenylmethane diisocyanate). The use of classical MDI-based technology in assembly plants typically requires substantial levels of ventilation [1]. High capital and operating expenses associated with plant ventilation systems have hindered the growth of polyurethane technology. This paper describes benefits of using a low MDI polyurethane foam system in place of classical two-component MDI-based foam systems and conventional rubber-based heat reactive baffles. Severe industrial hygiene testing has indicated that ventilation requirements to use the low MDI foam system in assembly plants may be greatly reduced.
Technical Paper
Luis Lorenzo, Padraig Naughton, Hein Koelman
Since their introduction in automobiles, polymeric materials have enabled designers and engineers to differentiate products based on performance attributes, mechanical response, aesthetics, and manufacturing techniques. A large segment of these applications utilizes polypropylene (PP) resins. One of the attractive features of PP polymers is the ability to tailor their mechanical, thermal and processing performance envelope via modification of their composition and the addition of fillers. Key to the successful application of PP resins in structural systems is the ability of designers and engineers to understand the material response and to properly model the behavior of PP structures upon different mechanical and thermal loading conditions.
Technical Paper
Luis Lorenzo, Padraig Naughton
Automotive manufacturers are driving for improvement, creativity and innovation in vehicle systems in order to differentiate products in the global market. Progress in fuel efficiency, occupant safety, comfort, recyclable friendly pre-assembled modular systems, and novel manufacturing methods is difficult to achieve if no major departure from the traditional design, engineering, material mix, and assembly approaches is considered. More importantly, these benefits will not materialize unless the relationship between automotive manufacturers and suppliers changes, allowing suppliers to take a more active role in the vehicle development process. The present paper explores achievements made towards the development of new, innovative technologies to address simplification and overall performance improvements using non-traditional materials.
Technical Paper
Pádraig Naughton, Peter Cate
An approach to a solution to conflicts of interest posed by new pedestrian safety requirements is presented here. The effects of various design parameters on pedestrian safety, and the resulting influence on other requirements are examined. Limitations and possible solution envelopes are determined with regard to styling, packaging and functionality. Material choice and the stiffness of the structure are used as variables to fine-tune the system. The paper explores the effects of using current front-end materials and new material options versus what can be achieved by modifying or developing designs and structures to fulfil the set of conflicting requirements. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques are used extensively for this work, in order to determine the sensitivity of the behaviour of front-end systems to design and material characteristics.
Technical Paper
Vikas Gupta, Mick Heckert, Jane Palmieri, Greg Korchnak, Eric Kurtycz, Mansour Mirdamadi
An innovative seat back design for fold down split-rear seat backs has been developed for application in SUV’s, MPV’s and hatchbacks. The all-thermoplastic seat back design meets US and European government regulations such as, the FMVSS 210, 207 in the US, and ECE 17 (luggage retention) in Europe. It is also expected to meet the newly introduced FMVSS 225 (child seat belt tether load) requirement. Currently application of the blow molded seat back is limited to sedans where the seat belt anchor loads are transmitted to a steel package shelf. For applications where the seat-belt anchor loads are transmitted to the seat back, hefty steel frame and reinforcements are required which add weight and cost to the seat back. The same is true for seats that need to comply with the European luggage retention requirement.
Technical Paper
Scott T. Burr, Gavin D. Vogel
Federal legislation for head impact protection in upper automotive interiors (FMVSS 201U) has presented a unique energy management problem for the automotive industry. Due to extremely tight packaging conditions, energy absorbers are required to have efficiencies which exceed those of traditional foam materials, and force the development of new methods of energy absorption. The push toward shortened design cycle times has required the use of predictive engineering tools such as finite element analysis. Predictive tools which can accurately drive design direction reduce design cycle times, costs associated with multiple prototype part builds, and costs associated with physical testing. Over the last few years, the inclusion of FMVSS 201U energy absorbing countermeasures in the upper interior trim has been largely experimental in nature, yielding solutions which are costly in both time and money.
Technical Paper
Nigel Shields, Philippe J. Sabat
Polyamide resins are well established within the automotive industry and are widely used in a range of demanding under-the-hood applications such as valve covers and air intake manifolds. In reality however, the disadvantages of conventional nylon products, such as excessive warpage and poor dimensional stability to name but two, make it increasingly difficult for engineers to produce the ever more complex parts demanded by new engine developments. In this paper we shall introduce a new range of modified Dow Polyamide resins that greatly reduce the above mentioned disadvantages. In comparisons with commercially available nylon 6 and 66 materials we shall illustrate improved warpage behaviour and lower moisture pick-up in combination with excellent chemical resistance to, for example, hot motor oil and ethylene glycol. In summation, examples will be provided to illustrate the improved utility of these new, modified Dow Polyamide resins.
Technical Paper
Detlef Symietz
Car manufacturers continue to strive to find creative routes to differentiate their vehicles while continuing to reduce cost. Acoustic comfort derived from high performance sprayable dampener systems is one important option for OEM's to differentiate their models. But there is a significant conflict between high performance, low cost and vehicle weight reduction. This paper describes an innovative vibration dampening material resin. It is a one part, reactive, solvent free, sprayable, epoxy based technology using a unique polymer resin with reduced safety labeling requirements. Good corrosion protection and oil absorption characteristics allow this resin to be applied in either the body or paint shop facilities. Benchmarking against the existing dampener type in the areas of damping performance, process costs, ease of application and environment/health aspects shows that this new generation of epoxy damper is superior to other current damper coatings.
Technical Paper
Luis Lorenzo, Pádraig Naughton
Modular front-end carriers to pre-assemble front-end components such as cooling systems, lights, and bumper beam have been in production in different vehicles for several years. Compression molded or overmolded steel/plastic carriers have traditionally been used. The present paper explains the design, material options, and engineering optimization of a composite front-end carrier, which utilizes long glass fiber injection moldable resins and adhesively bonded steel reinforcements. Experimental evaluation of prototypes shows the system met the functional performance requirements at minimum weight.
Technical Paper
Frank V. Billotto, Mansour M. Mirdamadi, Brad A. Pearson
The use of two-component polyurethane foam materials to improve sealing, stiffness, and crash performance in vehicle structures has increased significantly in the past 10 years. The proven cost and performance advantages associated with polyurethane chemistry, along with recent development efforts by Dow Automotive to minimize industrial hygiene concerns traditionally associated with polyurethane use [1], have resulted in increased activities associated with design, application development, and launch of foam systems in the automotive industry. This paper describes the key considerations that must be addressed to successfully incorporate polyurethane foams into vehicle structures from design, application development, and launch perspectives.
Technical Paper
Jay Tudor
Extensional damping materials are commonly used in the automotive industry to control structure-borne noise. Using the dynamic properties of the material or composite panel, these materials can be represented in vehicle finite element or statistical energy analysis (SEA) models. However, in order to make the detailed design changes to the damping material treatment, proper characterization of the material properties is required. This paper discusses the method of measuring and validating the complex modulus of an extensional damping material using the Oberst beam technique [1]. Also, it is shown that the Ross, Kerwin, Ungar (RKU) analytical model can be utilized to predict damping of composite panels for SEA models [2]. SEA modeling of various composite panel constructions will be examined with supporting measurements.
Technical Paper
Frank V. Billotto, Dan Sophiea
Recently, automotive engineers have been looking at rigid polyurethane foam systems for the advantages their application brings to vehicle design and performance. The benefits range from NVH management achieved through effective body cavity sealing and improved structural dynamics, to enhanced vehicle crashworthiness. These benefits can be realized through application of polyurethane foam systems designed for energy management. These systems offer multifunctional, low cost solutions to traditional approaches and can be modeled early in the vehicle design stage. In many cases, the overall vehicle mass is reduced as reinforcements are eliminated and/or sheet metal thickness is decreased. Dow Automotive has developed a family of water blown polyurethane foams specifically for these applications. Development has focused on foam systems designed for impact optimization, allowing OEM's to optimize the body structure content.
Viewing 1 to 21 of 21


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