Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
Technical Paper
Chinmaya Patil, Michael olson, Benjamin Morris, Clark Fortune, Bapiraju Surampudi, Joe Redfield, Heather Gruenewald
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
Technical Paper
Otto J. Schultheis, Tony Gordon, Richard Metcalf
An advanced variable valve actuation system is developed that requires a coating with high stress loading capability on the sliding interfaces to enable compact packaging solutions for gasoline passenger car applications. The valvetrain system consists of a switching roller bearing finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve. The SRFF contains two slider pads and a single roller to provide discrete variable valve lift capability on the intake valves. These components are installed on a four cylinder gasoline engine. The motivation for designing this type of variable valve actuation system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during partial load engine operation. This paper addresses the technology developed to utilize a Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the slider pads of the SRFF.
Journal Article
Geethanjali Gadamchetty, Abhijeet Pandey, Majnoo Gawture
The three parameter Ramberg-Osgood (RO) method finds popular usage for extracting complete stress-strain curve from limited data which is usually available. The currently popular practice of assuming the plasticity to set in only at the Yield point provides computational advantage by separating the complete nonlinear curve, obtained from RO method, into elastic and plastic regions. It is shown, with an example problem, that serious errors are committed by using this method if one compares the obtained results with results of complete stress-strain curve. In the present work we propose a simple Taylor series based approach based on RO method to overcome the above deficiency. This method is found to be computationally efficient. The proposed method is applicable for stress-strain curves of materials for which RO method provides a good approximation.
Technical Paper
Xubin Song, Thomas Genise, Daniel G. Smedley
ADVISOR is a flexible drivetrain analysis tool, developed in MATLAB/Simulink® to compare fuel economy and emissions performance between different drivetrain configurations. This paper reports a couple of numerical issues with application of ADVISOR 2002 to commercial vehicles with traditional powertrain systems. One instance is when ADVISOR model is set up to simulate running a heavy-duty (HD) truck with an automated manual transmission (AMT) on a demanding pickup-delivery duty cycle. The other is highlighted during an analysis of a medium-duty (MD) truck with an automatic transmission (AT) where wide-open throttle, i.e., fast acceleration is requested. These two cases have shown different numerical difficulties by using ADVISOR 2002. Based on studying the details of the models, solutions to these numerical issues are developed. The simulation results will demonstrate the effectiveness of these solutions.
Technical Paper
Haoran Hu, Johannes Reuter, John Yan, James McCarthy
This paper describes a NOx aftertreatment system and control strategy for heavy-duty diesel engines to achieve US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. The NOx aftertreatment system comprises of a fuel reformer catalyst, a LNT catalyst, and a SCR catalyst. The only reductant required to operate this system is diesel fuel; hence, no urea infrastructure is required to support this approach. The fuel reformer is used to generate reformate which is a combination of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. This reformate provides a more efficient feedstock to improve LNT NOx regeneration efficiency. Engine out NOx is reduced using a two-step process. First, NOx is stored in the LNT catalyst during lean operation. During rich operation, portions of the stored NOx are converted to nitrogen and ammonia. Next, the ammonia released from the LNT is captured by the downstream SCR catalyst. The stored ammonia is further used to reduce the NOx that slips past the LNT catalyst.
Technical Paper
James David, Narasimhamurthi Natarajan
Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper
Scott A. Herbst
In an effort to improve the reliability of electronic control modules used to automate operation of trucks, a database was conceived to aid in the proper selection of electronic components. An accompanying application program provided a means of information exchange between the user and the database, while controlling (accessing, updating, and navigating through) the database.
Technical Paper
Ron Tonn, Jerry Carlin
Car hauler ramps have historically been hydraulically positioned via banks of manual control valves that provide limited operator visibility and flexibility. On some enclosed type haulers, manual valves are not feasible. An electro-hydraulic system has been developed utilizing on/off solenoid valve stacks. A handheld control unit with a membrane switch pad communicates with a valve interface module near each valve stack. The handheld unit and the interface modules each have microprocessor circuitry to provide intelligent distributed control. Self monitoring circuitry provides safety features and system diagnostics. Wiring harness assemblies connect the valve stacks to the interface modules. A retractile cable from the handheld unit to the trailer allows improved operator mobility and visibility. An infrared wireless interface between the trailer and handheld unit will also be available.
Journal Article
Christian Chimner
An LNT + SCR diesel aftertreatment system was developed in order to meet the 2010 US HD EPA on-road, and tier 4 US HD EPA off-road emission standards. This system consists of a fuel reformer (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series to reduce tailpipe nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). This system utilizes a REF to produce hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and heat to regenerate the LNT, desulfate the LNT, and actively regenerate the DPF. The NOx stored on the LNT is reduced by the H2 and CO generated in the REF converting it to nitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3). NH3, which is normally an undesired byproduct of LNT regeneration, is stored in the downstream SCR which is utilized to further reduce NOx that passes through the LNT. Engine exhaust PM is filtered and trapped by the DPF reducing the tailpipe PM emissions.
Journal Article
Erik C. Dykes
The paper covers the NOx performance evaluation of an LNT + SCR system designed to meet the 2010 on-highway heavy-duty (HD) US EPA emission standards. The system combines a fuel reformer catalyst (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in series, to reduce engine-out NOx and PM. System NOx reduction performance was verified in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 2007 7.6L medium-duty engine. System NOx performance was characterized using fresh LNT and SCR along with hydrothermal aged LNT and fresh SCR. Test results show levels consistent with EPA 2010 limits under various test conditions. Catalysts performance was characterized at eight steady engine-operating conditions (A100, B50, B75, A75, B100, C100, C75, C50, across a 13-mode Supplemental Emission Test (SET), and an on-highway Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure (HD-FTP).
Technical Paper
Karen E. Bevan, William Taylor
An aftertreatment system for medium and heavy-duty diesel engines has been modeled for U.S. 2010 application. The aftertreatment system is comprised of a lean NOx trap (LNT) and an ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Descriptions of the fully transient, one-dimensional LNT and SCR models are presented. The models simulate flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions in the LNT and SCR catalysts. The models can be used to predict catalyst performance over a range of operating conditions and driving cycles. Simulated results of NOx conversion efficiency, species concentrations, and gas temperature were compared to experimental data for a 13-mode test. The model results showed the LNT-SCR model predicts system performance with reasonable accuracy in comparison to experimental data. Therefore, two model applications were investigated. First, LNT and SCR volumes were varied to examine the effect on NOx conversion efficiency and NH3 production.
Technical Paper
N. Battersby, R.T. Dixon, S. Greenall, C.W. Watson, K.J. Young, J. Ehn, T. Marougy
Biodegradable hydraulic fluids have been introduced relatively recently and, initially, acceptable environmental performance and technical performance were neither well specified or controlled. Over the past few years, many standards and specifications have been written, especially in the area of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. Technical performance test requirements are emerging more slowly, however, and there is still some doubt over appropriate tests and limits for some performance areas. The proliferation of standards is confusing to both the product developer and fluid user. This paper summarizes the common biodegradability and ecotoxicity elements in the main environmental performance standards. It also discusses appropriate laboratory performance tests for oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and wear, and sets acceptable limits in these tests, based on correlation of lab and field performance of two synthetic ester based hydraulic fluids.
Technical Paper
John Skibinski, Jim Trainor, Chad Reed
A number of different data networks have been implemented for electronic control unit communication in vehicles to date. Each network serves a particular need, such as low-cost networking of cab components or high-speed networking of powertrain components. Although each communication network performs its original purpose, the different communication networks, especially those using hardware-based messaging protocols, are expensive to integrate for information sharing and are not readily upgradeable with new messages. This is complicated by the growing number of different communication networks for vehicles, often driven by OEM and supplier technology consortiums rather than by end-user requirements. The result is added vehicle-support costs for the OEM, dealership and customer to maintain multiple networks.
Technical Paper
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
Technical Paper
Evan Ngan, Philip Wetzel, James McCarthy JR, Yong Yue, Budhadeb Mahakul
Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are required for meeting Final Tier 4 emission regulations. This paper addresses an aftertreatment system designed to meet the Final Tier 4 emission standards for nonroad vehicle markets. The aftertreatment system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel vaporizer, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an optional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Aftertreatment system performance, both with and without the SCR, was characterized in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 4.5 liter, pre-production diesel engine. The engine out NOx nominally ranged between 1.6 and 2.0 g/kW-hr while all operating modes ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 g/kW-hr. The engine out particulate matter was calibrated to approximately 0.1 g/kW-hr for various power ratings. Three engine power ratings of 104 kW, 85 kW and 78 kW were evaluated.
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. Presenter Chinmaya Patil, Eaton Corporation
Viewing 1 to 16 of 16


    • Range:
    • Year: