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Viewing 1 to 30 of 40
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1153
Xander Seykens, Frank Willems, Berry Kuijpers, Clint Rietjens
This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is considered to be standard for engine testing. The potential of the automated fit tool is demonstrated for two different heavy-duty diesel engines. This demonstrates that the combustion model and model fit methodology is not engine specific. Comparison of model and experimental results shows accurate prediction of in-cylinder peak pressure, IMEP, CA10, and CA50 over a wide operating range. This makes the model suitable for closed-loop combustion control development. However, NO emission prediction has to be improved.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0036
Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot, Philip de Goey, Maurizio Bosi, Lucio Postrioti
In an earlier study, a novel type of diesel fuel injector was proposed. This prototype injects fuel via porous (sintered) micro pores instead of via the conventional 6-8 holes. The micro pores are typically 10-50 micrometer in diameter, versus 120-200 micrometer in the conventional case. The expected advantages of the so-called Porous Fuel Air Mixing Enhancing Nozzle (PFAMEN) injector are lower soot- and CO2 emissions. However, from previous in-house measurements, it has been concluded that the emissions of the porous injector are still not satisfactory. Roughly, this may have multiple reasons. The first one is that the spray distribution is not good enough, the second one is that the droplet sizing is too big due to the lack of droplet breakup. Furthermore air entrainment into the fuel jets might be insufficient. All reasons lead to fuel rich zones and associated soot formation.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0103
Gerben Doornbos, Joop Somhorst, Michael Boot
A Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion strategy was developed and showed its capabilities in the heavy duty single cylinder test-cell, resulting in indicated efficiencies up to 50% and low engine out emissions applying to EU VI and US 10 legislations while the soot remained at a controllable 1.5 FSN. For this concept a single-cylinder CI-engine was used running at a lambda of ∼1.6 and EGR levels of ∼50% and a modified injection strategy. Part of this strategy was also the use of a gasoline blended with an ignition improver, giving the blend a cetane number in the range of regular diesel; ∼50. In this paper a step is taken towards implementation of this combustion concept into a multi-cylinder light duty standalone CI-engine. A standard CI-engine was modified so that its gas-exchange system could deliver the requested amounts of EGR and lambda.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0099
Gerben Doornbos, Joop Somhorst, Michael Boot
A literature and experimental study was done to create an overview of the behavior of gasoline combusted in a CI-engine. This paper creates a first overview of the work to be done before implementing this Gasoline Compression Ignition concept in a multi-cylinder engine. According to literature the gasoline blend will have advantages over diesel. First the shorter molecular chain of the gasoline makes it less prone to soot. Second the lower density gives the gasoline a higher nozzle exit speed resulting in better mixing capabilities. Third the lower density and higher volatility lets the spray length decrease. This lowers the chance of wall-impingement, but creates worse mixing conditions looking from a spray point of view. The CO and HC emissions tend to increase relative to operation with diesel fuel, NOx emissions largely depend on the choice of combustion strategy and could be influenced by the nitrogen bound to the EHN molecule that is used as an ignition improver.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1304
P.C. Bakker, J.E. De Abreu Goes, L.M.T. Somers, B.H. Johansson
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion is known for reduced hazardous emissions and improved efficiency. Since a low-reactive fuel is required to extend the ignition delay at elevated loads, controllability and stability issues occur at the low-load end. In this investigation seven fuel blends are used, all having a Research Octane Number of around 70 and a distinct composition or boiling range. Four of them could be regarded as ‘viable refinery fuels’ since they are based on current refinery feedstocks. The latter three are based on primary reference fuels, being PRF70 and blends with ethanol and toluene respectively. Previous experiments revealed significant ignition differences, which asked for further understanding with an extended set of measurements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine modified for single cylinder operation. In this investigation, emphasis is put on idling (600 rpm) and low load conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0963
Miao Tian, Robin Van Haaren, Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot
Abstract Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead. Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0872
Serkan Kulah, Tijs Donkers, Frank Willems
Abstract Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is widely introduced for passenger cars. Benefits include enhanced emission robustness to fuel quality variation, reduced fuel consumption due to more accurate (multi-pulse) fuel injection, and minimized after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced, high-efficient combustion concepts. The application in truck engines is foreseen, but challenges need to be overcome related to durability, increased system costs, and impact on the cylinder head. In this paper, a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty Diesel engines is presented. Compared to previous studies, this work focuses on heavy-duty Diesel powertrains, which are characterized by a relatively flexible crank shaft in contrast to the existing passenger car applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0392
Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Abdul Aziz Nuraini
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion technology has demonstrated a profound potential to decrease both emissions and fuel consumption. In this way, the significance of the 2-stroke HCCI engine has been underestimated as it can provide more power stroke in comparison to a 4-stroke engine. Moreover, the mass of trapped residual gases is much larger in a 2-stroke engine, causing higher initial charge temperatures, which leads to easier auto-ignition. For controlling 2-stroke HCCI engines, it is vital to find optimized simulation approaches of HCCI combustion with a focus on ignition timing. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model for a 2-stroke gasoline engine was developed coupled to a semi-detailed chemical mechanism of iso-octane to investigate the simulation capability of the considered chemical mechanism and the effects of different simulation parameters such as the turbulence model, grid density and time step size.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2774
Uwe Horn, Helena Persson, Rolf Egnell, Öivind Andersson, Erik Rijk
A transparent HSDI CI engine was used together with a high speed camera to analyze the liquid phase spray geometry of the fuel types: Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy Methyl Ester (B100), n-Heptane (PRF0) and a gas-to-liquid derivate (GTL) with a distillation range similar to B100. The study of the transient liquid-phase spray propagation was performed at gas temperatures and pressures typical for start of injection conditions of a conventional HSDI CI engine. Inert gas was supplied to the transparent engine in order to avoid self-ignition at these cylinder gas conditions. Observed differences in liquid phase spray geometry were correlated to relevant fuel properties. An empirical relation was derived for predicting liquid spray cone angle and length prior to ignition.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0063
R.H.L. Eichhorn, M.D. Boot, C.C.M. Luijten
In the port injected Spark Ignition (SI) engine, the single greatest part load efficiency reducing factor are energy losses over the throttle valve. The need for this throttle valve arises from the fact that engine power is controlled by the amount of air in the cylinders, since combustion occurs stoichiometrically in this type of engine. In WEDACS (Waste Energy Driven Air Conditioning System), a technology patented by the Eindhoven University of Technology, the throttle valve is replaced by a turbine-generator combination. The turbine is used to control engine power. Throttling losses are recovered by the turbine and converted to electrical energy. Additionally, when air expands in the turbine, its temperature decreases and it can be used to cool air conditioning fluid. As a result, load of the alternator and air conditioning compressor on the engine is decreased or even eliminated, which increases overall engine efficiency.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0121
Ruud Eichhorn, T.H.W. willekens, Michael Boot, David Smeulders
To increase the efficiency of a Variable Geometry Turbine at low massflow rates the vaneless space of the vanes is reduced. It is researched if this modification can reduce turbo lag. A turbine with modified vane ring is installed in the exhaust of a naturally aspirated engine and wide open throttle accelerations are performed to test the turbine performance. The new (reduced vaneless space) vane configuration induced a lower exhaust backpressure which allowed the engine to accelerate faster. The acceleration from 1500 to 3000 RPM was an average of 8 % faster for the new vane configuration. This in turn increased the massflow rate through the turbine which caused the power available to the turbine to be similar in compared vane rings. The initial turbine speeds was lower for the new vane configuration but it quickly caught up with the conventional configuration because the turbine acceleration was higher. The turbine efficiency was higher for the new vane configuration in most cases.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1683
C.A.J. Leermakers, P.C. Bakker, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey, B.H. Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of high efficiency, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot below future emissions regulations, and acceptable acoustic noise. Low-octane-number gasoline fuels were shown to be most suitable for this concept, with the reactivity determining the possible load range. Other researchers have used several refinery streams, which might be produced by a refinery if they were required to do so without additional investment. Some of refinery streams are, however, not expected to be commercially available on the short term. For the present investigation, n-butanol (BuOH) has been selected as a blend component in diesel, and is used from 50 - 100%. The blends then have a reactivity range similar to the refinery streams, so single-cylinder engine tests for their emission and efficiency performance can also be used to determine their applicable load range.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1681
C.A.J. Leermakers, P.C. Bakker, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey, B.H. Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot with a simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency. Several research groups have shown that a load range from idle to full load is possible, when using low-octane-number refinery streams, in the gasoline boiling range. As such refinery streams are not expected to be commercially available on the short term, the use of naphtha blends that are commercially available could provide a practical solution. The three blends used in this investigation have been tested in a single-cylinder engine for their emission and efficiency performance. Besides a presentation of the sensitivity to injection strategies, dilution levels and fuel pressure, emission performance is compared to legislated emission levels. Conventional diesel combustion benchmarks are used for reference to show possible improvements in indicated efficiency.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1108
Sridhar Ayyapureddi, Ulaş Egüz, Cemil Bekdemir, Bart Somers, Philip de Goey, Bogdan Albrecht
The wide range of diesel engine operating conditions demand for a robust combustion model to account for inherent changes. In this work, the Flamelet Generate Manifold (FGM) approach is applied, in STAR-CD framework, to simulate the conventional injection- and early injection-timing (PCCI like) combustion regimes. Igniting Counter flow Diffusion Flamelets (ICDFs) and Homogeneous Reactors (HRs) are used to tabulate chemistry for conventional and PCCI combustion modes, respectively. The validation of the models with experimental data shows that the above consideration of chemistry tabulation results in accurate ignition delay predictions. The study reveals that a moderate amount of 5 different pressure levels is necessary to include in the FGM database to capture the ignition delay in both combustion regimes.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1749
Rutger Dijkstra, Michael Boot, Ruud Eichhorn, David Smeulders, Johan Lennblad, Alexander Serrarens
An experimental analysis was executed on a NA (Natural Aspirated) 4-stroke gasoline engine to investigate the potential of exhaust waste energy recovery using power turbine technology for light duty application. Restrictions with decreasing diameter were mounted in the exhaust to simulate different vane positions of a VGT (Variable Geometry Turbine) and in-cylinder pressure measurements were performed to evaluate the effect of increased exhaust back pressure on intake- and exhaust pumping losses and on engine performance. Test points in the engine map were chosen on the basis of high residence time for the vehicle during the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle). The theoretically retrievable power was calculated in case a turbine is mounted instead of a restriction and the net balance was obtained between pumping power losses and recovered energy.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1056
Lei Zhou, M.D. Boot, C.C.M. Luijten, C.A.J. Leermakers, N.J. Dam, L.P.H. de Goey
In earlier research, a new class of bio-fuels, so-called cyclic oxygenates, was reported to have a favorable impact on the soot-NOx trade-off experience in diesel engines. In this paper, the soot-NOx trade-off is compared for two types of cyclic oxygenates. 2-phenyl ethanol has an aromatic and cyclohexane ethanol a saturated or aliphatic ring structure. Accordingly, the research is focused on the effect of aromaticity on the aforementioned emissions trade-off. This research is relevant because, starting from lignin, a biomass component with a complex poly-aromatic structure, the production of 2-phenyl ethanol requires less hydrogen and can therefore be produced at lower cost than is the case for cyclohexane ethanol.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0869
A.M.L.M. Wagemakers, C.A.J. Leermakers
In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct-injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the use of liquid diesel. These gaseous fuels have more gasoline-like properties, such as high octane numbers, and thereby are resistant against auto-ignition. Diesel on the other hand, has a high cetane number which makes it prone to auto-ignition. In this case the gaseous fuel is injected in the inlet manifold, and the diesel is direct injected in the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. Thereby the diesel fuel spontaneously ignites and acts as an ignition source. The main goals for the use of a dual-fuel operation with diesel and gaseous fuels are the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0157
Ulaş Egüz, Sridhar Ayyapureddi, Cemil Bekdemir, Bart Somers, Philip de Goey
The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) method is a promising technique in engine combustion modeling to include tabulated chemistry. Different methodologies can be used for the generation of the manifold. Two approaches, based on igniting counterflow diffusion flamelets (ICDF) and homogeneous reactors (HR) are implemented and compared with Engine Combustion Network (ECN) experimental database for the baseline n-heptane case. Before analyzing the combustion results, the spray model is optimized after performing a sensitivity study with respect to turbulence models, cell sizes and time steps. The standard High Reynolds (Re) k-ε model leads to the best match of all turbulence models with the experimental data. For the convergence of the mixture fraction field an appropriate cell size is found to be smaller than that for an adequate spray penetration length which appears to be less influenced by the cell size.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1579
R.P.C. Zegers, J.E.E. Aussems, L.M.T. Somers, N.J. Dam, C.C.M. Luijten, L.P.H. de Goey
Controlling ignition delay is the key to successfully enable partially premixed combustion in diesel engines. This paper presents experimental results of partially premixed combustion in an optically accessible engine, using primary reference fuels in combination with artificial exhaust gas recirculation. By changing the fuel composition and oxygen concentration, the ignition delay is changed. To determine the position of the flame front, high-speed visualization of OH-chemiluminescence is used, enabling a cycle-resolved analysis of OH formation. A clear correlation is observed between ignition delay and flame location. The mixing of fuel and air during the ignition delay period defines the local equivalence ratio, which is estimated based on a spherical combustion volume for each spray. The corresponding emission measurements using fast-response analyzers of CO, HC and NOX confirm the decrease in local equivalence ratio as a function of ignition delay.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2385
Uwe Horn, Rolf Egnell, Öivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Erik Rijk
An HSDI Diesel engine was fuelled with standard Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy methyl ester (B100) and n-heptane (PRF0) to study the effects of both operating conditions and fuel properties on engine performance, resulting emissions and spray characteristics. All experiments were based on single injection diesel combustion. A load sweep was carried out between 2 and 10 bar IMEPg. For B100, a loss in combustion efficiency as well as ITE was observed at low load conditions. Observed differences in exhaust emissions were related to differences in mixing properties and spray characteristics. For B100, the emission results differed strongest at low load conditions but converged to MK1-like results with increasing load and increasing intake pressures. For these cases, spray geometry calculations indicated a longer spray tip penetration length. For low-density fuels (PRF0) the spray spreading angle was higher.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2018
Michael D. Boot, Peter J.M. Frijters, Robert J.H. Klein-Douwel, Rik S.G. Baert
This paper reports on a study of a large number of blends of a low-sulfur EN-590 type diesel fuel respectively of a Swedish Class 1 fuel and of a synthetic diesel with different types of oxygenates. Oxygen mass fraction of the blends varied between 0 and 15 %. For comparison, the fuel matrix was extended with non-oxygenated blends including a diesel/water emulsion. Tests were performed on a modern multi-cylinder HD DAF engine equipped with cooled EGR for enabling NOx-levels between 2.0 and 3.5 g/kWh on EN-590 diesel fuel. Additional tests were done on a Volvo Euro-2 type HD engine with very low PM emission. Finally, for some blends, combustion progress and soot illumination was registered when tested on a single cylinder research engine with optical access. The results confirm the importance of oxygen mass fraction of the fuel blend, but at the same time illustrate the effect of chemical structure: some oxygenates are twice as effective in reducing PM as other well-known oxygenates.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0665
M. D. Boot, C. C. M. Luijten, L. M. T. Somers, U. Eguz, D. D. T. M. van Erp, A. Albrecht, R. S. G. Baert
Collision of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) is one of the main hurdles that must be overcome in order for early direct injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion to become a viable alternative for conventional DI diesel combustion. Preferably, the prevention of wall-wetting should be realized in a way of selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than mechanical modification of an engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.). This paper presents the effect of external uncooled EGR (different fraction) on wall-wetting issues specified by two parameters, i.e. measured smoke number (experiment) and liquid spray penetration (model).
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0683
X. L. J. Seykens, R. S. G. Baert, L. M. T. Somers, F. P. T. Willems
A computationally efficient engine model is developed based on an extended NO emission model and state-of-the-art soot model. The model predicts exhaust NO and soot emission for both conventional and advanced, high-EGR (up to 50 %), heavy-duty DI diesel combustion. Modeling activities have aimed at limiting the computational effort while maintaining a sound physical/chemical basis. The main inputs to the model are the fuel injection rate profile, in-cylinder pressure data and trapped in-cylinder conditions together with basic fuel spray information. Obtaining accurate values for these inputs is part of the model validation process which is thoroughly described. Modeling results are compared with single-cylinder as well as multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine data. NO and soot level predictions show good agreement with measurement data for conventional and high-EGR combustion with conventional timing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0761
Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Nico Dam, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept for future IC engines. However, controllability of PPC is still a challenge and needs more investigation. The scope of the present study is to investigate the ignition sensitivity of PPC to the injection timing at different injection pressures. To better understand this, high-speed shadowgraphy is used to visualize fuel injection and evaporation at different Start of Injections (SOI). Spray penetration and injection targeting are derived from shadowgraphy movies. OH* chemiluminescence is used to comprehensively study the stratification level of combustion which is helpful for interpretation of ignition sensitivity behavior. Shadowgraphy results confirm that SOI strongly affects the spray penetration and evaporation of fuel. However, spray penetration and ignition sensitivity are barely affected by the injection pressure.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0725
P.C. Bakker, R.C. Willems, N.J. Dam
Abstract Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a well-established technique for tracking soot, potentially enabling soot volume fraction determination. To obtain crank angle resolved data from a single cycle, a multi-kHz system should be applied. Such an approach, however, imposes certain challenges in terms of application and interpretation. The present work intends to apply such a high-speed system to an optically-accessible, compression ignition engine. Possible problems with sublimation, local gas heating or other multishot effects have been studied on an atmospheric co-flow burner prior to the engine experiments. It was found that, in this flame, fluences around 0.1 J/cm2 provide the best balance between signal-tobackground ratio, and soot sublimation. This fluence is well below the plateau regime of LII, which poses additional problems with interpretation of the signal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0998
Shuli Wang, Xinda Zhu, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0861
Noud Maes, Nico Dam, Bart Somers, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Gilles Hardy
Abstract The modeling of fuel sprays under well-characterized conditions relevant for heavy-duty Diesel engine applications, allows for detailed analyses of individual phenomena aimed at improving emission formation and fuel consumption. However, the complexity of a reacting fuel spray under heavy-duty conditions currently prohibits direct simulation. Using a systematic approach, we extrapolate available spray models to the desired conditions without inclusion of chemical reactions. For validation, experimental techniques are utilized to characterize inert sprays of n-dodecane in a high-pressure, high-temperature (900 K) constant volume vessel with full optical access. The liquid fuel spray is studied using high-speed diffused back-illumination for conditions with different densities (22.8 and 40 kg/m3) and injection pressures (150, 80 and 160 MPa), using a 0.205-mm orifice diameter nozzle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0577
Bersan Akkurt, Hayri Yigit Akargun, L. M. T. Somers, N. G. Deen, Ricardo Novella, Eduardo Javier Pérez-Sánchez
Abstract Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of reacting sprays provides access to information not available even applying the most advanced experimental techniques. This is particularly evident if the combustion model handles detailed chemical kinetic models efficiently to describe the fuel auto-ignition and oxidation processes. Complex chemistry also provides the temporal evolution of key species closely related to emissions formation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are well-known as soot precursors. In this framework, present investigation focuses on the analysis of the so-called Spray-A combustion characteristics using two different flamelet-based combustion models. Both Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) predictions are combined to study not only the averaged spray characteristics, but also the relevance of different realizations in this particular problem.
2009-09-13
Technical Paper
2009-24-0048
M.D. Boot, C.C.M. Luijten, E.P. Rijk, B.A. Albrecht, R.S.G. Baert
Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) is a widely researched combustion concept, which promises soot and CO2 emission levels of a spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine, respectively. Application of this concept to a conventional CI engine using a conventional CI fuel faces a number of challenges. First, EDI has the intrinsic risk of wall-wetting, i.e. collision of fuel against the combustion chamber periphery. Second, engine operation in the EDI regime is difficult to control as auto-ignition timing is largely decoupled from fuel injection timing. In dual-mode PCCI engines (i.e. conventional Dl at high loads) wall-wetting should be prevented by selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than by redesign of the engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.).
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0028
J.J.E. Reijnders, M.D. Boot, C.C.M. Luijten, L.P.H. de Goey, P.J.M. Frijters
One of the challenges with conventional diesel engines is the emission of soot. To reduce soot emission whilst maintaining fuel efficiency, an important pathway is to improve the fuel-air mixing process. This can be achieved by creating small droplets in order to enhance evaporation. Furthermore, the distribution of the droplets in the combustion chamber should be optimized, making optimal use of in-cylinder air. To deal with these requirements a new type of injector is proposed, which has a porous nozzle tip with pore diameters between 1 and 50 μm. First, because of the small pore diameters the droplets will also be small. From literature it is known that (almost) no soot is formed when orifice diameters are smaller than 50 μm. Second, the configuration of the nozzle can be chosen such that the whole cylinder can be filled with fine droplets (i.e., spray angle nearly 180°).
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