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Viewing 1 to 30 of 115
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0868
Qilun Zhu, Shu Wang, Robert Prucka, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
Abstract The highly transient operational nature of passenger car engines makes cylinder pressure based feedback control of combustion phasing difficult. The problem is further complicated by cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A method for fast and accurate differentiation of normal combustion variations and true changes in combustion phasing is addressed in this research. The proposed method combines the results of a feed forward combustion phasing prediction model and “noisy” measurements from cylinder pressure using an iterative estimation technique. A modified version of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to calculate optimal estimation gain according to the stochastic properties of the combustion phasing measurement at the corresponding engine operating condition. Methods to improve steady state CA50 estimation performance and adaptation to errors are further discussed in this research.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0877
Shu Wang, Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
Abstract As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets, they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The additional complexity created by a larger number of control actuators motivates the use of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Combustion phasing, as one of the most important engine combustion metrics, has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. To realize physics-based engine combustion phasing control, an accurate prediction model is required. This research introduces physics-based control-oriented laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity models that can be used in a quasi-dimensional turbulent entrainment combustion model. The influence of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity on predicted mass fraction burned (MFB) profile during combustion is analyzed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0931
Zihan Wang, Andrew Swantek, Riccardo Scarcelli, Daniel Duke, Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, Sibendu Som, Ronald Reese, Kevin Freeman, York Zhu
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1034
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Kenneth Price, Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly, Lin Wang
Significant reduction in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions will be required to meet LEV III/Tier III Emissions Standards for Light Duty Diesel (LDD) passenger vehicles. As such, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are exploring all possible aftertreatment options to find the best balance between performance, durability and cost. The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The critical parameters needed for SCR to work properly are: an appropriate reductant such as ammonia (NH3) provided as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), which is an aqueous urea solution 32.5% concentration in weight with water (CO(NH2)2 + H2O), optimum operating temperatures, and optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to NOx ratios (NO2/NOx). The NO2/NOx ratio is most influenced by Precious Group Metals (PGM) containing catalysts upstream of the SCR catalyst.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1090
Sachin Bhide
Abstract This paper presents a method to model the transmission mechanical power loss for the unloaded and loaded losses on a planetary gearset. In this analysis, the transmission losses are differentiated into losses due to fluid churning; losses due to fluid shear between the walls of rotating parts; losses due to fluid shear between motors' stator and rotor and losses due to the meshing of gearsets while transferring torque. This transmission mechanical power loss model is validated with test data that was obtained by independently testing an eVT transmission. The mechanical power loss model mentioned in this paper was constructed to accurately represent the test setup. From the correlation with the test data, it can be inferred that the transmission losses can be modeled within an error of 3% in the relevant region of output velocity for use in performance and fuel economy simulations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1311
Leland Decker, James Truskin
Abstract As CAFE requirements increase, automotive OEMs are pursuing innovative methods to lightweight their Body In Whites (BIWs). Within FCA US, this lightweighting research and development activity often occurs through Decoupled Innovation projects. A Decoupled Innovation team comprised of engineers from the BIW Structures Group, in collaboration with Tier 1 supplier Magna Exteriors, sought to re-design a loadbearing component on the BIW that would offer significant weight savings when the current steel component was replaced with a carbon fiber composite. This paper describes the design, development, physical validation and partnership that resulted in a composite Rear Package Shelf Assembly solution for a high-volume production vehicle. As the CAFE requirements loom closer and closer, these innovation-driven engineering activities are imperative to the successful lightweighting of FCA US vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0335
Sandeep Makam, Christopher Dubbs, Yeliana Roosien, Feng Lin, William Resh
Abstract Due to ever-tightening CO2 regulations on passenger vehicles, it is necessary to find novel methods to improve powertrain system efficiency. These increases in efficiency should generally be cost effective so that the customer perceives that they add value. One approach for improving system efficiency has been the use of thermal energy management. For example, changing the flow of, or reusing “waste” heat from the powertrain to improve efficiency. Due to the interactions involved with thermal management, a system level approach is useful for exploring, selecting, and developing alternative solutions. It provides a structured approach to augment the right kind of synergies between subsystems and mitigate unintended consequences. However, one challenge with using these approaches early in a program is having appropriate metrics for assessing key aspects of the system behaviors.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Abstract Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0532
Mingchao Guo, Weidong Zhang, Dajun Zhang, Ram Bhandarkar
Abstract This paper describes a CAE fatigue life prediction technique for a tailgate on pickup truck cargo box with inertial forces and moments applied at mass center of the tailgate as input loads. The inertial forces and moments are calculated from the accelerations measured at the corners of the tailgate as the truck is being driven over a durability schedule at the test proving grounds. All the dynamic responses of the tailgate on cargo box, including any dynamic interactions at the pivot joints between the tailgate and box sides, are captured in the acquired data and also in the inertial forces and moments computed at the mass center. Correspondingly, all the dynamic responses are included in the CAE fatigue life predictions. The dynamic interactions at the pivot joints are simulated by using two identical CAE models, one with lateral translational constraint applied at the left pivot only and the other at the right pivot only.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Abstract An accurate bushing model is vital for vehicle dynamic simulation regarding fatigue life prediction. This paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, which gives high precision and fast simulation. The ABM is a time-domain model targeting for vehicle durability simulation. It dynamically captures bushing nonlinearities that occur on stiffness, damping and hysteresis, through a time-history-based fitting technique, compensated with frequency dependency functionality. Among the simulated and test-collected bushing loads, good correlations have been achieved for elastomer bushings and hydraulic engine mounts and validated with a random excitation signal. This ABM model has been integrated into a virtual shaker table (from a parallel project) as the engine mount model to simulate the mount load, and has shown acceptable prediction on fatigue damage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Abstract Automobile companies recognized the need to understand how customers use their vehicles. To this end, telediagnostic modules were installed on fleet vehicles, with the consent of the owner, to collect and store usage data. This data was uploaded to a server when the module was able to communicate via Wi-Fi. The volume of data is enormous. The size of a single vehicle file can be over six gigabytes, contain millions of records, and contain hundreds of millions of measurements. Each vehicle needs to be analyzed and the results from different vehicles combined to determine typical and extreme vehicle usage. With hundreds or thousands of vehicles to be analyzed, the analytic task is daunting. To analyze continuous data, like speed, frequency histograms have been used. It will be shown here that the cumulative percentile histogram provides better information and can display single and multiple vehicle usage patterns.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0662
Weiguo Zhang, Mac Lynch, Robert Reynolds
Abstract A turbocharger is currently widely used to boost performance of an internal combustion engine. Generally, a turbocharger consists of a compressor which typically is driven by an exhaust turbine. The compressor will influence how the low frequency engine pulsation propagates in the intake system. The compressor will also produce broad-band flow induced sound due to the turbulence flow and high frequency narrowband tonal sound which is associated with rotating blade pressures. In this paper, a practical simulation procedure based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is developed to predict the flow induced sound of a turbocharger compressor. In the CFD model of turbocharger compressor, the unsteady, moving wheel, detached eddy simulation (DES) approach are utilized. In this manner, both the broad-band and narrow-band flow induced sound are directly resolved in the CFD computation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0683
Jiman Han, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Xichen Sun
Abstract This paper describes the scuffing tests performed to understand the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior for austempered ductile iron (ADI) material. As the scuffing tendency is increased, metal-to-metal interaction between contacting surfaces is increased. Lubrication between sliding surfaces becomes the boundary or mixed lubrication condition. Oil film breakdown leads to scuffing failure with the critical load. Hence, the role of surface roughness and lubrication becomes prominent in scuffing study. There are some studies in which the influence of the surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing was evaluated. However, no comprehensive scuffing study has been found in the literature regarding the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior of ADI material. The current research took into account the inferences of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing for ADI.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, Xinfeng Shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0954
Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly, Michael Zammit, Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith
Significant reduction in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions will be required to meet LEV III Emissions Standards for Light Duty Diesel passenger vehicles (LDD). As such, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are exploring all possible aftertreatment options to find the best balance between performance, robustness and cost. The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. The critical parameters needed for SCR to work properly are: an appropriate reductant such as ammonia (NH3) typically provided as urea, adequate operating temperatures, and optimum Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) to NOx ratios (NO2/NOx). The NO2/NOx ratio is mostly influenced by Precious Group Metals (PGM) containing catalysts located upstream of the SCR catalyst. Different versions of zeolite based SCR technologies are available on the market today and these vary in their active metal type (iron, copper, vanadium), and/or zeolite type.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0953
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Brad Walker
In order to meet LEV III, EURO 6C and Beijing 6 emission levels, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) can potentially implement unique aftertreatment systems solutions which meet the varying legislated requirements. The availability of various washcoat substrates and PGM loading and ratio options, make selection of an optimum catalyst system challenging, time consuming and costly. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodologies have been used in industry since the 1990s. One of the earliest applications was at Motorola where the methodology was applied to the design and production of a paging device which Consumer Reports called “virtually defect-proof”.[1] Since then, the methodology has evolved to not only encapsulate complicated “Variation Optimization” but also “Design Optimization” where multiple factors are in play. In this study, attempts are made to adapt the DFSS concept and methodology to identify and optimize a catalyst for diesel applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0971
Stefano Sabatini, Irfan Kil, Travis Hamilton, Jeff Wuttke, Luis Del Rio, Michael Smith, Zoran Filipi, Mark A. Hoffman, Simona Onori
Abstract The Three Way Catalyst (TWC) is an effective pollutant conversion system widely used in current production vehicles to satisfy emissions regulations. A TWC’s conversion efficiency degrades over time due to chemical and/or thermal mechanisms causing the catalyst to age. This reduction in conversion efficiency must be accounted for to ensure full useful life emissions compliance. This paper presents an experimental study of the aging impact on TWC performance. Four TWCs differentiated by their age, given in terms of miles driven, were tested. It is shown that the dynamics of oxygen storage are substantially affected by aging of the TWC. A previously developed physics-based oxygen storage model [1] is subsequently used to incorporate the effect of aging on the total Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC). Parameter identification results for the different age catalysts show that total oxygen storage capacity decreases substantially with aging and is insensitive to operating conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0819
Shu Wang, Robert Prucka, Qilun Zhu, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
Abstract As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The large number of control actuators encourages the investigation of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Of particular interest is spark timing control and calibration since it has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. Spark timing determination to achieve a desired combustion phasing is currently an empirical process that occurs during the calibration phase of engine development. This process utilizes a large number of stored surfaces and corrections to account for the wide range of operating environments and conditions that a given engine will experience. An obstacle to realizing feedforward physics-based combustion phasing control is the requirement for an accurate and fast combustion model.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0818
Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka, Shu Wang, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
Abstract Combustion phasing of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is traditionally regulated with map-based spark timing (SPKT) control. The calibration time and effort of this feed forward SPKT control strategy becomes less favorable as the number of engine control actuators increases. This paper proposes a model based combustion phasing control frame work. The feed forward control law is obtained by real time numerical optimization utilizing a high-fidelity combustion model that is based on flame entrainment theory. An optimization routine identifies the SPKT which phases the combustion close to the target without violating combustion constraints of knock and excessive cycle-by-cycle covariance of indicated mean effective pressure (COV of IMEP). Cylinder pressure sensors are utilized to enable feedback control of combustion phasing. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to reject sensor noise and combustion variation from the cylinder pressure signal.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0806
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Ronald Reese, Asim Iqbal, Brad Boyer, Steven Wooldridge, Carrie Hall, Scott Miers
Abstract Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
2016-04-11
Journal Article
2016-01-9081
Sean A. McKelvey, Yung-Li Lee
Abstract Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0179
Saravanan Sambandan, Manuel Valencia, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0176
B. Vasanth, Uday Putcha, S. Sathish Kumar, Ramakrishna nukala, Murali Govindarajalu
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0168
B. Vasanth, Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sathya Narayana, S. Sathish Kumar, Murali govindarajalu
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0489
Wei Tao, Lin Chai, Raymond Su, Bruce K. Geist, William F. Resh
The mathematical models that predict friction losses for an internal combustion (IC) engine are described in this paper. These models are based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical results. These include predictions of losses arising from friction and viscous fluid motion associated with the relative movement of solid surfaces within a piston assembly, the cranktrain, and valvetrain components. The engine friction losses are defined in the context of the geometries of the particular components within an IC engine. Details of these formulations are given, including novel geometry-related coefficients. Different regimes of lubricated friction are considered. In order to establish the model fidelity and robust solution methodology, the mathematical models are validated against engine friction tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, S Arunkumar, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Abstract Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for the functioning of passive safety systems. These sensors and modules are mounted on the vehicle body at locations chosen to meet safety functionality requirements. They are mounted on pillars or even directly on panels based on specific packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior can directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence a specific inertance performance level at the mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis, at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz, is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level along with test correlation.
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