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Viewing 1 to 30 of 99
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1391
Philipp Adomeit, Markus Jakob, Andreas Kolbeck, Stefan Pischinger
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2097
A. Wiartalla, L. Ruhkamp, Y. Rosefort, F. Maassen, B. Sliwinski, T. Schnorbus, T. Laible
From current point of view future emission legislations for heavy-duty engines as well as industrial engines will require complex engine internal measures in combination with sophisticated aftertreatment systems as well as according control strategies to reach the emission targets. With EU VI, JP 09/NLT and US10 for heavy-duty engines as well as future Tier4 final or stage IV emission legislation for industrial applications, EGR + DPF + SCR probably will be combined for most applications and therefore quite similar technological approaches will be followed up in Europe as well as in the US and in Japan. Most “emerging markets” all over the world follow up the European, US or Japanese emission legislation with a certain time delay. Therefore similar technologies need to be introduced in these markets in the future. On the other hand specific market boundary conditions and requirements have to be considered for the development of tailored system concepts in these markets.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1991
Matthias Thewes, Martin Muther, Adrien Brassat, Stefan Pischinger, Andreas Sehr
In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0650
Stefan Klopstein, Sven Lauer, Franz Maassen
Thermal management describes measures that result in the improved engine or vehicle operation in terms of energetics and thermo mechanics. In this context the involvement of the entire power train becomes more important as the interaction between engine, transmission and temperature sensitive battery package (of hybrid vehicles or electric vehicles with range extender) or the utilization of exhaust gas thermal energy play a major role for future power train concepts. The aim of thermal management strategies is to reduce fuel consumption while simultaneously increasing the comfort under consideration of all temperature limits. In this case it is essential to actively control the heat flow, in order to attain the optimal temperature distribution in the power train components.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0606
Dimitrios Zarvalis, Alexandra Zygogianni, Souzana Lorentzou, Christopher Severin, Markus Schoenen, Raimund Vedder, Michael Fiebig, Jacques Lavy, Stephane Zinola, Athanasios Konstandopoulos
Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1284
Philipp Adomeit, Markus Jakob, Stefan Pischinger, Andre Brunn, Jens Ewald
The application of technologies such as direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve timing has caused a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on fuel consumption and emissions. The current developments are primarily focused on the realization of improved full load characteristics and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbo charging and high specific power. The requirements of high specific power in a relatively small cylinder displacement and a wide range of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and to a high number of degrees of freedom during engine layout and optimization. One of the major targets is to assess the stability of the combustion system in the early development phase.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1077
M. Cagri Cevik, Emre Kanpolat, Martin Rebbert
Due to increasing demand for environment friendly vehicles with better fuel economy and strict legislations on greenhouse gas emissions, lightweight design has become one of the most important issues concerning the automobile industry. Within the scope of this work lightweight design potentials that a conventional single cylinder engine crankshaft offers are researched through utilization of structural optimization techniques. The objective of the study is to reduce mass and moment of inertia of the crankshaft with the least possible effect on the stiffness and strength. For precise definition of boundary conditions and loading scenarios multi body simulations are integrated into the optimization process. The loading conditions are updated at the beginning of each optimization loop, in which a multi body simulation of the output structure from the previous optimization loop is carried out.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2490
Norbert Alt, Hans-Dieter Sonntag, Stefan Heuer, Rainer Thiele
The European as well as U.S. market share of modern Diesel engines has increased significantly in recent years, due to their excellent torque and performance behavior combined with low fuel consumption. The overall improved noise and vibration behavior of modern Diesel engines has also contributed to this trend. Despite overall improvements in Diesel engine noise and vibration, certain aspects of Diesel engines continue to present significant challenges. One such issue is the presence of Diesel knocking that is prevalent during cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper discusses a technique used to optimize the cold start noise behavior of modern Diesel engines. The methods used in this study are based on optimizing the engine calibration to improve the vehicle interior and exterior (engine) noise, even at low ambient temperatures.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2514
Georg Eisele, Klaus Wolff, Norbert Alt, Michel Hüser
The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2303
Tom D'Anna, Kiran Govindswamy, Frank Wolter, Peter Janssen
A customer's perception of vehicle quality very closely parallels the noise vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristics of the vehicle. Consequently, automotive manufacturers are investing significant resources into optimizing the NVH performance of their vehicles. Automatic transmission shift quality is one of a number of attributes where NVH optimization is critical towards providing customers with a pleasant driving experience. This paper addresses various aspects of understanding, quantifying and optimizing a vehicle's shift quality characteristics. Following an introductory treatment of automatic transmission planetary gear systems, the interaction between the engine/transmission system during shifts is summarized. Various shift quality metrics used to quantify a vehicle's response and its sensitivity to transient inputs are provided. Approaches to manage the engine torque output during the shifts are discussed.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0585
Stefan Trampert, Franz Maassen
Current simulation tools for the investigation of the dynamic system response as well as for the component stresses on the basis of multi-body and finite-element techniques are integral part of today's powertrain development efforts. These tools are typical used for the analysis and optimization of shafts, clutches, chain/belt drives, bearings, levers, brackets, housings and many other components. An exception is made by gears which today are still frequently investigated by the help of semi-empirical methods based on DIN, ISO, AGMA and the specific knowledge base of well experienced developers. The main difficulty is that the gears are rolling off via large contact surfaces with complex nonlinear mechanical contact properties. Within the scope of research work FEV developed a new method for the analysis and optimization of gear drives based on comercial multi-body and finite-element software platforms.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0613
Thomas Winsel, Mohamed Ayeb, Christian Wilhelm, Heinz J. Theuerkauf, Stefan Pischinger, Rolf Woermann, Christof Schernus
A main focus of development in modern SI engine technology is variable valve timing, which implies a high potential of improvement regarding fuel consumption and emissions. Variable opening, period and lift of inlet and outlet valves enable numerous possibilities to alter gas exchange and combustion. However, this additional variability generates special demands on the calibration process of specific engine control devices, particularly under cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper presents procedures, based on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation, to support the classical calibration task efficiently. An existing approach is extended, such that a virtual combustion engine is available including additional valve timing variability. Engine models based purely on physical first principles are often not capable of real time execution. However, the definition of initial parameters for the ECU requires a model with both real time capability and sufficient accuracy.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0232
G. Lepperhoff, Th. Körfer, Stefan Pischinger, H. Busch, S. Keppeler, P. Schaberg, M. Schnell
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0277
Michael Franke, Hua Huang, Jing Ping Liu, Andreas Geistert, Philipp Adomeit
The new opoc™ diesel engine concept was presented at the SAE 2005 World Congress [1]. Exceptional power density of >1hp/lb and >40% efficiency have been predicted for the 2-stroke opoc™ diesel engine concept. Intensive CAE simulations have been performed during the concept and design phase in order to define the baseline scavenging and combustion parameters, such as port timing, turbocharger configuration and fuel injection nozzle design. Under a DARPA contract, first prototype engines have been built and have undergone a validation testing program. The main goal of the first testing phase was to demonstrate the power output capability of the new engine concept. In close relationship and interaction of testing and CAE simulation, the uniflow scavenging process and parameters of the special diesel direct side injection have been optimized. This paper discusses the latest results of the opoc engine development.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0046
Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Oliver Lang, Knut Habermann
With rising gasoline prices in the US the need for increasingly fuel efficient powertrain concepts has never been more critical. Evaluation of the market on the other hand shows that the vehicle-buying consumer is unwilling to compromise engine power output for this needed fuel efficiency. Boosted, direct-injected gasoline engines with high specific output and low end torque seem to be the most logical path to satisfying both good part load fuel economy and generous power and torque characteristics. Turbo lag and subsequent lack of torque during transient acceleration (with low initial engine speeds) are characteristics of current turbocharged gasoline engines. These phenomena have prevented successful penetration of these boosted powertrains into the marketplace. Larger displacement, naturally aspirated gasoline engines have been the preferred choice.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1611
Erwin Reichert, Dirk Rompf, Werner Bick
Nowadays internal combustion engine design is characterized by a faster development time with increased levels of quality, NVH, specific power and lower weight all being demanded at a lower production cost. This requires a new and systemic design management from the outset of the concept to SOP (Start of Production). The design for Six Sigma (DFSS) process is the surest way to achieve the above mentioned development goals. Within a Six Sigma approach, manufacturing and serial production issues are considered from the beginning of the development phase. Based on examples, the methodology will be explained in single steps. The explanation will include QFD, FMEA (product and process), scorecards, DOE and kneading process with its tolerance analysis and process capability investigations. The use of these different tools for each phase of the design process will be described.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1272
Oliver Ruetten, Stefan Pischinger, Carsten Küpper, Rolf Weinowski, David Gian, Dmitry Ignatov, Winston Betton, Michael Bahn
This paper describes an alternative catalyst aging process using a hot gas test stand for thermal aging. The solution presented is characterized by a burner technology that is combined with a combustion enhancement, which allows stoichiometric and rich operating conditions to simulate engine exhaust gases. The resulting efficiency was increased and the operation limits were broadened, compared to combustion engines that are typically used for catalyst aging. The primary modification that enabled this achievement was the recirculation of exhaust gas downstream from catalyst back to the burner. The burner allows the running simplified dynamic durability cycles, which are the standard bench cycle that is defined by the legislation as alternative aging procedure and the fuel shut-off simulation cycle ZDAKW. The hot gas test stand approach has been compared to the conventional engine test bench method.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1275
Marcus Gohl, Sven Brandt, Michael Wittler, Matthias Budde, Gunter Knoll, Sven Krause, Stefan Pischinger, Christian Stein, Philipp Adomeit, Gerhard Matz, Frank Schlerege
Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0737
Michael Kind, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Dorothea Liebig, Richard Clark, Andrew Harrison, Rene Van Doorn
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2765
Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0334
Kenneth D. Rose, Roger F Cracknell, David J Rickeard, Javier Ariztegui, William Cannella, Nigel Elliott, Heather Hamje, Martin Muether, Thorsten Schnorbus, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
Six diesel, kerosene, gasoline-like, and naphtha fuels have been tested in a single cylinder diesel engine and a demonstrator vehicle, both equipped with similar engine technology and optimized for advanced combustion performance. This study was completed in order to investigate the potential to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and noise levels through changes in both engine hardware and fuel properties. The fuels investigated in this study were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions and performance. The optimized bench engine used in this study included engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under advanced combustion conditions, at least under some speed and load conditions.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2168
Todd Tousignant, Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Stefan Heuer, Michael Workings
Powertrain noise is a significant factor in determination of the overall vehicle refinement expected by today's discriminating automotive customer. Development of a powertrain to meet these expectations requires a thorough understanding of the contributing noise sources. Specifically, combustion noise greatly impacts the perception of sound levels and quality. The relevance of combustion noise development has increased with the advent of newer efficiency-driven technologies such as direct injection or homogeneous charge compression ignition. This paper discusses the application of a CSL (Combustion Sound Level) analysis-a method for the identification and optimization of combustion noise. Using CSL, it is possible to separate mechanical and combustion noise sources.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0591
Philipp Adomeit, Rolf Weinowski, Jens Ewald, Andre Brunn, Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Stefan Pischinger, Markus Jakob
Advanced technologies such as direct injection DI, turbocharging and variable valve timing, have lead to a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on driving pleasure, fuel consumption and emissions. Today's developments are primarily focused on the implementation of improved full load characteristics for driving performance and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbocharging and high specific power. The requirements of a relatively small cylinder displacement with high specific power and a wide flexibility of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and additionally to a high number of degrees of freedom during optimization. In order to successfully approach an optimum solution, FEV has evolved an advanced development methodology, which is based on the combination of simulation, optical diagnostics and engine thermodynamics testing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0333
Yousef Jeihouni, Stefan Pischinger, Ludger Ruhkamp, Thomas Koerfer
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2119
Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Stefan Pischinger
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency. The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.
2010-06-09
Technical Paper
2010-01-1402
Georg Eisele, Klaus Wolff, Michael Wittler, Roozbeh Abtahi, Stefan Pischinger
The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2186
M. Cagri Cevik, Hendrik Hermann, Carl Ritterskamp
Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0037
Reza Rezaei, Stefan Pischinger, Jens Ewald, Philipp Adomeit
The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0922
Andreas Küsters, Franz J. Maassen
During the past years, there has been an increasing tendency to seriously question and break up old and ingrained structures in combustion engine testing. The reason for this is the continuously increasing number of engine and vehicle variants and a variety of applications resulting from it, which significantly push up development costs and times when carrying out the classical testing patterns. The following article by FEV Motorentechnik GmbH introduces a comprehensive test methodology for purposeful endurance testing of modern drive units (in particular from the fields of passenger cars and commercial vehicles). The procedure and the testing philosophy are explained in detail, illustrated by a concrete development example.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0949
Mehmet Cagri Cevik, Martin Rebbert, Franz Maassen
This paper introduces a new approach based on a statistical investigation and finite element analysis (FEA) methodology to predict the crankshaft torsional stiffness and stress concentration factors (SCF) due to torsion and bending which can be used as inputs for simplified crankshaft multibody models and durability calculations. In this way the reduction of the development time and effort of passenger car crankshafts in the pre-layout phase is intended with a least possible accuracy sacrifice. With the designated methodology a better approximation to reality is reached for crank torsional stiffness and SCF due to torsion and bending compared with the empirical approaches, since the prediction does not depend on the component tests with limited numbers of specimen, as in empirical equations, but on various FE calculations.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 99

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