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Viewing 1 to 30 of 37
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1991
Matthias Thewes, Martin Muther, Adrien Brassat, Stefan Pischinger, Andreas Sehr
In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0650
Stefan Klopstein, Sven Lauer, Franz Maassen
Thermal management describes measures that result in the improved engine or vehicle operation in terms of energetics and thermo mechanics. In this context the involvement of the entire power train becomes more important as the interaction between engine, transmission and temperature sensitive battery package (of hybrid vehicles or electric vehicles with range extender) or the utilization of exhaust gas thermal energy play a major role for future power train concepts. The aim of thermal management strategies is to reduce fuel consumption while simultaneously increasing the comfort under consideration of all temperature limits. In this case it is essential to actively control the heat flow, in order to attain the optimal temperature distribution in the power train components.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1284
Philipp Adomeit, Markus Jakob, Stefan Pischinger, Andre Brunn, Jens Ewald
The application of technologies such as direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve timing has caused a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on fuel consumption and emissions. The current developments are primarily focused on the realization of improved full load characteristics and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbo charging and high specific power. The requirements of high specific power in a relatively small cylinder displacement and a wide range of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and to a high number of degrees of freedom during engine layout and optimization. One of the major targets is to assess the stability of the combustion system in the early development phase.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1077
M. Cagri Cevik, Emre Kanpolat, Martin Rebbert
Due to increasing demand for environment friendly vehicles with better fuel economy and strict legislations on greenhouse gas emissions, lightweight design has become one of the most important issues concerning the automobile industry. Within the scope of this work lightweight design potentials that a conventional single cylinder engine crankshaft offers are researched through utilization of structural optimization techniques. The objective of the study is to reduce mass and moment of inertia of the crankshaft with the least possible effect on the stiffness and strength. For precise definition of boundary conditions and loading scenarios multi body simulations are integrated into the optimization process. The loading conditions are updated at the beginning of each optimization loop, in which a multi body simulation of the output structure from the previous optimization loop is carried out.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0585
Stefan Trampert, Franz Maassen
Current simulation tools for the investigation of the dynamic system response as well as for the component stresses on the basis of multi-body and finite-element techniques are integral part of today's powertrain development efforts. These tools are typical used for the analysis and optimization of shafts, clutches, chain/belt drives, bearings, levers, brackets, housings and many other components. An exception is made by gears which today are still frequently investigated by the help of semi-empirical methods based on DIN, ISO, AGMA and the specific knowledge base of well experienced developers. The main difficulty is that the gears are rolling off via large contact surfaces with complex nonlinear mechanical contact properties. Within the scope of research work FEV developed a new method for the analysis and optimization of gear drives based on comercial multi-body and finite-element software platforms.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0613
Thomas Winsel, Mohamed Ayeb, Christian Wilhelm, Heinz J. Theuerkauf, Stefan Pischinger, Rolf Woermann, Christof Schernus
A main focus of development in modern SI engine technology is variable valve timing, which implies a high potential of improvement regarding fuel consumption and emissions. Variable opening, period and lift of inlet and outlet valves enable numerous possibilities to alter gas exchange and combustion. However, this additional variability generates special demands on the calibration process of specific engine control devices, particularly under cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper presents procedures, based on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation, to support the classical calibration task efficiently. An existing approach is extended, such that a virtual combustion engine is available including additional valve timing variability. Engine models based purely on physical first principles are often not capable of real time execution. However, the definition of initial parameters for the ECU requires a model with both real time capability and sufficient accuracy.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0277
Michael Franke, Hua Huang, Jing Ping Liu, Andreas Geistert, Philipp Adomeit
The new opoc™ diesel engine concept was presented at the SAE 2005 World Congress [1]. Exceptional power density of >1hp/lb and >40% efficiency have been predicted for the 2-stroke opoc™ diesel engine concept. Intensive CAE simulations have been performed during the concept and design phase in order to define the baseline scavenging and combustion parameters, such as port timing, turbocharger configuration and fuel injection nozzle design. Under a DARPA contract, first prototype engines have been built and have undergone a validation testing program. The main goal of the first testing phase was to demonstrate the power output capability of the new engine concept. In close relationship and interaction of testing and CAE simulation, the uniflow scavenging process and parameters of the special diesel direct side injection have been optimized. This paper discusses the latest results of the opoc engine development.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0046
Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Oliver Lang, Knut Habermann
With rising gasoline prices in the US the need for increasingly fuel efficient powertrain concepts has never been more critical. Evaluation of the market on the other hand shows that the vehicle-buying consumer is unwilling to compromise engine power output for this needed fuel efficiency. Boosted, direct-injected gasoline engines with high specific output and low end torque seem to be the most logical path to satisfying both good part load fuel economy and generous power and torque characteristics. Turbo lag and subsequent lack of torque during transient acceleration (with low initial engine speeds) are characteristics of current turbocharged gasoline engines. These phenomena have prevented successful penetration of these boosted powertrains into the marketplace. Larger displacement, naturally aspirated gasoline engines have been the preferred choice.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0737
Michael Kind, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Dorothea Liebig, Richard Clark, Andrew Harrison, Rene Van Doorn
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0591
Philipp Adomeit, Rolf Weinowski, Jens Ewald, Andre Brunn, Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic, Stefan Pischinger, Markus Jakob
Advanced technologies such as direct injection DI, turbocharging and variable valve timing, have lead to a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on driving pleasure, fuel consumption and emissions. Today's developments are primarily focused on the implementation of improved full load characteristics for driving performance and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbocharging and high specific power. The requirements of a relatively small cylinder displacement with high specific power and a wide flexibility of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and additionally to a high number of degrees of freedom during optimization. In order to successfully approach an optimum solution, FEV has evolved an advanced development methodology, which is based on the combination of simulation, optical diagnostics and engine thermodynamics testing.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2186
M. Cagri Cevik, Hendrik Hermann, Carl Ritterskamp
Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0037
Reza Rezaei, Stefan Pischinger, Jens Ewald, Philipp Adomeit
The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0922
Andreas Küsters, Franz J. Maassen
During the past years, there has been an increasing tendency to seriously question and break up old and ingrained structures in combustion engine testing. The reason for this is the continuously increasing number of engine and vehicle variants and a variety of applications resulting from it, which significantly push up development costs and times when carrying out the classical testing patterns. The following article by FEV Motorentechnik GmbH introduces a comprehensive test methodology for purposeful endurance testing of modern drive units (in particular from the fields of passenger cars and commercial vehicles). The procedure and the testing philosophy are explained in detail, illustrated by a concrete development example.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0949
Mehmet Cagri Cevik, Martin Rebbert, Franz Maassen
This paper introduces a new approach based on a statistical investigation and finite element analysis (FEA) methodology to predict the crankshaft torsional stiffness and stress concentration factors (SCF) due to torsion and bending which can be used as inputs for simplified crankshaft multibody models and durability calculations. In this way the reduction of the development time and effort of passenger car crankshafts in the pre-layout phase is intended with a least possible accuracy sacrifice. With the designated methodology a better approximation to reality is reached for crank torsional stiffness and SCF due to torsion and bending compared with the empirical approaches, since the prediction does not depend on the component tests with limited numbers of specimen, as in empirical equations, but on various FE calculations.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0858
Axel Schlosser, Bert Kinoo, Wolfgang Salber, Sascha Werner, Norbert Ademes
Modern powertrain development is targeting to meet challenging, to some degrees contradictory development goals in a short timeframe. Looking to a development time schedule of 36 months from concept to SOP, it becomes a prerequisite that unnecessary design loops have to be avoided by all means. Now, in addition, the experimental development work has to be conducted more efficiently than in the past. In recent years methods for an efficient design process have been successfully applied. Testing and vehicle application work can take advantage of methods empowered by model based approaches. Today, models with different levels of detail are able to significantly improve nearly every development phase. Supported by standardized and automated test bench and vehicle procedures an efficient and comprehensive development process can be established and utilized, which is also necessary to tackle growing complexity.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0167
C. Felsch, V. Luckhchoura, J. Weber, N. Peters, C. Hasse, W. Wiese, Stefan Pischinger, A. Kolbeck, P. Adomeit
Abstract Combustion and pollutant formation in a new recently introduced Common-Rail DI Diesel engine concept with roof-shaped combustion chamber and tumble charge motion are numerically investigated using the Representative Interactive Flamelet concept (RIF). A reference case with a cup shaped piston bowl for full load operating conditions is considered in detail. In addition to the reference case, three more cases are investigated with a variation of start of injection (SOI). A surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. The underlying complete reaction mechanism comprises 506 elementary reactions and 118 chemical species. Special emphasis is put on pollutant formation, in particular on the formation of NOx, where a new technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation within the flamelet framework is applied.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0994
Stefan Pischinger, Christof Schernus, Georg Lütkemeyer, H. J. Theuerkauf, Thomas Winsel, Mohamed Ayeb
The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0694
A. G. Konstandopoulos, D. Zarvalis, E. Papaioannou, N. D. Vlachos, G. Boretto, M. F. Pidria, P. Faraldi, O. Piacenza, P. Prenninger, T. Cartus, H. Schreier, W. Brandstätter, C. Wassermayr, G. Lepperhof, V. Scholz, B. Luers, J. Schnitzler, M. Claussen, A. Wollmann, M. Maly, G. Tsotridis, B. M. Vaglieco, S. S. Merola, D. Webster, D. Bergeal, C. Görsmann, H. Obernosterer, D. Fino, N. Russo, G. Saracco, V. Specchia, N. Moral, A. D'Anna, A. D'Alessio, R. Zahoransky, E. Laile, S. Schmidt, M. Ranalli
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0971
C. Felsch, M. Gauding, A. Vanegas, H. Won, V. Luckhchoura, N. Peters, C. Hasse, J. Ewald
Abstract Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) have proven successful in predicting Diesel engine combustion. The RIF concept is based on the assumption that chemistry is fast compared to the smallest turbulent time scales, associated with the turnover time of a Kolmogorov eddy. The assumption of fast chemistry may become questionable with respect to the prediction of pollutant formation; the formation of NOx, for example, is a rather slow process. For this reason, three different approaches to account for NOx emissions within the flamelet approach are presented and discussed in this study. This includes taking the pollutant mass fractions directly from the flamelet equations, a technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation as well as the extended Zeldovich mechanism. Combustion and pollutant emissions in a Common-Rail DI Diesel engine are numerically investigated using the RIF concept. Special emphasis is put on NOx emissions.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1354
Martin Rebbert, Gerhard Kreusen, Sven Lauer
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2422
Klaus Wolff, Hans-Peter Lahey, Christof Nussmann, Jakob Nehl, Roger Wimmel, Hubertus Siebald, Heinrich Fehren, Matteo Redaelli, Anja Naake
Under city driving conditions, the powertrain represents one of the major vehicle exterior noise sources. Especially at idle and during full load acceleration, the oil pan contributes significantly to the overall powertrain sound emission. The engine oilpan can be a significant contributor to the powertrain radiated sound levels. Passive optimization measures, such as structural optimization and acoustic shielding, can be limited by e.g. light-weight design, package and thermal constraints. Therefore, the potential of the Active Structure Acoustic Control (ASAC) method for noise reduction was investigated within the EU-sponsored project InMAR. The method has proven to have significant noise reduction potential with respect to oil pan vibration induced noise. The paper reports on activities within the InMAR project with regard to a passenger car oil pan application of an ASAC system based on piezo-ceramic foil technology.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1768
Michael Franke, Andre Küsters, Thomas Rinkens, Franz Maassen, Hans Brüggemann
Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0653
Dirk Adolph, Reza Rezaei, Stefan Pischinger, Philipp Adomeit, Thomas Körfer, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0159
Tobias Spilker, Antonius Voncken PhD
Piston rings are faced with a broad range of demands like optimal sealing properties, wear properties and reliability. Even more challenging boundary conditions must be met when latest developments in the fields of direct injection as well as the application of bio fuels. This complex variety of piston ring design requirements leads to the need of a comprehensive simulation model in order to support the development in the early design phase prior to testing. The simulation model must be able to provide classical objectives like friction analysis, wear rate and blow-by. Furthermore, it must include an adequate oil consumption model. The objective of this work is to provide such a simulation model that is embedded in the commercial MBS software ‘FEV Virtual Engine’. The MBS model consists of a cranktrain assembly with a rigid piston that contains flexible piston rings.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1796
Wolfram Wiese, Stefan Pischinger, Philipp Adomeit, Jens Ewald
In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0138
Christof Schernus, Carsten Dieterich, Carolina Nebbia, Andreas Sehr, Stefan Wedowski, Rolf Weinowski
Turbocharged DISI engines with four cylinders have established in the market and provide a performance comparable to larger six-cylinder engines in the smaller compartment of a four-cylinder engine. In the Japanese market, also turbo gasoline engines with 500 - 660 cm₃ displacement have a long tradition in Kei-Cars. However, those engines show a lower specific performance as would be required for propelling typical small or compact vehicles in Europe. Recently, two-cylinder turbo engines have come to market, which are found attractive with respect to sound, package, and also enable low vehicle fuel consumption in NEDC test. The paper presents a turbocharger layout study on 2- and 3-cylinder engines. It discusses the influence of cylinder displacement volume on the sizing of turbines and compressors, and how specific flow phenomena in the turbine can be captured in the simulation model.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0865
Michael Breuer, Christof Schernus, Robert Böwing, André Kuphal, Stefan Lieske
A uniform flow distribution at converter inlet is one of the fundamental requirements to meet high catalytic efficiency. Commonly used tools for optimization of the inlet flow distribution are flow measurements as well as CFD analysis. This paper puts emphasis on the experimental procedures and results. The interaction of flow measurements and CFD is outlined. The exhaust gas flow is transient, compressible and hot, making in-situ flow measurements very complex. On the other hand, to utilize the advantages of flow testing at steady-state and cold conditions the significance of these results has to be verified first. CFD analysis under different boundary conditions prove that - in a first approach - the flow situation can be regarded as a sequence of successive, steady-state situations. Using the Reynolds analogy a formula for the steady-state, cold test mass flow is derived, taking into account the cylinder displacement and the rated speed.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0771
U. Oligschläger, Th. Wagner
Technological progress opens the door for the development of new tools to be used for the development of vehicles and engines. This offers the opportunity for an optimization of the entire workflow on one hand, and an improvement of single tasks on the other hand. This paper describes the actual status of the development process, describes new directions of tool evolvement and finally gives an outlook into the future. Redline ADAPT-SIM is a tool for driver- and vehicle simulation, which was developed primarily for ECU application, but can also be used for other dynamic testing tasks. The introduction of this tool leads to better controllability and therefore also repeatability of tests.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1075
Stefan Thomas, Franz Maassen
The new elastohydrodynamic (EHD) code developed by FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen, is designed to improve the predictability of journal bearing designs and thereby increase the reliability of safety factors in the development of highly loaded internal combustion engines. Using this tool design targets can be achieved with higher confidence levels. The developed code may be linked to commercial multibody system (MBS) codes such as ADAMS® while simultaneously representing the important characteristics occurring in transiently loaded journal bearings including elastic deformation, cavitation, and non-constant speed. Static deviations from ideal journal and bearing shell shapes caused by manufacturing and assembly processes can be considered and are substantially important in the evaluation of journal bearings. Presented is an economic bearing model approach which includes elastic bearing deformations.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0569
Franz Maassen, Franz Koch, Markus Schwaderlapp, Timo Ortjohann, Jürgen Dohmen
Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
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