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Viewing 1 to 30 of 39
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
942139
O. Veronika Prinzo, Thomas W. Britton
Voice communications are crucial to safe and efficient air traffic operations. Controllers are required to use standard phraseology, and pilots are encouraged to use it when talking to controllers. Incomplete or inaccurate communications were implicated in mishaps such as the Tenerife accident. This research examined the frequency of phraseology deviations in a sample of 5,000 transmissions from 3 terminal facilities. The Aviation Topics-Speech Acts Taxonomy (ATSAT) was used to develop baseline data and analyze controller/pilot communications. Clearance instructions were transmitted most frequently and they contained a higher percentage of deviations from standard phraseology than any other speech act category. Identification of the types of errors typically associated with specific miscommunications could result in implementing new training approaches that ensure a higher compliance with standard procedures and improve standard phraseology usage.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952037
M. W. Anderson, J. N. Acree, R. L. Newman
The issues involved in certifying head-up displays for civil aircraft are reviewed and proposed guidelines for the certification of head-up displays are presented. These guidelines are based on experience with civil and military head-up displays and follow the intent of the existing rules.
1993-05-01
Technical Paper
931258
Tom DeFiore, Terence Barnes
As a part of its International Aging Aircraft Research Program, the Federal Aviation Administration is establishing a state-of-the-art Flight Loads Data Collection Program. Data collected in this program will provide the necessary mission profiles and load spectra information to characterize typical fleet service usage for the regional/commuter service life extension program. In addition, these data are applicable for both a safe life fatigue analysis and a damage tolerance fracture mechanics analysis. This paper describes the FAA approach and schedule for instrumenting fleet service aircraft, and the data reduction process.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965584
Jon Mowery, Steve Keener, John E. Kuhn, Victor L. Chen, J. A. Gatto, Susan Hill
Numerical simulations indicate that blast loading on aircraft structural joints can impart loading rates in excess of 10 Mlb/sec (ten million pounds per second, Reference 1). Experimental evidence, on the other hand, suggests that mechanical joint failure loads are highly loading rate dependent; for example, the failure load for a dynamically loaded tension joint can double from its static value. This paper discusses the progress and to-date findings of research on the assessment of strength failure of aircraft structural joints subjected to loading rates expected from an internal explosive detonation, and several associated experimental procedures to generate such dynamic loading. This work is conducted at MDC and at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) in support of the FAA Aircraft Hardening Program.
1999-04-20
Technical Paper
1999-01-1578
David A. Sankey, David J. Pace
Weather is a major cause of aircraft accidents and incidents and the single largest contributor to air traffic system delays. Through improvements in the knowledge of current weather conditions and reliable forecasts, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can improve aviation safety, increase system capacity, and enhance flight planning and fuel efficiency. The FAA has established an Aviation Weather Research (AWR) program to address specific requirements for weather support to aviation by providing the capability to generate more accurate and accessible weather observations, warnings, and forecasts and also by increasing the scientific understanding of atmospheric processes that spawn aviation weather hazards. The goal of AWR is to provide meteorological research that leads to the satisfaction of specific aviation weather requirements.
1999-04-20
Technical Paper
1999-01-1608
Stephen J. Soltis, Karen E. Forest
The results of dynamic seat testing at four different test facilities with different test devices are presented. An acceleration-type sled, two deceleration-type sleds, and a drop tower were used in this evaluation. Repeatability between test facilities is discussed. Comparisons of the results obtained from the four test facilities, including pulse shapes, acceleration levels, measured injury criteria, and structural loads, are made. The findings of this program address the question of whether or not different test facilities and test devices produce comparable test and certification results.
2000-04-11
Technical Paper
2000-01-2132
William B. Johnson, Jean Watson
The FAA Office of Aviation Medicine has developed, delivered, and tested a variety of training systems over the past decade. The systems, their design, and guidance materials are directly transferable to the aviation industry at no cost. This paper describes the many training systems that are available.
2003-06-16
Technical Paper
2003-01-2081
Steven R Albersheim, Richard J. Heuwinkel, Debi Bacon, Sadegh Kavoussi
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has recognized that there is a need to establish an orderly path to move Research, Engineering & Development (RE&D) aviation weather products into an operational environment. To address this need, FAA’s Air Traffic System Requirements Service (ARS) established the Aviation Weather Technology Transfer (AWTT) Board with the principal mission to manage and accelerate the transfer of RE&D products into operations. The board is comprised of members that cut across FAA services and includes representation from the National Weather Service (NWS). The board encourages the development of new aviation weather products that improve the depiction and forecasting of weather events that affect not only the safety of the National Airspace System (NAS) but also the efficiency. This paper describes how the board manages this technology transfer process and how it decides whether a product is acceptable for experimental evaluation or operations.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730315
Martin T. Pozesky, Russell L. Biermann
Many problems exist in meeting the future surveillance and communication needs of air traffic control. Many functions and services are now being developed for eventual implementation beginning after 1977. The operation, role, and impact of the Discrete Address Beacon System in meeting these needs and functions are discussed in this paper.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720312
Paul M. Rich, Warren G. Crook, Richard L. Sulzer, Peter R. Hill
The FAA conducted a series of six experiments having application to the development of pilot warning instruments (PWI). The experiments were concerned with the effect of warning rates on pilot performance, pilot response to imminent collision threats, the evaluation of scanning patterns, the value of warning-only, the effect of relative motion on pilot performance, and the effect of PWI display sector size. The results of these experiments offer a variety of useful data in the area of visual collision avoidance.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690320
Herbert Slaughter, Nicholas S. Dobi
Important provisions are highlighted with respect to the additional airworthiness standards being considered by the Federal Avaiation Administration for small airplanes capable of carrying more than 10 occupants which are intended for use in air taxi and commercial operations. Information is presented on the background leading to these provisions and on their impact on manufacturers and operators. These new standards would result in a significant increase in the level of safety which is more commensurate with the class of operation, the increased occupant capacity, and the expanded volume of operations anticipated for these airplanes.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690392
Robert W. Martin
Area navigation offers a means of establishing an air route system without the constraints entailed in flying toward or away from the signal source. In terminal areas, an area navigation system of routes, combined with ATC computer-aided sequencing and airborne collision-avoidance technology, offers possibilities for establishing future methods of moving high volumes of traffic on and off a complex of multiple parallel runways. Such a system would reduce air-ground communications and controller workloads which are serious limiting factors in today's system. In the en route system, the use of area navigation will result in more efficient utilization of airspace, although regimentation of traffic will continue to be necessary in areas of high traffic density. An area navigation system, based on VOR/DME inputs is possible in the near future.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710456
A. B. Winick, D. M. Brandewie
The need to improve the efficiency and capacity of the Air Traffic Control and Navigation System has placed greater emphasis on the functional integration of subsystems which have been treated independently in the past. This paper presents results of limited test programs designed to explore the relationship of terminal area navigation and the air traffic control system, and to show the benefits of an optimum combination of both functions. The need for further analysis is indicated with respect to carrying out the third generation system design postulated by the DOT Air Traffic Control Advisory Committee. It is concluded that functional integration of ATC and navigation in the terminal area presents the greatest challenge. In other areas, such as enroute, the availability of new, integrated avionics systems provides an expanded operational capability.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760931
Jack E. Cayot, Charles W. Harper
In view of the fact that future generations of derivative or new aircraft will be faced with problems of increasing operating efficiency, new and more advanced technology will have to be introduced. To this end, the Federal Aviation Administration has been examining the certification question and has concluded that simulation may be increasingly important in the future certification activities. Through a contract with Lockheed Aircraft Company, the FAA will be able to review past use of industrial simulation in connection with certification.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
975644
Charles F. Adam, Robert B. Barnes, James N. Acree
Recent changes in DoD procurement directives have encouraged the purchase of civilian products for use in certain military applications. One such application is the upgrade of avionics suites with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in military air transport aircraft to meet joint civil-military operational requirements. This paper reviews the Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) concept and the proper use of TSOs, ACs, and FARs in both the design and integration process.
1981-10-01
Technical Paper
811060
James J. Treacy
The advent of digital electronics for use in civil aircraft, particularly the new technology represented by central processor and microprocessor controlled systems, represents a major challenge to the aviation industry. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is charged with the responsibility of evaluating these systems to determine if they can be used safely. The complexity of these systems as compared to their analog counterparts in use today makes their evaluation difficult. This paper outlines the major concerns of the FAA with the use of software controlled digital systems for airborne applications. The methods which can be used by members of the aviation industry to obtain FAA certification of these systems are also discussed. The proposal of Special Committee SC-145 of the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) form the basis of the design methodology which is described for the successful development of the computer programs (software) to be used by these systems.
1983-10-03
Technical Paper
831504
David C. Gilliom, H. Jan Demuth
Federal Aviation Administration philosophy regarding simulator use in the airman certification system is stated. Airman certification requirements, specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations, are expressed in behavioral terms. Distinctions between simulator uses for training, evaluation, and gaining operational experience are discussed. A methodology for determining systematically and objectively how simulators may be used for pilot performance evaluation is derived from instructional system design. An experimental design, appropriate for validation studies of pilot performance evaluations in simulators, is referenced.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821451
James J. Treacy
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821450
George H. Lyddane
The rapid growth in digital computer technology and display systems has impacted most aerospace disciplines. The designer manufacturer operator and even airplane passengers are all affected by this technology boom. The FAA in its role of certifying new aerospace products is no exception. This paper will emphasize the changing methodology of the FAA certification process with some specific examples of recent flight test programs.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821449
John J. Shapley
This paper will discuss some considerations regarding man-machine interface during helicopter instrument flight. Several misconceptions have existed regarding FAA helicopter IFR certification. In response to some concerns pertaining to “excessive workload considerations,” designers have responded with several configurations. Some of these configurations have highlighted the need to educate the designer and the pilot population that the pilot must have the option to “actively participate” in the flight activity during helicopter IFR operations. “Active participation” includes the option of flying the vehicle through the normal flight controls. In addition, there has been some confusion regarding the terms “stability augmentation systems” and “autopilot.” Some individuals use the terms interchangeably. This paper will discuss the various lessons learned during FAA certification of helicopters for IFR flight from a certification test pilot's viewpoint.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821448
William R. Fromme
The Federal Aviation Administration has placed increasing emphasis on modern information systems to achieve safety improvements. The ASAS (Aviation Safety Analysis System) is a comprehensive new system to upgrade significantly the agency's ability to collect process and disseminate safety-related information.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821447
Thomas S. Westall
The Federal Aviation Administration is charged with the promotion of aviation safety. It is made up of three levels of administration within which are the functional organizations that manage the FAA programs and services. The Flight Standards service, which develops and enforces all regulations affecting aircraft and airmen, is the functional organization directly responsible for promoting aviation safety. This paper describes the Flight Standards aviation safety program.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821486
Sharon A. Barthelmess
Average continuous flow rates for each type of aircraft exit were examined in 89 full-scale evacuation demonstrations. Passengers tend to form continuous lines at available exits when evacuating an airplane. The study concludes that, with rare exception, the passenger rates of egress from the same type exit on different make and model airplanes are not significantly different. Passenger cabin configuration, seat pitch, and aisle width have no significant bearing on the egress rates provided the aircraft certification requirements for minimum aisle width and exit accessibility are met. Injuries resulting from actual emergency evacuations and evacuation demonstrations are also examined.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821484
Constantine P. Sarkos, Richard G. Hill
Materials are available for preventing or retarding aircraft cabin fires involving urethane foam seat cushions. Realistic fire tests performed in a wide-body test article demonstrate that some in-flight and ramp fires can be prevented, and that the allowable time for safe evacuation can be significantly extended during a survivable postcrash fuel fire, when the urethane foam seat cushion is covered by a “blocking layer” material.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871847
Terence J. Barnes, Edward A. Gabriel
Since the first airplane was certified in 1927, the standard configuration has been with the main lifting surface or surfaces forward of the stabilizing surface. Although some of the advantages of the canard configuration were recognized quite early - by the Wright Brothers, for example - canard surfaces have been used to date only as additional control surfaces on some military airplanes, and on some amateur built airplanes. As a result, the Airworthiness Regulations of Reference 1 address only tail aft configurations. When FAA was first approached regarding certification of a canard configured small airplane, an FAA/Industry Empennage Loads Working Group was formed to develop technical proposals for the necessary rule changes and policy. The concerns addressed by this working group are discussed in the following sections.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871852
Jim S. Honaker
Powered-lift aircraft, such as the V-22 tilt-rotor, are likely to spin-off a civil version. The present FAA airworthiness certification standards are not considered to be adequate for these unique aircraft. The FAA has drafted certification criteria and held a public conference to review the draft and identify significant technical certification issues that require further effort to establish correct standards for powered-lift aircraft. Some of those issues are discussed.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871850
Richard L. Vaughn, John D. Swihart
Microprocessor technology is allowing functions in aircraft to be implemented to a greater degree by digital process control than by conventional mechanical or electromechanical means. A review of this technology indicates a need for updated certification criteria. A high level of commitment to the technology such as fly-by-wire is completely beyond the scope of existing certification criteria. This paper emphasizes the areas of software validation levels, increased concern with basic power system qualification, and increased environmental concerns for electromagnetic interference and lightning.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871851
James R. Arnold, Michelle Corning, Michael K. Farrell
One Engine Inoperative takeoff climb performance of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft was analytically determined from level flight data and compared to the proposed powered-lift aircraft criteria. The results of this analysis can be useful in establishing the takeoff profile and highlighting potential certification issues.
1987-01-01
Technical Paper
872511
William R. Hendricks
This paper presents a description of several Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data systems that contain information on events which result primarily from human error. These data systems include reports of near midair collisions, operational errors, pilot deviations, and events reported through the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Over 17,000 incident reports are received and stored in these data bases annually. This paper discusses the information content of the data bases, reporting procedures, system limitations, proposed improvements, and uses of the data.
1988-10-01
Technical Paper
881377
Richard Johnson, Steve Soltis, Jim Blaker, Barry Wade
A transport airplane fuselage section with a full complement of cabin seats and anthropomorphic test dummies was longitudinally impact tested at a condition that approached the ultimate strength of the airframe protective shell structure. Airframe structural responses, seat/floor reaction loads, and the interactive effects of secondary impacts between multiple cabin seat rows were investigated. The scope and conduct of the test are presented together with some preliminary analyses of the test results.
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