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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1544
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2335
Jeffrey D. Rupp, Anthony G. King
Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0245
Zhenfei Zhan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0272
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau, Roger Burnett
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1698
Andreas Bender, Karl Haesler, Claus Thomas, Jaroslaw Grochowicz
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0107
Yan Fu, Guosong Li, Ren-Jye Yang, Baohua xiao, Krishnakanth Aekbote
With the increasing demands of developing vehicles for global markets, different regulations and public domain tests need to be considered simultaneously for side impact. Various side impact countermeasures, such as side airbags, door trim, energy absorbing foams etc., are employed to meet multiple side impact performance requirements. However, it is quite a challenging task to design a balanced side impact restraint system that can meet all side impact requirements for multiple crash modes. This paper presents an integrated multi-objective optimal design and robustness assessment framework for vehicle side impact restraint system design.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0055
Venkatapathi Nallapa, Fazal Syed, Jeremy Russell, Adam Banker, David Hoadley, Marko Sinistaj
Custom functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. Typical examples include mathematical functions, filtering routines and lookup tables. The custom routines are very efficient and have been in production for many years [ 1 ]. These hand-crafted functions can be reused in new control algorithm designs being developed using Model Based Design (MBD) tools. The next generation of vehicle control software may contain a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. At Ford Motor Company, the code is automatically generated from control algorithm models that are developed using The MathWorks tool chain. Depending on the project-specific needs, the control algorithm models are automatically translated to efficient C code using either The Math Works Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (RTW-EC) or dSPACE TargetLink production code generators.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0623
M. Matti Maricq, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Rainer Vogt
This paper examines the issues concerning particulate matter (PM) emissions measurement at the 3 mg/mi level proposed as the future LEV III standard. These issues are general in nature, but are exacerbated at the low levels contemplated for upcoming emissions standards. They are discussed in the context of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, where they can have an important impact on the continued development of this technology for improved fuel economy. GDI particulate emissions, just as engine-out diesel PM, contain a high fraction of soot. But the total PM mass is significantly lower than from diesel engines, and there can be significant variations in emissions rate and apparent PM composition between cold-start and running emissions. PM emissions levels depend on sampling method and location. As a result, there can be substantial differences in PM sampled and diluted directly at the exhaust pipe, as opposed to measurements from a dilution tunnel.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0586
Farid Ahmed-Zaid, Hariharan Krishnan, Michael Maile, Lorenzo Caminiti, Sue Bai, Joseph Stinnett, Steve VanSickle, Drew Cunningham
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0597
Shannon O'Day, Louis Tijerina
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0541
Mahmoud Yousef Ghannam, Todd Clark, Yeruva Reddy, Jinkoo Lee
This work presents a study of crash energy and severity in frontal offset Vehicle-To-Vehicle (VTV) crash tests. The crash energy is analyzed based on analytical formulations and empirical data. Also, the crash severity of different VTV tests is analyzed and compared with the corresponding full frontal rigid barrier test data. In this investigation, the Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) concept is used to calculate the initial impact velocity of frontal offset VTV test modes such that the offset VTV tests are equivalent to full frontal impact tests in terms of crash severity. Linear spring-mass model and collinear impact assumptions are used to develop the mathematical formulation. A scale factor is introduced to account for these assumptions and the calculated initial velocity is adjusted by this scale factor. It is demonstrated that the energies due to lateral and rotational velocity components are very small in the analyzed frontal VTV tests.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1397
Zohir Benrabah, Hicham Mir, Yi Zhang
Blow moulding is one of the most important polymer processing methods for producing complex thermoplastic automotive parts. Contrary to injection molding, little attention has focused on process control and simulation of blow molding processes. Yet, there are still several problems that affect the overall success of forming these parts. Among them are thermally induced stresses, relevant shrinkage and part warpage deformations caused by inappropriate mold design and/or processing conditions. Tolerance issues are critical in automotive applications and therefore part deformation due to solidification needs to be controlled and optimized accordingly. The accurate prediction tool of part deformation due to solidification, under different cooling conditions in automotive formed parts, is important and highly suited for part designers to help achieve an efficient production.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1170
Nia R. Harrison, Andrey Ilinich, Peter A. Friedman, Jugraj Singh, Ravi Verma
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0004
Stephen W. Rouhana, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Derek Board, Priya Prasad (Retired), Jonathan D. Rupp, Carl S. Miller, Thomas A. Jeffreys, Lawrence W. Schneider
NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0147
H. Sumida, Y. Koda, A. Sadai, S. Ichikawa, M. Kyogoku, M. Takato, Y. Miwa, R.W. McCabe
Phosphorous poisoning on customer-aged catalysts was investigated by material analysis and performance testing. Most of the phosphorus was associated with the oxide components in the washcoat. These contaminants were roughly classified as aluminum phosphate, cerium phosphate, zinc-calcium phosphate. Deactivation of the catalyst with aluminum phosphate was strong and followed a linear correlation from oxalic acid testing. Phosphorus scavenging additives were researched to inhibit increase of aluminum phosphate. According to thermodynamic calculations, lower free energy of compounds of additive and phosphate is expected to prevent formation of aluminum phosphate.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0156
Yisun Cheng, John V. Cavataio, William D. Belanger, John W. Hoard, Robert H. Hammerle
Promising lean NOx trap (LNT) results on lean-burn gasoline engines have encouraged the development of LNTs for diesel applications. Although the fundamentals of LNT are common for both gasoline and diesel applications, there are major differences due to the character of engine operation and control strategies. The sulfur tolerance and thermal durability of current state-of-the-art diesel LNTs under the conditions that represent the thermal and chemical conditions in diesel exhaust were investigated in a laboratory flow reactor. Sulfur poisoning and thermal aging are unavoidable factors contributing to diesel LNT deactivation. The results show that sensitivity to sulfur poisoning varies with the catalyst formulations, and in some formulations the sulfur poisoning appears reversible. However, the thermal deactivation is permanent regardless of its cause, i.e., LNT de-sulfation (deSOx) or diesel particular filter (DPF) regeneration.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0164
R. Mohan Iyengar, T. Chang, S. Laxman, S. Thirupathi, S. Perumalswami
A finite element methodology, based on implicit numerical integration procedure, for simulating oil-canning tests on Door assemblies is presented. The method takes into account nonlinearities due to geometry, material and contact between parts during deformation. The simulation results are compared with experimental observations. Excellent correlation between experimental observations and analytical predictions are obtained in these tests. Armed with the confidence in the methodology, simulations on a door assembly are conducted to study the gage and grade sensitivities of the outer panel. The sensitivity studies are conducted on three different grades of steel for the outer panel. Further studies are conducted to understand the effects of manufacturing (forming operation) on the oil canning behavior of door assembly. Results demonstrate the utility of the method in material selection during pre-program design of automotive structures.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0550
Claudia O. Iyer, Zhiyu Han, Jianwen Yi
This paper describes the CFD modeling work conducted for the development and research of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) system that demonstrated superior fuel economy benefits. The Ford in-house CFD code and simulation methodology were employed. In the VISC concept a vortex forms on the outside of the wide cone angle spray and transports fuel vapor from the spray to the spark plug gap. A spray model for an outward-opening pintle injector used in the engine was developed, tested, and implemented in the code. Modeling proved to be effective for design optimization and analysis. The CFD simulations revealed important physical phenomena associated with the spray-guided combustion system mixing preparation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0549
Terry Alger, Jeff McGee, Steven Wooldridge
The influence of mixture preparation on misfires at idle in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine was investigated. A wall-guided DISI engine was run at idle conditions in a stratified charge mode (750 rpm / 90 kPa MAP). Images of the mixture composition at the spark plug were taken at spark timing using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for several different End-of-Injection (EOI) timings and spark timings. Cylinder pressure data were acquired simultaneously with the images to identify misfire cycles. The misfire rate was found to increase as the EOI timing was advanced from the optimal timing, defined by maximum stability and lowest ISFC. Images show that the misfire rate at a particular operating condition can be correlated to the fuel distribution and the location of the stratified charge in the engine. Cycles that showed a lower amount of stratification (overmixing) and/or high gradients in fuel concentration near the spark plug were the least stable.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0547
Barbara Westrate, Gary Coulson, Tom Kenney, Bhogineni Kumar, Matt Rogers, Corey Weaver
This paper describes the dynamometer development of a lightly stratified direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The engine was designed for stratified charge operation at speeds and loads below 2000 RPM, 2 bar BMEP. Test results detailed in this report include evaluation of part-load stratified-charge, part-load homogeneous-charge, and WOT operation. The program had aggressive goals in improving WOT performance and part-load fuel consumption compared to a baseline PFI engine while meeting Stage V emissions levels. Mini-map analysis of the engine data indicated that the engine was able to meet the emissions and fuel consumption goals.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0546
Jianwen Yi, Zhiyu Han, Zheng Xu, Lloyd E. Stanley
In the effort to improve combustion of a Light-load Stratified-Charge Direct-Injection (LSCDI) combustion system, CFD modeling, together with optical engine diagnostics and single cylinder engine testing, was applied to resolve some key technical issues. The issues associated with stratified-charge (SC) operation are combustion stability, smoke emission, and NOx emission. The challenges at homogeneous-charge operation include fuel-air mixing homogeneity at partial load operation, smoke emission and mixing homogeneity at low speed WOT, and engine knock tendency reduction at medium speed WOT operations. In SC operation, the fuel consumption is constrained with the acceptable smoke emission level and stability limit. With the optimization of piston design and injector specification, the smoke emission can be reduced. Concurrently, the combustion stability window and fuel consumption can be also significantly improved.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0545
Zhiyu Han, Corey Weaver, Steve Wooldridge, Terry Alger, Jim Hilditch, Jeff McGee, Barbara Westrate, Zheng Xu, Jianwen Yi, Xiangdong Chen, Nizar Trigui, George Davis
A new Light Stratified-Charge Direct Injection (LSC DI) spark ignition combustion system concept was developed at Ford. One of the new features of the LSC DI concept is to use a ‘light’ stratified-charge operation window ranging from the idle operation to low speed and low load. A dual independent variable cam timing (DiVCT) mechanism is used to increase the internal dilution for emissions control and to improve engine thermal efficiency. The LSC DI concept allows a large relaxation in the requirement for the lean after-treatment system, but still enables significant fuel economy gains over the PFI base design, delivering high technology value to the customer. In addition, the reduced stratified-charge window permits a simple, shallow piston bowl design that not only benefits engine wide-open throttle performance, but also reduces design compromises due to compression ratio, DiVCT range and piston bowl shape constraints.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0359
Sury A. Janarthanam, John R. Blankenship, Richard E. Soltis, Steve J. Szwabowski, Arun K. Jaura
Ford's Hydrogen Hybrid Research Vehicle (H2RV) is an industry first parallel hybrid vehicle utilizing a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The goal of this drivable concept vehicle is to marry Ford's extensive hybrid powertrain experience with its hydrogen internal combustion engine technology to produce a low emission, fuel-efficient vehicle. This vehicle is seen as a possible bridge from the petroleum fueled vehicles of today to the fuel cell vehicles envisioned for tomorrow. A multi-layered hydrogen management strategy was developed for the H2RV. All aspects of the vehicle including the design of the fuel and electrical systems, placement of high-voltage subsystems, and testing, service, and storage procedures were examined to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle. The results of these reviews led to the design of the hydrogen sensing and mitigation system for the H2RV vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0378
Jian Pang, Rao Dukkipati, Gang Sheng
The paper presents a procedure for nonlinear model identification of automotive seat cushion structure. In this paper, two nonlinear models are presented. Tests show that the automotive seat cushion structure is a nonlinear system. The transfer functions obtained from the test data between the seat butt and the seat track show that the magnitude and frequency shift will be smaller as the input is increased. The models predict the transfer functions having the same trend as the results from the tests. The models are quite useful for the analysis other car structures and also provide guidance in the design of seat cushions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0370
Arthur L. Richards, Vivek D. Bhise
Programmable vehicle models (PVMs) are intended to save time and costs in building bucks to evaluate vehicle interior packages. This paper presents results from a series of three studies conducted to determine the applicability and limitations of the methodology of using a PVM. The PVM used for the study was built by Prefix Corporation and has forty-two axes of adjustments. The first study verified the PVM's ability to reproduce dimensions. It showed that the PVM was acceptably accurate, with most dimension measurement ranges less than 2-3 mm. The second study was conducted to determine if subject responses are reliable indicators of package differences. Aside from some special causes, most were found to be. The third study was conducted to determine how well the PVM replicated 3 actual vehicles. Despite some dimensional discrepancies, there was evidence of correlation between subject responses from the PVM and actual vehicles.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0372
Jian Pang, Rao Dukkipati, Gang Sheng
In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic model for automotive cushion-human body combined structure is developed based on a nonlinear seat cushion model and a linear ISO human body model. Automotive seat cushions have shown to exhibit nonlinear characteristics. The nonlinear seat cushion model includes nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping terms. This model is verified by a series of tests conducted on sports car and luxury car seats. The transfer functions from the tests for human body sitting on an automotive seat changes with the vibration platform input magnitudes. This indicates that the combined structure possesses nonlinear characteristics. The nonlinear model is validated by the transfer functions from the test. The paper discusses the influence of the parameters of the nonlinear structure on the design of seat and assessment of human body comfort.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0388
Raj Sohmshetty, Ramana Kappagantu, Basavapatna P. Naganarayana, S. Shankar
Today, the interior noise perceived by the occupants is becoming an important factor driving the design standards for the design of most of the interior assemblies in an automotive vehicle. Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) is a major contributor towards the perceived noise of annoyance to the vehicle occupants. An automotive vehicle consists of many assemblies such as instrumentation panel, doors, sun/moon-roof, deck lids, hood, etc. which are the potential sources of BSR noise. The potential locations of critical BSR noise could be contained within such assemblies as well as across their boundaries. An extensive study is made regarding the overall structural behavior as well as their interaction under typical road loads to come up with enhanced design for improved quality from the BSR noise perspective. The alternative designs were comparatively evaluated for their relative noise level from buzz, squeak and rattle perspective using an analytical tool - N-hance.BSR.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0450
John L. Campbell, David H. Hoffmeister, Raymond J. Kiefer, Daniel J. Selke, Paul Green, Joel B. Richman
This paper describes an effort to develop a valid and reliable process for comprehension testing of candidate automotive symbols and to conduct comprehension testing on a set of new symbols being considered for in-vehicle active safety systems. The comprehension testing process was developed though a multi-year effort, supported by Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) and other organizations, aimed at generating a test methodology that would: yield high-quality comprehension data for new automotive symbols, provide clear and specific guidance back to symbol developers based on the test results, and could be adopted and performed internationally to support international standards efforts. Seventeen (17) candidate symbols were evaluated for three classes of in-vehicle active safety systems: forward collision warning (4 symbols), side collision warning (6 symbols), and lane departure warning (7 symbols).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1522
Debabrata Paul
In the recent times, the reduction of process variability has become very important for delivering cost-effective product. As per Taguchi's Loss Function, higher variability means higher cost also. The quantification of variability is a tremendous challenge to NVH engineers. To understand the NVH characteristics of an engine, measurements at various locations are needed. Moreover, each measurement is also a function of engine speed. In order to capture the process variability, multiple engines need to be measured. Thus, the final data is a function of engine, location, and speed. The objective of this paper is to define the various types of variability associated with the NVH data and to develop a procedure to estimate them. This paper contains the examples from the test data.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1550
Ian Czaja, Mohammad Hijawi
Stabilizer bar systems are present in almost every automobile sold today. They are used to tune ride, handling, and steering. This paper surveys the design alternatives for stabilizer bars, bushings, and links. It covers their function, performance, and basic design considerations. In addition, the paper provides an overview of stabilizer bar system reliability planning: ideal function, error states, noise factors, control factors, noise factor management, and validation testing are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1579
Marcello Berzeri, Anil Dhir, Raman Ranganathan, Bala Balendran, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Patrick J. O'Heron
Road loads tire models are used in the automotive industry in full vehicle simulations to compute the loading from the road into the chassis encountered in proving ground durability events. Such events typically include Belgian Block events, bump events, potholes and others. Correctly capturing tire enveloping forces in such events has historically been challenging - several different approaches exist each with its own limitations. In this paper a model is presented which captures the first order tire dynamics (frequencies lower than 80 Hz) and associated enveloping loading without the need of an effective road profile. The theory behind this tire model is briefly introduced. Importantly, a comprehensive study of the validation of the tire model is given which shows correlation for full vehicle dynamic proving ground events. A Virtual Tire Lab (VTL) pre-processing tool is also presented which is used to compute tire model input parameters from a validated non-linear FEA tire model.
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