Viewing 1 to 30 of 42
Journal Article
Shannon O'Day, Louis Tijerina
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
Technical Paper
Ivan Lima, Geraldo Minoru Kato, Juan Carlos Parrilla
The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Journal Article
Alexander T. Zaremba, Mark Jennings
This paper presents a purge system model developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Assessment of purge capability is critical to HEV vehicles due to frequent engine off operation which limits carbon canister purging. The purge model is comprised of subsystems representing purge control strategy, carbon canister and engine plant. The paper is focused on modeling of the engine purge control feature. The purge model validation and purge capability predictions for an example HEV vehicle are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper
Peter Kanefsky, Valerie Nelson, Mary Ranger
This paper is divided into two parts: Part 1 - Systems engineering fundamentals Part 2 - Engine cooling design from a systems engineering perspective In Part 1, we explain how the task of designing a complex system can be made easier by the application of Systems Engineering principles. (This part is self contained and may be of general interest to those who have no special interest in engine cooling). Systems Engineering provides three key benefits: It facilitates communication: Requirements define the problem, they allow team members to see their own work in context Key information is standardized and made easier to visualize and verify. An “audit trail” is maintained ensuring that important information is documented, and human memory is no longer relied on for important decisions. Translates requirements into design.
Technical Paper
David Y. Yao, Qing–Ke Yuan, W. G. Wang
Torsional vibration usually causes noticeable sound disturbances, mechanical shakings, and component fatigue problems. It exists at one or more periods of the operating range in torsional systems. Determination of critical speeds or torsional natural frequencies in a design stage makes it possible to avoid early fractures and costly repairs of the machinery. In this paper, the method for predicting speed–related excitation frequencies of complex rotating systems is discussed and the computer program is developed and tested by actual examples. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of multi–branch torsional vibration systems with one or more junction points are calculated. A user–friendly graphic interface for modeling is presented. Some practical examples are given and the results of the simulations are compared to those obtained analytically as well as those given in references.
Technical Paper
Carla K. Mauerberg Gerulaitis, Cleber Willian Gomes, Paulo Carpenito
Abstract This paper describes the strategy of lubricant oil service interval for commercial truck based on new engine technology (PROCONVE P7), the fleet owner's needs, vehicle typical application route, operational costs related to oil change, design of oil pan to adequate the oil volume and lubricant oil available technology. In result, this analysis shows the best annual operational cost for customer in terms of oil change.
Technical Paper
Silvia F. Iombriller, Wesley B. Prado, Claudio R. Herrero
Summary It is very important and unquestionable that we need to have a clear technical requirement for Air Brake Systems and its components, since it is one of most important regarding safety. Looking to heavy commercial vehicles and possible air brake system failures, everything becomes clearly to pay total attention for these normative and regulatory requirements. Historically, the development of Brakes technology has started on EUA and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct requirements were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE-R13. From decades people are trying to harmonize these requirements and for passenger cars, the evolution was faster. However, for commercial vehicles there are more peculiarities considering regional applications and some of them cultural and implementation time.
Technical Paper
Misael Neris da Silva, Milton Monteverde Belli, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Paulo Henrique Knoll, Ramon Conde, Robson Netto, Eduardo Carraro
Abstract The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions. For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.
Technical Paper
Technical Paper
Kim Yong-Wha, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
To meet stringent 2010 NOx emissions, many manufacturers are expected to deploy urea selective catalytic reduction systems. Indications from ARB are that a threshold monitor must be developed to monitor their performance. The most capable monitoring technology at this time relies on NOx sensors. This paper assesses the capability of the NOx sensor as an SCR monitoring device. To this end, the NOx sensor must be able to distinguish between a marginal and a threshold catalyst with enough separation to allow for variability. We present the noise factors associated with the NOx conversion of the SCR system, and analyze what NOx sensor accuracy we need to preserve separation in the face of those noise factors. It is shown that a 1.75 threshold monitor is not feasible with current NOx sensor technology. We analyze the benefit of a partial volume monitor, and show there is no advantage unless the slope error of the NOx sensor is drastically reduced from current levels.
Technical Paper
Michiel van Nieuwstadt, Devesh Upadhyay, Fumin Yuan
Regulatory authorities are actively revising and updating the rules for on board diagnostics of diesel powertrains. Diesel oxidation catalysts are among the parts that will have to be monitored. This paper discusses some of the issues related to the feasibility of monitoring these catalysts. We concentrate on the effect of real world noise factors on the ability to distinguish marginal from threshold catalysts and demonstrate that with current sensor and catalyst technology the separation between the two is poor.
Technical Paper
Daniel Kirby, Richard Charniga
In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper
Mohammad Moetakef, Aaron Bresky, Mark Zilberman, Todd Pham, Robert Egenolf, Bruce Bonhard
In automotive industry inserting cardboard liners or foam in the dirveshaft to prevent them from functioning as a path or amplifier to high frequency gear whine excitation is a common practice. Due to limited damping capability, these liners, however, have limited effectiveness and may not prevent or effectively reduce the shaft radiated noise. This paper addresses the feasibility and performance of polymers as an alternative lining material and technique. Through experimental investigations it has been shown that the polymer liners in reducing the driveshaft radiated noise are more effective than the cardboard liners.
Technical Paper
Jianhua Zhou, Parveen S. Goel
In this paper, a simplified and systematic approach to integrate reliability and durability aspects in design process is presented. A six step process is explained with the help of examples. Two alternatives for gathering means and standard deviations for key parameters are discussed. First a DOE approach based on orthogonal arrays is presented. Second approach is based on Taylor Series expansion. An example of beam design is solved with both of these approaches. The Second example also considers the degradation with time in service.
Technical Paper
Bijan Khatib-Shahidi, Wei Ho, Bo Han
Recent surveys of customer satisfaction with full size pickup trucks have raised the standards for passenger comfort and refinement of such vehicles. Customers for this type of vehicle demand performance levels for attributes such as NVH, ride, and handling that previously belonged to luxury passenger cars. Along with the increased passenger comfort, full size pickup trucks must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation trucks. The challenge is to design for NVH performance that can match and surpass many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. One aspect of “good” NVH is a steering wheel which is free from vibration. As part of the development of a new design for a full sized pick up truck, an NVH subjective rating of 8-9 (10 is maximum) was targeted for the design of steering column/ instrument panel assembly.
Technical Paper
Odilon Terreri Perseguim, Eduardo Peres, Claudio Gomes Fernandes, João Antônio da Silva Filho
The driver judges his vehicle based on subjective aspects. Vehicle dynamics characteristics including ride and handling have a major impact on this evaluation. For this reason, vehicle manufactures have grown investments in order to improve vehicle dynamics behavior. Subjective evaluation and customer satisfaction research show which dynamic characteristics need to be improved. CAE models, after being validated based on experimental measures, give a good insight on vehicle dynamic behavior and guide change proposals. At end, new subjective evaluations and measures are carried out in order to check the real improvement of CAE proposals. This work shows the use of the described methodology for a pickup vehicle dynamics evaluation. One of the major complains of pickup drives is related to ride quality. Thinking of that feature the evaluation process considers several phenomena, such as abruptness, front topping, front bottoming, head toss and rear aftershake.
Technical Paper
Eude Cezar de Oliveira
Some communication buses are too powerful and expensive for simple digital on/off operations such as activating lights, wipers, windows, etc. For these applications the LIN bus is currently the most promising communication protocol across the world's automotive industry. This paper addresses a study using LIN (Local Interconnect Network) for Ford South America vehicles. This will propose a new electrical architecture designed with LIN network, which will be replacing the conventional rear and front lights cables in Trucks, where other higher protocols, such as CAN, are not cost effective. LIN is a new low cost serial communication system intended to be used for distributed electronic system that will allow gaining further quality enhancement and cost reduction on cables, connectors and switches.
Technical Paper
Michael B. Levin, Richard E. Baker
Urea SCR is an established method to reduce NOx in dilute exhaust gas. The method is being used currently with stationary powerplants, and successful trials on motor vehicles have been conducted. The reason most often cited for rejecting urea SCR is lack of urea supply infrastructure, yet urea and other high nitrogen products are traded as commodities on the world market as a fertilizer grade, and an industrial grade is emerging. For a subset of commercial vehicles, urea can be provided by service personnel at designated terminals. But this approach does not support long distance carriers and personal use vehicles. The preferred delivery method is to add urea during vehicle refueling through a common fuel nozzle and fill pipe interface: urea / diesel co-fueling. Aqueous urea is well suited to delivery in this fashion.
Technical Paper
Reinaldo João Gutierrez, Irineu Ricardo Muneratto, Ricardo Colalillo
Technical Paper
Anthony C. Y. Lin, Shuenn Chen
Hydroformed truck frame side rails from circular tubes are studied for gage variations and pre-strain to be used in crash FEA modeling practice. This study provides simplified models that achieve feasible correlation with actual tests. Meanwhile, from plasticity theory we derive a forming equation in conjunction with forming limit diagrams to estimate material properties for hydroformed rails.
Technical Paper
Claudiomar Cardoso Cunha, Carlos Alberto Nunes Dias, Fábio P. Martins
Usually in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analyses, Computer Aided Design (CAD) data is meshed and analyzed with regard to displacements and stresses. So far, it is not common to account for residual stresses due to the manufacturing process in these analyses. This work proposes a methodology based on simplified abaqus Standard/Explicit models to evaluate residual stresses due to stamping and bending manufacturing process in truck rails and suggests a methodology to use this residual stress data in truck frame CAE durability analysis making it possible to compare how different a predicted fatigue life can be when residual stresses are considered.
Technical Paper
This paper describes the design and build of an experimental super transport truck for high-speed, long distance freight hauling on the interstate highway system of the 1970's. The tractor, powered by a 600-hp gas turbine engine, pulls two 40-foot tandem axle trailers at a G.C.W. of 170,000 lbs. Details of the turbine engine development are covered in SAE paper, No. 991B. One of the features of the super transport truck is the cab, which is designed for long-distance, non-stop, two-man operation. It is provided with sleeping accommodations, washroom conveniences, food facilities, and a complete heating and air-conditioning system. The 13-foot high cab roof is flush with the top of the trailers, providing a substantial aerodynamic advantage. Other features and components of the truck are described, and observations made during the 5500-mile national tour are discussed.
Technical Paper
Robert Z. Beauvais, Gordon R. Sorenson
This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper
Yonglu Zhao, Chu-hwa Lee, Ed Wayne, Eleni Beyko, Xiang-dong Che, Ziqi Chen, Ching-huang Chuang, Jeff Huang
The stabilizer bar attachments problem can not be simply analyzed by using linear FEA methodology. The large deformation in the bushing, the elastic-plastic material property in the bushing retainer bracket, and the contact between different parts all add complexity to the problem and result in the need for an analysis method using a non-linear code, such as ABAQUS. The material properties of the bushing were experimentally determined and applied to the CAE model. It was found that using strains to estimate the fatigue life was more accurate and reliable than using stress. Many modeling techniques used in this analysis were able to improve analysis efficiency.
Technical Paper
David G. Loosle, Peter F. Leon, C. Robert Danielson
Recent accomplishments, made possible by advances in manufacturing and material technology, have led to the development of a one-piece stamped I-Beam axle with ball joints as a replacemet to the forged axle with king pin design. The new stamped I-Beam axle brings with it a number of improvements to Ford's Twin I-Beam suspension system. This paper describes the objectives, improvements, evolution of the design, testing, and the manufacturing process for this latest suspension system improvement on Ford light trucks.
Technical Paper
Joseph Gormley, James I. Berry, Gerald J. DeSantis, Jeffrey L. Wainwright
Integrating microcomputer-based components and high technology displays to the heavy-duty truck instrument panel is an evolutionary step in panel development. The application and technology, based on automotive experience, is proven and the initially higher cost of more sophisticated instrumentation will be offset by capabilities offering a return on investment not possible even with the most modern electromechanical instrumentation.
Technical Paper
W. W. Shope, L. A. Ardisana, S. A. Mazzola
The unitized construction Aerostar compact van and wagon models have been engineered to meet a variety of consumer transportation needs. The broad range of functional and image objectives have been attained by traditional design and development programs augmented by new developmental methods and isolation components. State-of-the-art development methodologies applied early in the Aerostar program enabled prediction of the effects of design revisions intended to improve subsystem response characteristics and isolation. Developmental methods used included finite element analysis, modal analysis and synthesis, transmissibility measurements, torsional powertrain measurements, continuous wave laser holography, acoustical mode determination, acoustical intensity mapping and sensitivity studies used to project production ranges of quality.
Technical Paper
M. A. Kapadia, R. T. Eifert
Ford's continued effort to improve fuel economy in automotive applications has emphasized the need for lightweight components that retain all the toughness associated with Ford truck vehicle characteristics. The application of an impact extrusion process to wheel design and manufacture, for Ford Aerostar, provides strength, performance and style more efficiently than other traditional processes. It results in a valuable 33% weight saving over comparable HSLA steel wheels, and provides the customer with uncompromised value. The Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel was designed to be of one-piece construction, manufactured from a less than 1″ thick aluminum wafer-shaped blank. The process permits manufacture in half the steps of a conventional stamped steel wheel, and eliminates extensive machining required with forged or cast aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
Journal Article
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Pekar, Jaroslav Beran, Anthony D'Amato, Engin Ozatay, John Michelini, Steven Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate an Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equiped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. The authors reported simulations and application of linear and nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 42


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