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Viewing 1 to 30 of 411
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892149
Edward T. King, Granger K. Chul
A 22 hour engine test was developed to evaluate the effects of fuels, lubricants, and valvetrain dynamics on the wear of OHC 2.3L engine camshafts and finger followers. Procedures include a break-in to improve test repeatability and a test sequence to allow single-shift operation. A surface analyzer capable of measuring cam lobe wear profiles to micro-inch accuracy provided a quantitative wear comparison. A pure mineral oil, as expected, resulted in higher camshaft wear than using a fully formulated SF lubricant. Cam and follower wear increased significantly when ethanol replaced gasoline as fuel. The combination of ethanol, mineral oil and heavy duty valve springs was selected to increase test severity for hardware discrimination. The average wear of the intake lobes was greater than the exhausts. Kinematic analysis and visual inspection of the valve train mechanism revealed differences in the relative motion and contact stress pattern.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890679
C. E. Newman, R. A. Stein, C. C. Warren, G. C. Davis
Abstract An experimental and analytical study was conducted to investigate the effects of load control with port throttling on stability and fuel consumption at idle. With port throttling, the pressure in the intake port increases during the valve-closed period due to flow past the throttle. If the pressure in the port recovers to ambient before the valve overlap period, back flow into the intake system from the cylinder is eliminated. This allows increased valve overlap to be used without increasing the residual mass fraction in the cylinder. Results showed that, with high valve overlap and port throttling, idle stability and fuel consumption can be maintained at values associated with low overlap in a conventionally throttled engine. However, implementation of this concept in production is regarded to require precision-fit and balanced port throttles, an external vacuum pump for vacuum systems support, and revision of the PCV system.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910200
M.-C. Lai, J.-Y. Kim, C.-Y. Cheng, P. Li, G. Chui, J. D. Pakko
The three-dimensional non-reacting flow field inside a typical dual-monolith automotive catalytic converter was simulated using finite difference analysis. The monolithic brick resistance was formulated from the pressure gradient of fully developed laminar duct-flow and corrected for the entrance effect. This correlation was found to agree with experimental pressure drop data, and was introduced as an additional source term into the non-dimensional momentum governing equation within the brick. Flow distribution within the monolith was found to depend strongly on the diffuser performance, which is a complex function of flow Reynolds number, brick resistance, and inlet pipe length and bending angles. A distribution index was formulated to quantify the degree of non-uniformity at selected test cases covering ranges of flow conditions, brick types, and inlet conditions.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800015
F. Bauer, P.E., A. C. Doty
SAE J551a (radio interference from ignition systems) was the first Standard revised specifically for compatibility with international requirements. Subsequent revisions (presently 551g) have made it significantly more stringent than the standard used overseas. U.S. automotive manufacturers have voluntarily designed vehicles to conform since 1962, without the necessity of Federal regulation. Liaison with Canada resulted in the use of the SAE Standard when RFI regulations were promulgated. Twenty years international negotiations have resulted in a common concept for North American and world requirements. The RFI Subcommittee will continue harmonization toward the objective of achieving a worldwide standard.
1985-02-25
Technical Paper
850474
S. C. Jasuja, M. P. Anderson
Finite element simulations of powertrain assemblies and components such as an engine block, transmission case, and structural oil pan, are regularly carried out at Ford Motor Company to provide directions for design improvements relevant to durability, minimum weight, noise and vibration characteristics. This paper presents hands-on experience with analyses of two powertrains in terms of computational strategies and resource requirements. The course of future analysis work in the light of current developments in computer technology, is also presented.
1985-02-01
Technical Paper
850281
Jack Williams
With the increasing emphasis on and importance of aerodynamics on vehicle fuel economy and handling, conservative approaches to sizing front-end cooling openings based on projected radiator area need to be replaced by a performance-based method. The method would not only allow more flexibility in front-end styling, but would enable the design of the grille, cooling hardware and vehicle heat rejection requirements to be based on the cooling performance of the total vehicle. The reductions in cooling drag and front lift from smaller, but more functional, grille openings would improve vehicle fuel economy and handling. A performance-based front-end design approach is described in the paper along with some selected experimental results. The method is based on an experimental technique for simultaneously measuring the total radiator airflow and vehicle aerodynamic performance in an aerodynamic wind tunnel.
1984-11-01
Technical Paper
841695
W. W. Shope, L. A. Ardisana, S. A. Mazzola
The unitized construction Aerostar compact van and wagon models have been engineered to meet a variety of consumer transportation needs. The broad range of functional and image objectives have been attained by traditional design and development programs augmented by new developmental methods and isolation components. State-of-the-art development methodologies applied early in the Aerostar program enabled prediction of the effects of design revisions intended to improve subsystem response characteristics and isolation. Developmental methods used included finite element analysis, modal analysis and synthesis, transmissibility measurements, torsional powertrain measurements, continuous wave laser holography, acoustical mode determination, acoustical intensity mapping and sensitivity studies used to project production ranges of quality.
1984-02-01
Technical Paper
840251
H. H. Dertian, T. M. Hutchison
Successful application of turbocharger technology to the Ford 2.3L OHC engine requires management of thermal loading. The 1979/1980 2.3L draw-thru carbureted engine was octane and spark advance limited, requiring calibration to worse case 91 RON conditions. Since no adaptive calibration control was possible relatively late ignition timing compromised engine performance. To improve performance, driveability, fuel economy and emission control, work was initiated in mid 1980 on a blow-thru electronic fuel injected engine scheduled for 1983½ production. Program assumptions were issued specifying a tuned EFI blow-thru inlet system, exhaust manifold mounted AiResearch T03 turbocharger with integral wastegate and 8.0:1 compression ratio with a dished piston. Also included were base engine revisions to accommodate increased thermal and mechanical loads.
1983-06-06
Technical Paper
831009
H. Lenox, A. J. Scussel
A completely new in-line four cylinder engine has been designed at Ford Motor Company for use in the 1984 Tempo/Topaz front-wheel-drive vehicle line. This paper will describe several factors which influenced the engine design, specifically in the areas of improved combustion, reduced friction, electronic controls, packaging and manufacturing. Individual component and overall system designs will also be described.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1404
Tao Xu, Sheng-Jaw Hwang, Chung-Yao Tang, Mikhail Ejakov, Michael King
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1936
Zheng Xu, Jianwen Yi, Eric W. Curtis, Steven Wooldridge
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1939
Mehdi Abarham, John Hoard, Dennis N. Assanis, Dan Styles, Eric W. Curtis, Nitia Ramesh, C. Scott Sluder, John M. E. Storey
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1916
Claudia O. Iyer, Jianwen Yi
A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system, with focus on the optimization of the combustion system including injector spray pattern, intake port design, piston geometry, cylinder head geometry. The development methodology was led by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling together with a testing program that uses optical, single-cylinder, and multi-cylinder engines. The current study shows the effect of several spray patterns on air-fuel mixing, in-cylinder flow development, surface wetting, and turbulence intensity. A few sets of injector spray patterns are studied; some that have a wide total cone angle, some that have a narrow cone angle and a couple of optimized injector spray patterns. The effect of the spray pattern at part load, full load and cold start operation was investigated and the methodology for choosing an optimized injector is presented.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2053
Charlie Teng, Steve Homco
With swelling gasoline prices, automotive OEMs have taken different approaches to improve vehicle fuel economy. One trend is to down-size the engine and to add turbo charging. One of the challenges in utilizing the turbocharger in passenger cars is to control the added NVH issues associated with this hardware, especially for the North American market where turbocharger use is scarce in gasoline engines. In this paper, the authors review an investigation on turbocharger related “whoosh” noise on a V6 engine. The whoosh noise, also called surge noise, is caused by the compressor working at or near surge conditions. Whoosh noise is a broad frequency band flow noise typically found during throttle tip-in conditions, but sometimes found even at steady state driving conditions. The root cause of whoosh noise and the detection methods are discussed in this paper. The countermeasures to reduce whoosh noises are also discussed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0881
Yan Meng, Mark Jennings, Poyu Tsou, David Brigham, Douglas Bell, Ciro Soto
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system model, which directly simulates vehicle drive cycles with interactions among driver, environment, vehicle hardware and vehicle controls, is a critical CAE tool used through out the product development process to project HEV fuel economy (FE) capabilities. The accuracy of the model is essential and directly influences the HEV hardware designs and technology decisions. This ultimately impacts HEV product content and cost. Therefore, improving HEV system model accuracy and establishing high-level model-test correlation are imperative. This paper presents a Parameter Diagram (P-Diagram) based model-test correlation framework which covers all areas contributing to potential model simulation vs. vehicle test differences. The paper describes each area in detail and the methods of characterizing the influences as well as the correlation metrics.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0858
Alexander T. Zaremba, Mark Jennings
This paper presents a purge system model developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Assessment of purge capability is critical to HEV vehicles due to frequent engine off operation which limits carbon canister purging. The purge model is comprised of subsystems representing purge control strategy, carbon canister and engine plant. The paper is focused on modeling of the engine purge control feature. The purge model validation and purge capability predictions for an example HEV vehicle are presented and discussed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0860
Qing Wang, Wei Liang, Ming Kuang, Ryan McGee
Ford Motor Company has investigated a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) configuration to move further toward powertrain electrification. This paper first provides a brief overview of the Vehicle System Controls (VSC) architecture and its development process. The paper then presents the energy management strategies that select operating modes and desired powertrain operating points to improve fuel efficiency. The focus will be on the controls design and optimization in a Model-in-the-Loop environment and in the vehicle. Various methods to improve powertrain operation efficiency will also be presented, followed by simulation results and vehicle test data. Finally, opportunities for further improvements are summarized.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1224
Mark S. Peckham, Alex Finch, Bruce Campbell, Phil Price, Marcus Timothy Davies
A study has been conducted to measure the particle number emissions from a current-generation 1.6-liter, Euro IV-compliant turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. A fast-response particle size spectrometer was used along with a PMP-compliant particulate measurement system to measure the effect of various engine parameters on the particulate emissions during the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). Overall particle number is shown along with further analysis of the transient particle emissions. The cold start clearly affects particle formation with approximately 50% of the cumulative particle number being emitted within 200 seconds of the start. Even beyond 200 seconds, the particle number emissions fall as the test progresses and are generally consistent with increases in engine coolant temperature indicating that cold engine fuel preparation issues are contributing to the particle number count.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3764
James C. Ball, Thomas E. Kenney, Leslie R. Wolf, Douglas M. Yost, Matt Schulman, Edwin A. Frame, James P. Wallace, David L. Hilden, Mani Natarajan, Timothy V. Johnson, Kenneth J. Wright, King Eng, Manuel A. González D.
Previously we reported (SAE Paper 2005-01-0475) that emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from an engine operating at low NOx conditions using Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT100) were lower than those emissions from the engine using an ultra-low sulfur (15 PPM sulfur) diesel fuel (BP15). Those tests were performed at two operating modes: Mode 6 (4.2 bar BMEP, 2300 RPM) and Mode 11 (2.62 bar BMEP, 1500 RPM). We wanted to evaluate the effect on emissions of operating the engine at low power (near idle) in conjunction with the low NOx strategy. Specifically, we report on emissions of total hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx, particulates (PM), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, gas phase polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and particle phase PAH's from a DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine using a low NOx engine operating strategy at Mode 22 (1.0 bar BMEP and 1500 RPM).
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3749
Edward W. Kaiser, M. Matti Maricq, Ning Xu, Jialin Yang
Concentrations of individual species in the engine-out exhaust gas from a gasoline-fueled (101.5 or 91.5 RON), direct-injection, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine have been measured by gas chromatography over the A/F range 50 to 230 for both stratified and nearly homogeneous fuel-air mixtures. The species identified include hydrocarbons, oxygenated organic species, CO, and CO2. A single-cylinder HCCI engine (CR = 15.5) with heated intake charge was used. Measurements of the mass and size distribution of particulate emissions were also performed. The 101.5 RON fuel consisted primarily of five species, simplifying interpretation of the exhaust species data: iso-pentane (24%), iso-octane (22%), toluene (17%), xylenes (10%), and trimethylbenzenes (9%).
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0470
Jeong Y. Kim, Yisun Cheng, Karen M. Adams, Robert H. Hammerle
An analytical model was developed to simulate both sulfur adsorption and desorption characteristics based on the laboratory determined parameters. Diesel Lean NOx Trap (LNT) was tested under laboratory conditions to examine desulfation (deSOx) characteristics. Effects of different Lean/Rich (L/R) cycling of Air-Fuel ratio during the deSOx mode were investigated. The gradient of adsorbed sulfur along the axial direction of the sample LNT was also examined. The gradient of sulfur deposit, together with different L/R cycling combinations for the deSOx mode was critical to develop the efficient sulfur removal strategies. The model considered energy and mass balances during sulfur adsorption and desorption modes to predict the catalyst temperature and the amount of sulfur adsorbed and removed. HC and CO oxidation reactions as well as the oxygen storage were considered to estimate heat generated by the exothermic reactions.
2005-11-22
Technical Paper
2005-01-4116
Edgard Marcelo de Assis, Ricardo Kurauchi, Danilo Girola, Fábio Henrique Dermendjian, Liao Dai Lon, Jose Celso Margonato Ribeiro, Tiago Augusto Pill
The Diesel engine popularity has been increasing for the last years, mainly in Europe, where the Diesel passenger cars fleet surpassed the petrol one. Such popularity is not only a result of fuel consumptions benefits, but also a result of a combination of all engine attributes performance including powertrain NVH and drivability. Thus, the common rail technology must provide capabilities to improve the attributes for this competitive and demanding market. This paper intends to idealize the drive-by-wire response in Diesel engines, which is a technological feature that contributes to achieve the customer vehicle performance feel and drivability expectation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0210
Joseph Theis, Erdogan Gulari
Abstract An aftertreatment system involving a LNT followed by a SCR catalyst is proposed for treating the NOx emissions from a diesel engine. NH3 (or urea) is injected between the LNT and the SCR. The SCR is used exclusively below 400°C due to its high NOx activity at low temperatures and due to its ability to store and release NH3 below 400°C, which helps to minimize NH3 and NOx slip. Above 400°C, where the NH3 storage capacity of the SCR falls to low levels, the LNT is used to store the NOx. A potassium-based LNT is utilized due to its high temperature NOx storage capability. Periodically, hydrocarbons are oxidized on the LNT under net lean conditions to promote the thermal release of the NOx. NH3 is injected simultaneously to reduce the released NOx over the SCR. The majority of the hydrocarbons are oxidized on the front portion of the LNT, resulting in the rapid release of stored NOx from that portion of the LNT.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0291
C. W. Maranville, H. Ohtani, D. D. Sawall, J. T. Remillard, J. M. Ginder
The use of nanotechnology to develop advanced heat-transfer materials is a rapidly growing topic of research at facilities around the world. One class of these materials, nanofluids, has shown promise in the laboratory to dramatically improve thermal conductivity. Quantification of the thermophysical properties of these fluids is important for optimizing the design of automotive powertrains and electrical subsystems in order to produce highly efficient and robust vehicle cooling. A new technique for measuring thermal conductivity, the Transient Planar Source (TPS) method, was used for the first time to investigate the thermal conductivity of automotive coolants and their equivalent nanofluid, as a function of temperature. The results of this study indicate that the TPS method allows for rapid and repeatable measurement of thermal conductivity with an error of between 2-4%. The technique also presents several advantages over other methods which we will briefly describe.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0326
Glenn W. Scheffler, Gery J. Kissel, Jesse Schneider, Michael Veenstra, Tommy Chang, William Chernicoff, Mark Richards
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has published and is developing standards for FCVs and hydrogen vehicles. SAE J2578 was the first document published by the working group. The document is written from an overall vehicle perspective and deals with the integration of fuel cell and hydrogen systems in the vehicle and the management of risks associated with these systems. Since the publishing of SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 regarding post-crash electrical safety and is developing SAE J2579 which deals with vehicular hydrogen systems.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2142
Brendan Carberry, Georg Grasi, Stephane Guerin, Francois Jayat, Roman Konieczny
Further tightened emission legislation and new engine technologies increase the requirements for the exhaust after-treatment system of modern diesel passenger cars. Especially the increasing raw emissions of HC and CO as well as the low temperature of the exhaust gas for a long period during cold start of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) require additional efforts in the design of the oxidation catalyst system [1]. A highly efficient micro catalyst, which is mounted in front of a turbocharger, can help to treat efficiently these high HC and CO emissions. Due to the higher temperature level in front of the turbine and the significantly increased mass and heat transfer by turbulent flow, efficiency especially during cold start is highly increased. However the packaging constraints are more critical in this area due to heat considerations and also to maintain engine performance.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2102
Terry Alger, Steve Wooldridge, Erica Gallant
Swirl plane Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in a single-cylinder optically accessible gasoline direct injection (DISI) engine using a borescope introduced through the spark plug hole. This allowed the use of a contoured piston and the visualization of the flow field in and around the piston bowl. The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) was fixed at 90 kPa and the engine speed was varied in increments of 250 rpm from 750 rpm to 2000 rpm. Images were taken from 270° to 320° bTDC of compression at 10° intervals to study the evolution of the velocity fluctuations. Measurements were performed with and without fuel injection to study its effect on the in-cylinder flow fields. Fuel was injected at 10 MPa and 5 MPa. The 2-D spatial mean velocities of individual flow fields and their decompositions were averaged over 100 cycles and used to investigate the effects of engine speed and image timing on the flow field.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2271
David Scholl, Mike Blommer
A wavelet-based technique for reducing the impulsive character of sound recordings is presented. The amount of impulsive content removed may be adjusted by varying a statistical threshold. The technique is validated for a diesel idle sound-quality application. The wavelet-based modification produces a substantial decrease in impulsive character as verified by an objective sound-quality metric for engine “ticking”. Informal subjective assessment of the modified results found them to be realistic and free from artifacts. The procedure is expected to be useful for sound-quality simulation and target-setting for diesel powertrain noise and other automotive sounds containing both impulsive and non-impulsive content.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1648
Dennis N. Assanis, Wooheum Cho, Inyong Choi, Andrew Ickes, Dohoy Jung, Jason Martz, Ryan Nelson, Jeff Sanko, Scott Thompson, John Brevick, Bruce Inwood
Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1654
Paul J. Shayler, David K. W. Leong, Michael Murphy
Friction data have been acquired from motored engine tests on four designs of light duty automotive diesel engines with a swept capacity around two litres (1.8l-2.2l). The data cover temperatures at the start of motoring of -20°C and above, and motoring speeds from 200 rev/min to 1000 rev/min. Most tests were carried out using SAE 10W/30 oil. The breakdowns separated piston assembly, crankshaft assembly, valve train and auxiliary component contributions to friction mean effective pressure (fmep). The empirical coefficients and functions used in the engine friction model developed by Patton, Nitschke and Heywood (SAE 890836) have been modified to fit the low speed, low temperature test data without greatly affecting predictions for fully-warm conditions. The dependence of component contributions on oil viscosity during warm-up has been taken into account.
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