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Viewing 1 to 30 of 65
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900291
Gary M. Zegiestowsky, Kenneth J. Williams
Thermoplastic body panels are emerging in the industry as automotive manufacturers seek to design for advanced aerodynamic styling, lower weight, and cost effective vehicles. To best exhibit the advantages of GE thermoplastic resins in these applications, an extensive study has been completed to demonstrate the impact performance of thermoplastic body panels in the field based on the current success with the Buick LeSabre T-Type, Buick Reatta, and the Cadillac Deville and Fleetwood models using NORYL GTX® 910 resin fenders. This study provides a “real life” scenario of the advantages of thermoplastics compared to steel in body panel applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900078
Deborah S. Rousseau, Raymond F. Kolberg, Zenon Hotra
Abstract The increased demands of today's complex automotive connector designs have led to the development of engineering structural analysis tools which address the performance issues of the connector's snap-finger. In designs where hand calculations were once considered the norm in evaluating snap-finger performance, the analysis tools have evolved into the use of finite element techniques which address the high nonlinearity issues of snap-finger disassembly and terminal pull out strength. The structural analysis approaches developed investigate the connector snap-finger performance in reinforced engineering thermoplastics while incorporating the effects of geometric and material nonlinearity in the results. The techniques developed allow for the evaluation of snap-finger performance of prospective connector designs before expensive tooling and prototyping is initiated, providing the benefits of limited tool rework and decreased product development time.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920523
Joel Santella, Andrew Day, Dan Moore
Abstract Three commonly used energy management systems (expanded polypropylene foam, collapsing honeycomb and hydraulic shock absorbers) were fully characterized in 2.2 m/s pendulum bumper impact testing. This work was done to better understand the dynamic energy transfer and absorption of the system components and any synergies which exist between them. The test results showed that the energy absorbing systems which exhibited the best load and deflection performance when considered as individual components do not always work the most synergistically with the reinforcement beam. Simply examining the energy absorber's performance alone did not truly reflect the ability of the beam/absorber system's ability to manage energy.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980107
Janet Rawson, James Staargaard, Olga Hedler, Irfan Sharif, James Gourd
The first single-piece, injection-molded, thermoplastic, front bumper for a light truck provides improved performance and reduced cost for the 1997 MY Explorer® Ltd. and 1988 MY Mountaineer® truck from Ford Motor Company. Additionally, the system provides improved impact performance, including the ability to pass 5.6 km/hr barrier impact tests without damage. Further, the advanced, 1-piece design integrates fascia attachments, reducing assembly time, and weighs 8.76 kg/bumper less than a baseline steel design. The complete system provides a cost savings vs. extruded aluminum and is competitive with steel bumpers.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980106
Brian Gilliard
Over the last decade, on small- and medium-size passenger cars, a new class of front bumper - injection or blow molded from engineering thermoplastics - has been put into production use. These bumper systems provide full 8-km/hr federal pendulum and flat-barrier impact protection, as well as angled barrier protection. Thermoplastic bumpers, offering weight, cost, and manufacturing advantages over conventional steel bumper systems, also provide high surface finish and styling enhancements. However, there remain questions about the durability and engineering applicability of thermoplastic bumper systems to heavier vehicles. This paper presents results of a preliminary study that examines the durability of thermoplastic bumpers drawn from production lots for much lighter compact, and mid-size passenger cars against baseline steel bumper systems currently used on full-size pickup truck and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs). Bumpers were subjected to U.S.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980113
Darin Evans
This paper will address several critical aspects of bumper system performance, including vehicle damage protection and crash-severity sensing considerations, energy-absorption capacity and efficiency, and low-speed impact consistency and sensitivity to temperature changes. The objective is to help engineers and designers establish a realistic perspective of the capability of the various technologies based on actual test performance. The scope of the evaluation will include a comparison of several bumper-beam material constructions when subjected to a 16-km/hr swinging barrier impact over a range of temperatures the bumper could see in service (-30 to 60C).
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980110
Maria Grosser, Janet Rawson
Recent vehicle design trends require bumper systems to be crashworthy under more demanding circumstances, e.g. tighter package space, heavier vehicle mass, and wider rail spans. Meanwhile, pressure to reduce cost and weight of bumpers continues at a time when roles in the supplier community are changing. These factors have combined to increase the importance of optimizing bumper design and material properties for specific platforms. Materials suppliers have responded by developing a range of specialized engineering thermoplastic (ETP) resins that can help meet increasing performance requirements yet also offer the potential for improved manufacturing productivity, significant weight savings, and systems cost reductions. Material suppliers have also increased the level of technical design support provided to OEMs and 1st Tier suppliers.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980863
P. Michael Miller, Michael Sykes
This paper presents results from a series of tests that address safety related issues concerning vehicle glazing. These issues include occupant containment, head impact injury, neck injuries, fracture modes, and laceration. Component-level and full vehicle crash tests of standard and polycarbonate non-windshield glazing were conducted. The tests were conducted as part of a study to demonstrate that there is no decrease in the safety benefits offered by polycarbonate glazing when compared to current glazing. Readers of this paper will gain a broader understanding of the tests that are typically conducted for glazing evaluation from a safety perspective, as well as gain insight into the meaning of the results.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980999
Todd Hoff, John Madej, Tom Goral, Chuck Ryntz, Ana Ludvik, Bob Cicala, Steve Hartig
This paper documents the design methodology, part performance, and economic considerations for a generic hardware module applied to a front passenger-car door. Engineering thermoplastics (ETPs), widely used in automotive applications for their excellent mechanical performance, design flexibility, and parts integration, can also help advance the development of modular door-hardware systems. Implementation of these hardware carriers is being driven by pressures to increase manufacturing efficiencies, reduce mass, lower part-count numbers, decrease warranty issues, and cut overall systems costs. In this case, a joint team from GE Plastics, Magna-Atoma International/Dortec, and Excel Automotive Systems assessed the opportunity for using a thermoplastic door hardware module in a current mid-size production vehicle. Finite-element analysis showed that the thermoplastic module under study withstood the inertial load of the door being slammed shut at low, room, and elevated temperatures.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980963
Gary Kachin, Kevin Martin, Dan Woodman, Jeff Webb
The purpose of this paper is to discuss design methodology, manufacturing considerations, and testing proveout for a prototype gas-assist-molded, energy-absorbing, glovebox door program. The design used a single gas pin mounted in a multiple-gas-channel component and an internal gas manifold to form an efficient energy absorbing system. The end goal for the development program was to manufacture a glovebox door in a system that could meet the customer's targets for cost, surface appearance, and safety considerations without degrading function and fit. This paper will discuss the ability of a design methodology to predict actual component performance using engineering calculations, analytical tools, and prototype testing/molding during the development.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980983
J. Scobbo, D. Grimes, T. Lemmen, V. Umamaheswaran
The formulation of injection moldable thermoplastics with small loadings of graphite nanotubes provides sufficient conductivity in molded parts to allow for use in electrostatic painting applications. Normally, plastic parts need to be painted with a conductive primer prior to the electrostatic painting of base and clear coats. The use of conductive plastics eliminates the need for the priming step, and improves paint transfer efficiency and first pass yield. These elements provide obvious savings in materials and labor. What is less obvious, however, is the dramatic positive environmental impact that can occur through the reduction in emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Graphite nanotube technology provides advantages over other technologies such as conductive carbon black. In order to reach the percolation threshold for conductivity in carbon-black-containing resins, the loading of carbon black required tends to embrittle the polymer.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970725
Kenneth C. Sherman, Robert Florence
Traditional knee bolster designs consist of a first-surface plastic component covered by paint or vinyl skin and foam, with a subsurface steel plate that transfers knee loads to 2 steel crush brackets. The design was developed to meet FMVSS 208 and OEM requirements. More recently, technological developments have allowed for the steel plate to be replaced by a ribbed plastic structure, which offers cost and weight savings to the instrument panel system. However, it is still a hybrid system that combines plastic with the 2 steel crush brackets. This paper will detail the development of an all-plastic design, which consolidates the plastic ribbed reinforcement plate with the 2 steel crush cans in a single engineering thermoplastic component. The new system is expected to offer further cost and weight savings.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970726
David Manwaring, Al Chan, Matthew Marks
Designers and engineers encounter many challenges in developing vehicles for the small-car market. They face constant pressure to reduce both mass and cost while still producing vehicles that meet environmental and safety requirements. At the same time, today's discriminating consumers demand the highest quality in their vehicles. To accommodate these challenges, OEMs and suppliers are working together to improve all components and systems for the high-volume small-car market. An example of this cooperative effort is a project involving an integrated structural instrument panel (IP) designed to meet the specific needs of the small-car platform. Preliminary validation of the IP project, which uses a compression-molded, glass-mat-thermoplastic (GMT) composite and incorporates steel and magnesium, indicates it will significantly reduce part count, mass, assembly time, and overall cost.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970144
John Madej, Michael Werner, Joyce Rolls
As automakers struggle to meet often conflicting safety, weight, styling, and performance requirements, engineering thermoplastics (ETPs) are making increasing inroads into applications that once were the exclusive domain of metals, glass, and thermosets. A good example of this is in the door systems area, where the performance, design flexibility, aesthetics, parts integration, and lower specific gravity offered by ETPs are allowing highly integrated and efficient modules to be created that, in turn, increase assembly efficiency and reduce mass, part count, warranty issues, and systems costs. This paper will use several case studies on innovative door hardware modules and door panels to illustrate the advantages offered by this versatile class of engineering materials.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970143
Joyce Rolls, John Madej, Mike Werner
Engineering thermoplastics are widely used in a variety of automotive components systems because of their excellent balance of mechanical performance, design flexibility, aesthetics, parts integration, and low specific gravity. This combination of properties allows for the creation of highly integrated modules, which can increase assembly efficiency and reduce mass, part count, warranty and ergonomic issues, and systems costs. As a result, the use of engineering thermoplastic materials can enhance market competitiveness at a time of increased global competition. To evaluate the economic advantages of polymers in a specific vehicle system, a design for assembly (DFA) case study was conducted with the goal of determining the variable system cost case for a generic thermoplastic door module system vs. conventional-build door systems based on assembly savings gains. This paper will describe the study and show the results achieved.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970163
Deborah J. Locke, Daniel Woodman, Christopher L. Clark
Automotive engineers and designers are working to develop pillar-trim concepts that will comply with the upper interior head-impact legislation, FMVSS 201U. However, initial development cycles have been long and repetitive. A typical program consists of concept development, tool fabrication, prototype molding, and impact testing. Test results invariably lead to tool revisions, followed by further prototypes, and still more impact testing. The cycle is repeated until satisfactory parts are developed - a process which is long (sometimes in excess of 1 year) and extremely labor intensive (and therefore expensive). Fortunately, the use of finite-element analysis (FEA) can greatly reduce the concept-to-validation time by incorporating much of the prototype and impact evaluations into computer simulations. This paper describes both the correlation and validation of an FEA-based program to physical free-motion head-form testing and the predictive value of this work.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970486
Terry Morgan, Mark Corsello, Andrew Day, Janet Rawson, Bruce Fedewa
A new front bumper, blow molded from an engineering thermoplastic, is being used to provide full 8 km/h federal pendulum and flat-barrier impact protection, as well as angled barrier protection on a small passenger car. The low intrusion bumper is compatible with the vehicle's single-sensor airbag system and offers a 5.8 kg mass savings compared with competitive steel/foam systems. This paper will describe the design and development of the bumper system and the results achieved during testing.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970485
Janet Rawson, Dan Woodman, Andrew Day
A conceptual step-pad bumper system has been designed for a sport utility vehicle. This bumper incorporates an all-thermoplastic solitary beam/fascia with a Class A finish and a replaceable, grained thermoplastic olefin (TPO) or urethane step pad. The rear beam is injection molded and the cover plate features integrated through-towing capabilities and electrical connections. The bumper is designed to pass FMVSS Part 581, 8 km/h impacts. The system can potentially offer a 5.0-13.6 kg weight savings at comparable costs to conventional step-pad bumper systems. This paper will detail the design and development of the concept and finite-element analysis (FEA) validation.
1996-04-01
Technical Paper
91A093
J. Wood
Not only have engineering thermoplastics secured an accepted place in automotive manufacture, but also their penetration of areas traditionally the sole domain of metals, is growing. One group of materials in particular is driving this trend; that of advanced thermoplastic composites. Used primarily in non-appearance, semi-structural parts, thermoplastic composites are opening the way for engineering polymers to be used in large components such as tailgates, technical fascia's or front end modules, side doors and bonnets, amongst many other novel applications whose engineering criteria could previously be met only by steel. This paper will look at both the new opportunities for engineering plastics in automotive applications and at the materials capable of economically satisfying their demands
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
922116
Peter J. Zuber
Engineering thermoplastics are being used increasingly in automotive exterior body applications; most of these applications require that the panels be painted “on line” with the rest of the car body at relatively high temperatures. The high temperatures associated with the painting/conditioning of the car have been shown to cause dimensional stability problems on automotive fenders molded from NORYL GTX®. This paper contains the results of an extensive FEA investigation targeted at determining what factors cause dimensional problems in fenders exposed to high heat. The ABAQUS FEA software was used to perform computer simulations of the process and the C-PACK/W software was used to determine molded in stress values.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940171
Christopher Clark, Peter Bejin
The C-section bumper design has developed through an evolutionary process and has come to be regarded as a reasonable geometry for frontal bumper impacts, especially for use with glass-filled sheet-stampable thermoplastic composite materials. C-section bumpers are now well proven and accepted in the automotive industry, performing satisfactorily in a variety of crash situations. A new and more complicated cross-section geometry (I-type with multiple ribbing) has recently been proposed for glass-filled thermoplastic composites. While, in some specialized cases, these highly engineered bumper cross-sections can be useful, they may not perform adequately in all reasonable crash scenarios. Further, it is important to consider manufacturing limitations and the realities of material performance in such complex geometries. Data will be presented to question the practical advantages of the use of ribbed bumper designs over the traditional C-section beam.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950562
Christopher L. Clark, Rick Williams, Jeffrey S. Dixon, Song Bi
Gas-assist injection molding is a relatively new process. It is an extension of conventional injection molding and allows molders to make larger parts having projected areas or cross sectional geometries not previously possible using existing equipment. However, controlling the injection of the gas has been a concern. The plastics industry is attempting to establish logical techniques to set up and rationalize processing conditions for the method. Although gas injection equipment permits a number of adjustments, an optimum processing window must be established to provide control and repeatability of the process to mold consistent, acceptable parts. This paper describes a strategy and equipment for rationalizing and accurately controlling gas injection processing conditions that are applicable regardless of the type of molding machine or processing license a molder is using.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950830
Kenneth C. Sherman,, Brian Ahrens, Walter Kosmatka, Chris Uebrueck, Jennifer Sonnenberg
Complex reflectors -- also known as faceted or optics-in reflectors -- are becoming a popular forward lighting option on passenger vehicles. When optics are located in the reflector, changes in the shape of the reflector due to thermal expansion, stress relaxation, and creep become more critical than with conventional lenses because changes in reflector shape shift the optics, causing beam patterns to move. To assess such movement, complex reflectors molded of injection molded thermoplastics were photometered using an LMT GO1200 gonio-photometer. Isocandela plots were generated at several points in time, and amount of beam pattern movement and pattern brightness changes were calculated. While the results of the study showed that the complex reflectors molded of engineering thermoplastic experienced more beam pattern shift than would be seen with a BMC reflector, a combination of proper material selection and optics design can overcome this movement.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940620
Christopher L. Clark, Rick Williams
The gas injection molding process created a great deal of interest when it was first introduced, especially on the part of the automotive plastics industry. The process allows injection molders to make larger parts with increased rigidity at lower clamping pressures. This, in turn, allows parts to be molded that have not previously been able to be created. However, the process has been hampered by problems. First and foremost have been the numerous patent infringement suits and licensing difficulties that have retarded the spread of the technology in the United States. Second, technological problems - such as controlling the seemingly erratic nature of the gas - have also been an issue. As with any new molding technology, the plastics industry is still attempting to establish logical techniques to set up and rationalize processing conditions for the method.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960293
Christopher L. Clark, Robert Florence, Deborah J. Locke, C. Bartos, R. Leung, R. Rozmus, M. Trapp
Because it is common to attach plastic parts to other plastic, metal, or ceramic assemblies with mechanical fasteners that are often stronger and stiffer than the plastic with which they are mated, it is important to be able to predict the retention of the fastener in the polymeric component. The ability to predict this information allows engineers to more accurately estimate length of part service life. A study was initiated to understand the behavior of threaded fasteners in bosses molded from engineering thermoplastic resins. The study examined fastening dynamics during and after insertion of the fastener and the effects of friction on the subsequent performance of the resin. Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures over a range of torques and loads using several fixtures that were specially designed for the study. Materials evaluated include modified-polyphenylene ether (M-PPE), polyetherimide (PEI), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), and polycarbonate (PC).
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960154
Deborah J Locke, Christopher L Clark
The August 1996 expansion of FMVSS 201 established head impact performance criteria for upper interior components This standard has forced automotive manufacturers, designers, and suppliers to change their thinking for interiors, especially pillars, compliance with FMVSS 201 will require new, structural designs and energy-absorbing materials An ongoing study has examined the implications of FMVSS 201 and its effect on pillars The results of this study have demonstrated how energy-absorbing engineering thermoplastics can be used to meet and exceed the requirements of the head impact legislation through single-piece pillar trims
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960153
Christopher L Clark, Deborah J Locke
With the recent amendment to FMVSS 201 upper interior components must now absorb the energy imparted during a head impact The necessary redesign of these parts will require a thorough understanding of material behavior under impact conditions. A study was conducted to evaluate several materials at strain rates and temperatures representative of upper interior conditions under head impact The results of this study show that engineering thermoplastics behave more consistently and predictably at higher strain rates than do polyolefins and are much less rate sensitive than the olefinic materials
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982288
David A. Grimes, Al Oshinski, Jim Scobbo, Christine Vincent, Ron Hendricks, Sean Duffy
Electrostatic painting of exterior body components is considered standard practice in the automotive industry. The trend toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily because of environmental legislation and material system cost reduction efforts. When electrostatically painting thermoplastic body panels, side by side with sheet metal parts, it is imperative that the thermoplastic parts paint like steel. Electrostatic painting of thermoplastics has traditionally required the use of a conductive primer, prior to basecoat and clearcoat application. The use of conductive plastics eliminates the need for this priming step, while improving paint transfer efficiency and first pass yield. These elements provide an obvious savings in material and labor. The most significant benefit, is the positive environmental impact that occurs through the reduction in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC's).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1485
Amy Meyers
OEM and Tier One integrated suppliers are in constant search of cockpit system components that reduce the overall number of breaks across smooth surfaces. Traditionally, soft instrument panels with seamless airbag systems have required a separate airbag door and a tether or steel hinge mechanism to secure the door during a deployment. In addition, a scoring operation is necessary to ensure predictable, repeatable deployment characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the development and performance of a cost-effective soft instrument panel with a seamless airbag door that results in a reduced number of parts and a highly efficient manufacturing process. Because of the unique characteristics of this material, a cost-effective, lightweight solution to meet both styling requirements, as well as safety and performance criteria, can be attained.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1702
Alok Nanda, Gopikrishna Surisetty, Subhransu Mohapatra, Shaleena AD, Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman
This paper discusses a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) based methodology for designing an injection molded bumper energy absorber to help meet vehicle pedestrian protection requirements. The development process is described, and an example is presented of its use in designing an injection molded energy absorber for a range of various vehicle styling parameters. First, an idealized set-up incorporating the car styling parameters critical for pedestrian protection requirements was developed. Then, the vehicle and Energy Absorber (EA) geometries were parameterized and a DFSS process was employed to investigate the design space using Finite Element Impact Analysis with a commercially available Lower Leg Form Impactor.
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