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Viewing 1 to 30 of 133
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2320
Markus Jochim, Thomas M. Forest
FlexRay is a time triggered automotive communication protocol that connects ECUs (Electronic Control Units) on which distributed automotive applications are executed. If exact agreement (e.g. on physical values measured by redundant sensors on different ECUs) must be reached in the presence of asymmetric communication faults, a byzantine agreement protocol like Signed Messages (SM) can be utilized. This paper gives examples of how byzantine faults can emerge in a FlexRay-based system and proposes optimizations for a FlexRay-specific implementation of the SM protocol. The protocol modifications allow for a reduction in the number of protocol messages under a slightly relaxed fault model, as well as for a reduction in the number of messages to be temporarily stored by the ECUs.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0452
Marco Di Natale, Haibo Zeng
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0453
Arkadeb Ghosal, Paolo Giusto, Purnendu Sinha, Massimo Osella, Joseph D'Ambrosio, Haibo Zeng
Current development processes for automotive Electronic Control System (ECS) architectures have certain limitations in evaluating and comparing different architecture design alternatives. The limitations entail the lack of systematic and quantitative exploration and evaluation approaches that enable objective comparison of architectures in the early phases of the design cycle. In addition, architecture design is a multi-stage process, and entails several stakeholders who typically use their own metrics to evaluate different architecture design alternatives. Hence, there is no comprehensive view of which metrics should be used, and how they should be defined. Finally, there are often conflicting forces pulling the architecture design toward short-term objectives such as immediate cost savings versus more flexible, scalable or reliable solutions. In this paper, we propose the usage of a set of metrics for comparing ECS architecture alternatives.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0444
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Keith Snavely, Jason Coryell
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0602
Wei Zeng, Min Xu, Ming Zhang, Yuyin Zhang, David Cleary
A laser sheet imaging system with Mie-scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to investigate the spray characteristics of gasoline, methanol and ethanol fuels. A range of conditions found in today's gasoline engines were investigated including that observed during engine cold-start. Both a swirl injector and a multi-hole fuel injector were examined for each of the three fuels. A combination of the second harmonic (532 nm) and the fourth harmonic (266 nm) was generated simultaneously using a Nd:YAG laser system to illuminate the spray. The Mie-scattering technique was used to characterize the liquid phase of the spray while the LIF technique was used to detect a combination of liquid and vapor phases. While gasoline naturally fluoresced, the dopant TEA was added to the methanol and ethanol fuels as a fuel tracer. The Mie-scattering and LIF signals were captured simultaneously using a CCD camera along with an image doubler.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0235
Fadi Abu-Farha, Louis Hector, Paul Krajewski
Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) were developed for the 5083 aluminum alloy at conditions simulating high temperature processes such as superplastic and quick plastic forming. Sheet samples were formed at 450 °C and at a constant strain rate of 5x10-3 s-1, by free bulging into a set of elliptical die inserts with different aspect ratios. Friction-independent formability diagrams, which distinguish between the safe and unsafe deformation zones, were constructed. Although the formability diagrams were confined to the biaxial strain region (right side quadrant of an FLD), the elliptical die insert methodology provides formability maps under conditions where traditional mechanical stretching techniques are limited.
2004-05-10
Technical Paper
2004-01-2257
Shane McLaughlin, Jon Hankey, Charles A. Green, Michael Larsen
Sixteen participants aged 55–65yrs provided deBoer scale ratings of discomfort glare for a vehicle with horizontally swiveling HID headlamps and a vehicle with the same headlamps that did not swivel in eight scenarios staged in a darkened parking lot. Participants, who were seated in the driver’s position of a stationary vehicle and instructed when to look, viewed the oncoming test vehicles in scenarios of 180m left turn, 180m right turn, 80m left turn, 80m right turn, left turn beside participant vehicle, crossing left in front of participant vehicle, right turn beside participant vehicle, and straightaway, in counterbalanced presentation orders. The swiveling headlamp vehicle provided statistically lower glare ratings in both 180m curves and the 80m right curve and statistically lower or similar in the intersection scenarios than the fixed headlamp vehicle.
2004-05-10
Technical Paper
2004-01-2258
Shane McLaughlin, Jon Hankey, Charles A. Green, Michael Larsen
Twent-two participants of varying ages detected roadside targets in two consecutive dynamic evaluations of a horizontally swiveling headlamp vehicle and a vehicle with the same headlamps that did not swivel. Participants detected targets as they drove unlighted low-speed public roads. Scenarios encountered were intersection turns, and curves with approximate radii of 70-90m, 120-140m, 170-190m, and 215-220m. Results from the first study found improved detection distances from the swiveling headlamps in left curves, but unexpectedly decreased detection distances in larger radius right hand curves. The swiveling algorithm was altered for the second study, and the headlamps used did not have the same beam pattern as in the first study. Results from the second study again found improved detection distances from the swiveling headlamps while in the larger radius right hand curves fixed and swivel were not statistically different.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0113
Dinecio dos Santos Filho
The increasing demand for energy savings in cars of high production volume, especially those classified as emerging market vehicles, has led the automotive industry to focus on several strategies to achieve higher efficiency levels from their systems and components. One of the most diffuse initiatives is reducing weight through the application of the so-called light alloys. An engine cylinder block can contribute nearly two percent of the vehicle's total mass. Special attention and soon repercussion are given when someone decides to apply a light alloy such as the aluminum to this component. Nonetheless, it is known that peculiarities in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties, due to the material nature, associated with regional market characteristics make the initial feasibility analysis study definitely one of the most important stages for the material choice decision.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0789
Seung Baek, Hwa-Won Lee, Changkun Lee, Dongseok Kim
In order to reduce the number of head injuries sustained by pedestrian accidents, safety engineers are developing pedestrian friendly hood systems through gauge optimization of the hood inner panel. In this study, the clinch method was employed to assemble a pedestrian friendly hood with a 0.5mm thick inner panel. Static and dynamic analyses were carried out to determine the clinch experiencing the highest loads and to understand the fatigue behavior of a clinched hood during a slam event. The macroscopic failure modes of clinched joints by hood slam were studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. A simple equation was derived to correlate the hexahedron spot weld model as a substitute for clinching in order to obtain an equivalent stiffness for a clinched joint within the linear region of an F-D curve. The F-D curve was obtained by lap shear testing.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2300
Alisyn Malek
With the current increase in concern and awareness regarding sustainability and energy, a new focus has been placed on the field of engineering. In this realm of focus, how to educate engineers, more specifically how to continually educate engineers to keep up with technology and the changing workforce has become a very important topic of interest. There exists a gap between graduate studies and professional implementation of technology which the Energy Systems Engineering [ESE] program currently in deployment and development between the University of Michigan and General Motors seeks to address. This work outlines current efforts in encouraging new engineers to enter the field, but focuses primarily on continuing and re-educating the workforce to meet the needs of new technologies. Examples of academic-industry cooperation will be discussed, with some focus on the benefit and experience of the student.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0147
Rogerio Vollet
The innovation term has been so widely misused that the confusion observed among the companies trying to get themselves into the innovation realm is a common and natural consequence. The lack of understanding of the innovation dynamics, flow and metrics generally culminate in a non-well-thought implementation of innovation processes and policies that are usually tragic in the short term. The most common consequences are the loss of credibility of the innovation process in general among leaders and employees, and the loss of credibility of the company as an innovative company among suppliers, partners and customers, causing these companies to abandon this powerful tool and, as consequence, to limit their capabilities to compete in the future. In order to prevent this from happening, companies that were not built upon innovation will need to grow capability and change cultural priorities to match the demands of the innovation process.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0306
Poliana de Moraes, Irany de Andrade Azevedo, Osamu Saotome, Max Mauro Dias Santos
The automotive system domain are in increasing motivation with benefits by using the x-by-wire technologies, which employ new electronic devices to provide for automobile system more facilities during processes at development, production, usability and maintenance. Considering at automobile user domain point of view, the next generation of automobiles can give users more comfort, safety and flexibility. However, for the safety critical applications at automobiles have as requirements the use of distributed embedded systems and fault tolerance methodologies where in communication infrastructure need to offer fault-tolerance communication services. Several researches regards fault tolerance communication systems for automotive domain are now in progress and a strong convergence in use of the Flexray technology is noted for the automotive community. The Flexray is one of the communication systems that had been proposed and available at AUTOSAR standard.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0308
Poliana de Moraes, Osamu Saotome, Max Mauro Dias Santos
Safety critical systems are taking demands on automotive systems where the distributed embedded system needs a communication system with properties of fault tolerant real-time communication. In order to increase reliability of systems with serial communication, a device called bus guardian can be added on physical layer to perform management of schedules and data independently from the communication controller, monitoring timing and sending signals of bus status notifying error occurrences to the host. The goal of this paper is to present and perform a comparative analysis of different strategies of bus guardian used in CAN, TTP/C and Flexray protocols, applied in safety critical system in automobile domain. A comparison was carried out to describe the properties and application for each protocol.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0325
Dinecio dos Santos Filho, Hélio Goldenstein, Jan Vatavuk
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0371
Rafael Navarenho de Souza, Leonardo Navarenho de Souza Fino
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1162
Brendan Conlon
Electrically variable transmissions divide power between the electrical and mechanical paths using input, output, or compound split schemes. When combined with an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, these systems allow numerous fuel saving and performance benefits. This paper examines the design tradeoffs in each of the three topologies in order to balance fuel economy, system performance against requirements, and electrical component size. A general EVT analysis method is presented and used to study the fuel economy and performance sensitivity of the three configurations to motor, inverter, and battery constraints, and planetary gear ratios. To evaluate fuel economy, the three systems are assessed for each of the primary fuel economy mechanisms enabled by hybridization. To evaluate performance tradeoffs, system performance against typical vehicle performance design points is compared.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0002
Jesse M. Schneider, Steven Mathison, Justin Ward, Eloi Taha, John Tillman, Mark Richards, David Zuckerman, Kenneth Kriha, Michael Short, William Collins, Glen Scheffler, Andrés Fernández Durán, Frank Niezabytowski, Todd Suckow, William Chernicoff, Spencer Quong, Joseph Cohen
The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0813
P. Bertrand Hsing, Xu Han
As the computer efficiency and capability increase, so as the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technologies improve. Recently Robust Design or Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO) technologies have been utilized in all sorts of industries including automotive. The process generally involves identifying key input design variables and key performance output variables, determining a sampling plan for CAE simulations, building a response surface model (RSM), analyzing the results, and finding the optimized design that meets the reliability criteria. Yet little was addressed on the robustness of a CAE design model in the process. A systematic method of defining Robustness in a CAE design model was developed. How robust a CAE model is and how far away an optimized design is from the More Robust Region (MRR) are addressed in this paper.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1028
Michael F. Weber
This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0951
Trevor Sweafford, Hwan-Sik Yoon, Yanying Wang, Anthony Will
Recent advancements in simulation software and computational hardware make it realizable to simulate a full vehicle system comprised of multiple sub-models developed in different modeling languages. The so-called, co-simulation allows one to develop a control strategy and evaluate various aspects of a vehicle system, such as fuel efficiency and vehicle drivability, in a cost-effective manner. In order to study the feasibility of the synchronized parallel processing in co-simulation this paper presents two co-simulation frameworks for a complete vehicle system with multiple heterogeneous subsystem models. In the first approach, subsystem models are co-simulated in a serial configuration, and the same sub-models are co-simulated in a parallel configuration in the second approach.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0499
Paulo Henrique Ogata, Lucas Pintol Nishikawa, Helio Goldenstein, Dinecio dos Santos Filho, Luciano Okazaki
The present work aims to characterize the microstructure of valvetrain camshaft lobes that are currently applied in the automotive industry, obtained by different processing routes. The cam lobe microstructure has been assessed by microscopy, whereas the mechanical properties by hardness profile measurements on the surface region. Microconstituents type and form, composing the final microstructure at the cam lobe work region, are defined by the casting route and/or post-heat treatment process other than alloy chemical composition, so that knowledge and control of processing route is vital to assure suitable valvetrain system assembly performance and durability. Most of the mechanical solicitations on the part occur at the interface between cam and follower; the actual contact area is significantly smaller than the apparent area. As a result, the microstructure at and near the surface performs a direct role on the performance of the valvetrain, cam lobe and its counterpart.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0211
Leonardo Navarenho de Souza Fino, Salvador Pinillos Gimenez
This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0209
Rafael Navarenho de Souza
The intention of this paper is to discuss the importance of analysis of some electrical parameters in order to design analog circuits in electronic modules, including automotive ones. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, high performance and higher integration density, so that it explains why such analysis is crucial to achieve better performances and meet the desired results.
2011-09-11
Journal Article
2011-24-0123
Marcello Canova, Massimiliano Taburri, Lisa Fiorentini, Fabio Chiara, Yue-Yun Wang
In order to increase the efficiency of automotive turbochargers at low speed without compromising the performance at maximum boost conditions, variable geometry compressor (VGC) systems, based on either variable inlet guide vanes or variable geometry diffusers, have been recently considered as a future design option for automotive turbochargers. This work presents a modeling, analysis and optimization study for a Diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry compressor that help understand the potentials of such technology and develop control algorithms for the VGC systems,. A cycle-averaged engine system model, validated on experimental data, is used to predict the most important variables characterizing the intake and exhaust systems (i.e., mass flow rates, pressures, temperatures) and engine performance (i.e., torque, BMEP, volumetric efficiency), in steady-state and transient conditions.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0360
Lucas Pintol Nishikawa, André Caetano Melado, Hélio Goldenstein, Luiz Felipe Bauri, Dinecio dos Santos Filho, Eduardo Nunes
Abstract The Austempering heat treatment is a well-known solution to improve the mechanical properties of ductile cast irons, therefore being referred as 'ADI' (Austempered Ductile Iron). The improved mechanical properties of ADI's with respect to conventional ductile iron is attributed to its resulting microstructure, which contains mainly carbide-free bainite with stabilized retained austenite. More recently, ductile cast irons were submitted to another heat treatment, known as 'Quenching and Partitioning' (Q&P). In this case, the ductile cast iron is austenitized, quenched to a temperature between Mf and Ms temperatures and subsequently heated to a temperature above Ms in order to partition the carbon from the martensite to the remaining austenite. The resulting microstructure comprises mainly low carbon martensite, austenite (stabilized by the carbon partition) and carbide-free bainite. Such microstructure resulted in equal or better properties than ADI.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1112
Jian yao, Li Chen, Ding Zhao Jr, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang, Yin Chengliang
Abstract The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1160
Vincenzo Alfieri, Daniel Pachner
Abstract The paper examines how the issue of lengthy development times can be mitigated by adopting a multivariable physics based control method for the development and deployment of complex engine control algorithms required for modern diesel engines equipped with Lean NOx Trap aftertreatment technology. The proposed approach facilitates manufacturers to consider lower cost powertrain configurations for selected markets while maintaining higher performance configurations for other markets. The contribution includes on-engine results from joint work between General Motors and Honeywell. The Honeywell OnRAMP Design Suite which applies model predictive control techniques was used for model identification, control design (using model predictive control) and its calibration.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0280
Arkadeb Ghosal, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Sri Kanajan
We present a cost model that analyzes monetary costs for a product-line architecture to help the optimization of the architecture. The paper illustrates the usefulness of this methodology in a case study based upon the design exploration of a product-line architecture for an active safety system.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0476
Bahram Khalighi, James P. Johnson, Kuo--Huey Chen, Richard G. Lee
The unsteady flow fields behind two different automobile outside side rear view mirrors were examined experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive data base for the validation of the ongoing computational investigation effort to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to the outside rear view mirrors. This study is part of a larger scheme to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to various external components in vehicles. To aid with the characterization of this complex flow field, mean and unsteady surface pressure measurements were undertaken in the wake of two mirror models. Velocity measurements with particle image velocimetry were also conducted to develop the mean velocity field of the wake. Two full-scale mirror models with distinctive geometrical features were investigated.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 133

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