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Viewing 1 to 30 of 299
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0270
Leigh Berger, Lisa Fallon, Michael G. Carpenter
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0345
Suresh Gopalakrishnan, Chandra Namuduri, Michael Reynolds
In this paper, a low-cost means to improve fuel economy in conventional vehicles by employing ultracapacitor based Active Energy Recovery Buffer (AERB) scheme will be presented. The kinetic energy of the vehicle during the coast down events is utilized to charge the ultracapacitor either directly or through a dc-dc converter, allowing the voltage to increase up to the maximum permissible level. When the vehicle starts after a Stop event, the energy stored in the capacitor is discharged to power the accessory loads until the capacitor voltage falls below a minimum threshold. The use of stored capacitor energy to power the accessory loads relieves the generator torque load on the engine resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Two different topologies are considered for implementing the AERB system. The first topology, which is a simple add-on to the conventional vehicle electrical system, comprises of the ultracapacitor bank and the dc-dc converter connected across the dc bus.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0340
Akram Zahdeh, Peter Rothenberger, Wai Nguyen, Muniappan Anbarasu, Simon Schmuck-Soldan, Jörg Schaefer, Thomas Goebel
A comprehensive experimental and theoretical approach was undertaken to understand the phenomenon of pre-ignition and to assess parameters to improve or even eliminate it completely. Oil mixing with fuel was identified as the leading theory of self ignition of the fuel. End of compression temperature has to meet a minimum level for pre-ignition to take place. In this work a comprehensive list of parameters were identified that have a direct and crucial role in the onset of pre-ignition including liner wetting, injection targeting, stratification, mixture motion and oil formulation. Many secondary effects were identified including ring dynamics, ring tension, spark plug electrode temperature and coolant temperature. CFD has been extensively used to understand test results including wall film, A/F ratio distribution and temperature at the end of compression when looked at in the context of fuel evaporation and mixing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0452
Sudhakaran Maydiga, Viswanath Barenkala, Mina Khoee-Fard, Muralikrishnan K
In-vehicle electronics is displacing the traditional mechanical interfaces and as a result, electrical architecture design is evolving and getting more complex due to increase in automotive electronic content. Several embedded communication protocols are used to build an electrical architecture, with predominant use of Controlled Area Network (CAN) and Local Interconnection Network (LIN). Demand for new electrical features is increasing, to meet and to exceed the customer expectations and also to adapt to new evolving electronic technologies. To accommodate future electrical content, the need for communication bandwidth is increasing at an exponential rate. In addition, some of the safety-critical features require predictability and deterministic network behavior. Current protocols are not capable of satisfying these demands. FlexRay protocol can address these needs with higher bandwidth and determinism.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0450
Mina Khoee-Fard, Tarek Lahdhiri
As the new features for driver assistance and active safety systems are growing rapidly in vehicles, the simulation within a virtual environment has become a necessity. The current active safety system consists of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) which are coupled to camera and radar sensors. Two methods of implementation exists, integrated sensors with control modules or separation of sensors form control modules. The subsystem integration testing poses new challenges for virtual environment for simulation of active safety features. The comprehensive simulation environment for integration testing consists of chassis controls, powertrain, driver assistance, body and displays controllers. Additional complexity in the system is the serial communication strategy. Multiple communication protocols such as GMLAN, LIN, standard CAN, and Flexray could be present within the same vehicle topology.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0447
Arkadeb Ghosal, Paolo Giusto, Prakash Peranandam, Purnendu Sinha, Haibo Zeng
Recent trends in the automotive industry show growing demands for the introduction of new in-vehicle features (e.g., smart-phone integration, adaptive cruise control, etc.) at increasing rates and with reduced time-to-market. New technological developments (e.g., in-vehicle Ethernet, multi-core technologies, AUTOSAR standardized software architectures, smart video and radar sensors, etc.) provide opportunities as well as challenges to automotive designers for introducing and implementing new features at lower costs, and with increased safety and security. As a result, the design of Electrical/Electronic (E/E) architectures is becoming increasingly challenging as several hardware resources are needed. In our earlier work, we have provided top-level definitions for three relevant metrics that can be used to evaluate E/E architecture alternatives in the early stages of the design process: flexibility, scalability and expandability.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0394
Zhe Xie
A system level analysis was carried out on the effect of flow forces on a flow control variable force solenoid (VFS) used in automatic transmissions. Classic flow force model was reviewed as a function of the pressure difference and the solenoid current. A force balance analysis was conducted on the spool valve in the VFS, in order to study the relationship among the control current, flow forces, spring forces, and flow area. Flow bench testing was used to characterize a specific flow control VFS by both the pressure drop and solenoid current, in forward and reverse flow directions. The behavior of flow control VFS valve is significantly affected by flow forces. A sub-system level model was thus created to predict the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flow VFS valve, which can be used in a transmission system level analysis. The modeling results were compared against experimental data to show the validity of the methodology.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0393
John Marano, Steven Moorman, John Czoykowski, Chinar Ghike
The achievable shift quality of a modern automatic transmission may be greatly affected by the equivalent rotational inertia of the gearbox and driveline components. New, more mass- and packaging-efficient higher number of gear powerflows are being developed. These new architectures often result in more components being attached to a given rotational node. The rotational speed multiplication of the components must be considered when determining their inertial torque contribution to a given speed change event. An example of this multiplication effect is presented, with a discussion of the resulting impact to shift quality disturbance. Opportunities to address the negative aspects of the higher inertial torque contribution to transmission output shaft disturbance are discussed. Coordination of engine torque control and clutch torque control is presented as a viable strategy to improve shift quality.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0396
Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie, Chi-Kuan Kao, Xu Chen, Jeremy Horgan, Scott Hearld
To realize better fuel economy benefits from transmissions, car makers have started the application of torque converter clutch control in second gear and beyond, resulting in greater demand on the torque converter clutch (TCC) and its control system. This paper focuses on one aspect of the control of the torque converter clutch to improve fuel economy and faster response of the transmission. A TCC is implemented to control the slip between the pump and turbine of the torque converter, thereby increasing its energy transfer efficiency and increasing vehicle fuel economy. However, due to the non-linear nature of the torque converter fluid coupling, the slip feedback control has to be very active to handle different driver inputs and road-load conditions, such as different desired slip levels, changes in engine input torques, etc. This non-linearity requires intense calibration efforts to precisely control the clutch slip in all the scenarios.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0392
Dongxu Li, Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie, Chi-Kuan Kao
Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by transmission output shaft, so that torque regulation is critical in transmission shift control and etc. However, since a physical torque sensor is expensive, current shift control in AT is usually achieved by tracking a turbine speed profile due to the lack of the transmission output torque information. A direct torque feedback has long been desired for transmission shift control enhancement. This paper addresses a “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm that can provide an accurate estimate on the torque variation in the vehicle transmission output shaft using (existing) speed sensors. We have developed the algorithm using both the transmission output speed sensor and anti-lock braking system speed sensors. Practical solutions are provided to enhance the accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm has been successfully implemented on both FWD and RWD vehicles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0421
V. A. Muruganandam, Maruthi Dhulipudi, Uday Korde
Coolant pipes are a prime connection units present in any engines that facilitates the flow of coolant and thereby keeping the engine under its optimum operating condition. Among the several influencing factors that deteriorate engines performance, the coolant leak is also one of the contributors. This could be caused primly due to leakage issues that arises from the pipe press fit zones. Henceforth it is very important to understand the root cause of this press-fit connection failure. The present study deals with press-fit between the pipe and housing in an engine which is subjected to extreme thermal loads (min of -40°C to a max temperature of +150°C) thereby causing the press-fit loosening effect.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0463
Vesna Savic, Louis G. Hector
Headliner material plays an important role in occupant protection in situations involving head impact into the interior vehicle roof area. Accurate characterization of its mechanical properties is therefore extremely important for prediction of its behavior during interior impact assessment of a vehicle. Headliner material typically consists of two main layers: the substrate layer which provides structural integrity and impact protection, and the fabric-foam layer which provides proper interior fit and appearance. Both layers vary significantly in thickness and composition between different manufacturers. This paper investigates effects of the layer thickness on compressive strength and deformation of several different headliner materials.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0464
Renee Hotton
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0671
Kristel Coronado, John Lyons, Randy Curtis, Thomas Wang
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0666
Sowmyalatha Jayaraman, Gordon Anderson, Shailendra Kaushik, Philip Klaus
Fuel economy and stringent emissions requirements have steered the automotive industry to invest in advanced propulsion hybrids, including Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and Fuel cell vehicles. The choice of battery technology, its power and thermal management and the overall vehicle energy optimization during different conditions are crucial design considerations for PHEVs and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Current industry focus is on Li-Ion batteries due to their high energy density. However, extreme operating temperatures may impact battery life and performance. Different cooling strategies have been proposed for efficient thermal management of battery systems. This paper discusses the modeling and analysis strategy for a thermally managed Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) battery pack, with coolant as the conditioning medium.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0667
Ramesh Rebba, Jeong Hun Seo, Ann Marie Sastry, Mary Fortier
Rechargeable energy storage systems with Lithium-ion pouch cells are subject to various ambient temperature conditions and go through thousands of charge-discharge cycles during the life time of operation. The cells may change their thickness with internal heat generation, cycling and any other mechanisms. The stacked prismatic cells thus experience face pressure and this could impact the pack electrical performance. The pack consists of stiff end plates keeping the pack in tact using bolts, cooling fins to maintain cell temperature and foam padding in between cells. The pack level thermal requirements limit the amount of temperature increase during normal operating conditions. Similarly, the structural requirements state that the stresses and the deflection in the end plates should be minimal. Uncertainties in cell, foam mechanical and thermal properties might add variation to the pack performance.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0015
Brian P. Hake
Delivering the appropriate material data for CAE analysis of plastic components is not as straight forward as it would seem to be. While a few of the properties typically used by resin manufacturers and material engineers to describe a plastic are useful to the analysis community (density, CLTE), most are not (flexural modulus, notched izod). In addition some properties such as yield stress are defined differently by the analysis community than by the materials community. Lastly, secondary operations such as painting or chrome plating significantly change the behavior of components with plastic substrates. The materials engineering community and the CAE analysis community must work together closely to develop the material data necessary to increase the capability of the analysis. This paper will examine case studies where these issues have required modifications to the material property data to increase the fidelity of the CAE analysis.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0018
Xuru Ding, Yi-Pen Cheng, Wenyu Lian, Fuchun Zhu, Zaifei Zhou
Accurate prediction of the responses from the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in vehicle crash tests is critical to achieving better vehicle occupant performances. In recent years, automakers have used finite element (FE) models of the ATDs in computer simulations to obtain early assessments of occupant safety, and to aid in the development of occupant restraint systems. However, vehicle crash test results have variation, sometimes significant. This presents a challenge to assessing the accuracy of the ATD FE models, let alone improving them. To resolve this issue, it is important to understand the test variation and carefully select the target data for model improvement. This paper presents the work carried out by General Motors and Humanetics Innovative Solutions (formerly FTSS) in a joint project, aimed at improving the FE model of the Hybrid III-50 ATD (HIII-50) v5.1.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0017
Nancy Zeng, Randy L. Dickerman
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0212
Michael Roberts, Tejas Chhaya
The increasing usage of brake-by-wire systems in the automotive industry has provided manufacturers with the opportunity to improve both vehicle and manufacturing efficiency. The replacement of traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control devices presents different potential vehicle-level safety hazards than those presented by conventional braking systems. The proper design, development, and integration of a brake-by-wire control system requires that hazards are reasonably prevented or mitigated in order to maximize the safety of the vehicle operator, occupant(s), and passers-by.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0207
Jeffrey Konchan, Frank Arabia Jr, Kris Tomaszewski, Ray Zeller, Shant Pailian
Small electric DC (Direct Current) motors used to actuate various mechanisms in vehicles have failed prematurely when exposed to some formulations of lubricants, which leached into the motor and caused shorting. The subject study explored this failure mechanism in detail as evidenced in vehicle power door lock actuators. Experiments were conducted through the application of various types of lubricants to motors in varying ways to re-create the failure mode experienced by the authors, and to determine an optimized selection of lubricant for maximized cycle life, robust to inherent component manufacturing process variation in both the amount and location of lubrication placement. The detailed data, photographs and conclusions which resulted were summarized. The electric motor failure mode experienced in the example situation was first explained and illustrated with detailed photography.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0225
Sam Scime
For decades, the industry standard for laboratory durability simulations has been based on reproducing quantified vehicle responses. That is, build a running vehicle, measure its responses over a variety of durability road surfaces and reproduce those responses in the laboratory for durability evaluation. To bring a vehicle to market quickly, the time between tightening the last bolt on a prototype test vehicle and starting the durability evaluation test must be minimized. A method to derive 4-Post simulator displacements without measuring or predicting vehicle responses is presented.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0193
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0143
Daniel Sabathil, Achim Koenigstein, Peter Schaffner, Jan Fritzsche, Arndt Doehler
The future EURO 6 emission standard will limit the particle number and mass for gasoline engines. The proposed limit for particle mass is 4.5 mg/km. For particle number there is not yet a limit defined but a wide range of proposals are under discussion (6E11 - 8E12 Particles/km) The particle emissions on a homogeneous SIDI engine are mainly caused by insufficient mixture preparation. A combustion improvement could be achieved by a careful recalibration as well as a hardware optimization that mainly avoids wall impingement and substoichiometric zones in the combustion chamber. The analyses of current SIDI vehicles show significant PN emission peaks during cold start and transient operation on a NEDC cycle. To give a better understanding of cause and effect of the particle formation at steady state results so as transient load steps were performed at an engine dynamometer.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0146
Darrell Robinette, Michael Grimmer, Jeremy Horgan, Jevon Kennell, Richard Vykydal
The torque converter and torque converter clutch are critical devices governing overall power transfer efficiency in automatic transmission powertrains. With calibrations becoming more aggressive to meet increasing fuel economy standards, the torque converter clutch is being applied over a wider range of driving conditions. At low engine speed and high engine torque, noise and vibration concerns originating from the driveline, powertrain or vehicle structure can supersede aggressive torque converter clutch scheduling. Understanding the torsional characteristics of the torque converter clutch and its interaction with the drivetrain can lead to a more robust design, operation in regions otherwise restricted by noise and vibration, and potential fuel economy improvement.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0151
Taeyoung Han, Chris Hill, Shailesh Jindal
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0058
Giles Bryer, Christopher Eccles
As mass reduction becomes an increasingly important enabler for fuel economy improvement, having a robust structural development process that can comprehend Vehicle Dynamics-specific requirements is correspondingly important. There is a correlation between the stiffness of the body structure and the performance of the vehicle when evaluated for ride and handling. However, an unconstrained approach to body stiffening will result in an overly-massive body structure. In this paper, the authors employ loads generated from simulation of quasi-static and dynamic vehicle events in ADAMS, and exercise structural finite element models to recover displacements and deflected shapes. In doing so, a quantitative basis for considering structural vehicle dynamics requirements can be established early in the design/development process.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0067
Nikolai Moshchuk, Yunjun Li, Steve Opiteck
An air suspension system can consist of many different components. These components include an air compressor, air springs, pneumatic solenoid valves, height sensors, electronic control unit, air reservoir, air lines, pressure sensor, temperature sensor, etc. The system could be designed as a 2-corner rear air suspension or a 4-corner air suspension. In this paper, the pneumatic models of air suspension systems are presented. The suspension system models are implemented in AmeSim. The suspension controls are implemented using Matlab/Simulink. The compressor was modeled using the standard AmeSim element with known mass flow rate as a function of pressure ratio. Air lines were modeled using a friction submodel of pneumatic pipe and control (isolation) valves are modeled using 2 position, 2 port pneumatic servo valves. The air spring is modeled as a single pneumatic chamber, single rod jack with spring assistance to account for spring nonlinearities.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0070
Stuart J. Brown
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0644
Shailendra Kaushik, Kuo-huey Chen, Taeyoung Han, Bahram Khalighi
Energy efficient HVAC system is becoming increasingly important as higher Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are required for future vehicle products. The present study is a preliminary attempt at designing energy efficient HVAC system by introducing localized heating/cooling concepts without compromising occupant thermal comfort. In order to achieve this goal of reduced energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort it is imperative that we use an analytical model capable of predicting thermal comfort with reasonable accuracy in a non-homogenous enclosed thermal environment such as a vehicle's passenger cabin. This study will primarily focus on two aspects: (a) energy efficiency improvements in an HVAC system through micro-cooling/heating strategies and (b) validation of an analytical approach developed in GM that would support the above effort.
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